Section Nine: Course Descriptions

Course Descriptions

Not all courses are offered in all modalities or with the same frequency. Please reference the academic programs sections of this Catalog to find a list of courses offered and/or required in each degree program. Course prerequisites may also be listed in the individual program sections.

Course descriptions that reference “successful completion” of a prerequisite course assume the student will have earned a grade of “C-” or higher, unless otherwise noted in the program requirements. For Clinton Campus courses, the notation “F” denotes fall offerings, and “S” denotes spring offerings. Term offerings are subject to change.

See individual course descriptions for the availability of courses offered online or on-campus. Courses denoted as offered “on-campus” refer to the Clinton Campus.

Course Numbering System

While many courses cross lines between class levels, the following offers a general correlation between course numbers and grade levels:

                    Grade Level                          Course Number Range

                    Lower Division                        100–299
                    Upper Division                        300–499
                    Graduate Level                        500–699

Ashford University awards semester credit hours.

ABS Applied Behavioral Science

ABS 200 Introduction to Applied Behavioral Science         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction and overview of the application and use of applied behavioral science. Basic terms and definitions are reviewed, and students are introduced to the varied components of applied behavioral science. Topics covered include definition of the field, sub-specialties, and real world applications, and aspects of the field. Offered online.

ABS 415 Leadership & Ethics in a Changing World         3 Credits
This course examines leadership and ethics from a broad perspective, and includes an overview of key leadership theories. Students explore leadership characteristics and values as applied to ethical decision making, and challenges, as well as in regard to their own lives. Also included is an exploration of future leadership trends in a dynamic evolving world. Offered online.

ABS 417 Community Organizing & Development         3 Credits
This course examines methods, techniques, and theories involved in working with people to solve problems in community-based settings. Offered online.

ABS 497 Applied Behavioral Sciences Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides the opportunity for the synthesis and application of content learned throughout the degree program. Students complete a project that demonstrates application of concepts presented throughout the degree coursework. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

ACC Accounting

ACC 201 Principles of Financial Accounting    3 Credits
This course is an introduction to financial accounting for non-accounting business majors. Emphasis is on accrual accounting procedures and the development and use of financial statements. Students who successfully complete ACC 201 may waive ACC 205, in approved circumstances. Offered online.

ACC 202 Principles of Managerial Accounting    3 Credits
This course is an introduction to managerial and cost accounting concepts for the non-accounting business major. Emphasis is placed on managerial planning and control, cost behaviors, budgeting, and performance analysis. (Equivalent to ACC 208). Students who successfully complete ACC 202 may waive ACC 206, in approved circumstances. Offered online.

ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I     3 Credits
Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II     3 Credits
Primarily covers the principles of managerial accounting. Emphasis on reporting to individuals inside the organization. Major concepts include job order costing, process costing, budgets and standards, and statement analysis. Prerequisite: ACC 205. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 208 Accounting for Managers     3 Credits
This course is designed to explain how data can be interpreted and used by managers in making decisions. Additionally, this course introduces the student to the analysis and interpretation of financial reports. (Equivalent to ACC 202). Offered online.

ACC 244 Accounting Practicum I         1-2 Credits
Prospective accounting majors function under the tutelage of professionals in accounting firms, banks, and other related entities. Students complete 52 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisite: Sophomore or junior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

ACC 281 Accounting Concepts for Health Care Professionals         3 Credits
This course is designed as an applied managerial and financial accounting course, designed to provide health care decision-makers with fundamental concepts of health care accounting practices and procedures. Prerequisites: Successful completion of Mathematical and Information Technology competencies. (Cross-listed as HCA 281.) Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I         3 Credits
Covers the corporate balance sheet and its related problems. Balance sheet items examined in detail explaining the theory behind various methods of application to accounts: cash, temporary investments, receivables, inventories, plant and intangible assets, and long-term investments. Prerequisite: ACC 206. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II         3 Credits
A continuation of ACC 305. Covers the rest of the balance sheet: current liabilities, long-term liabilities, leases, pensions, and contributed capital retained earnings. Other topics include non-operating income, earnings per share, statement of changes in financial position, and impact of changing prices. Prerequisite: ACC 305. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 310 Cost Accounting I         3 Credits
Covers traditional “cost” concepts: factory overhead, cost accumulation, job order cost system, process cost system, joint product and byproduct costing, standard costs and variances. Prerequisite: ACC 206. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 311 Cost Accounting II         3 Credits
A continuation of ACC 310. Covers traditional “managerial” concepts of costs-volume-profit planning, direct costing, responsibility accounting, performance measurement, gross profit analysis, transfer pricing, decision theory, and human resource accounting. Prerequisites: ACC 310 and MAT 332. Offered on-campus.

ACC 344 Accounting Practicum I         1-2 Credits
Prospective accounting majors function under the tutelage of professionals in accounting firms, banks, and other related entities. Students complete 52 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

ACC 380 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations         3 Credits
Examines the differences in accounting between not-for-profit and for-profit organizations. Accounting for funds including general funds, special revenue funds, capital projects funds, debts service funds, special assessment funds, internal service funds, enterprise funds, fiduciary funds, the general fixed asset group of accounts, and the general long-term debt group of accounts. Prerequisite: ACC 206. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 381 Health Care Accounting Lab         1 Credit
This one-credit lab will introduce students to fund accounting activities unique to the health care industry, with particular emphasis on the reimbursement system. Corequisite/prerequisite: ACC 380. A Health Care Management major must have completed ACC 206. S Offered on-campus.

ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I         3 Credits
A study of federal income tax laws and their application to individuals, partnerships, and corporations. Prerequisite: ACC 205. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 402 Federal Income Taxes II         3 Credits
This course examines income tax compliance and planning related to partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Advanced individual income tax issues will also be addressed. Prerequisite: ACC 401. Offered on-campus.

ACC 403 Tax Assistance Institute         3 Credits
An opportunity to apply knowledge of the tax code by assisting poor and elderly area residents file their state and federal tax returns. Student receives two weeks of intensive instruction from the IRS and understudies an experienced tax preparer before assisting clients directly. Prerequisites: ACC 401 and permission of Department Head. Course will be graded Pass/Fail. (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

ACC 407 Advanced Accounting         3 Credits
Primarily a course dealing with combined business entities. Topics include mergers, acquisitions and combinations, consolidated financial statements, intercompany profit, changes in equity, international operations, and partnerships. Prerequisite: ACC 306 and ACC 310. Offered online and on-campus.

ACC 410 Auditing         3 Credits
Principles, procedures, and standards of public accounting. Emphasis on auditor’s working papers and submission of audit statements. Prerequisites: ACC 306 and ACC 310 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

ACC 411 Advanced Auditing         3 Credits
A continuation of ACC 410. The course will survey additional auditing concepts including assurance services, audit reporting and internal, and operational and governmental auditing. Prerequisite: ACC 410. (Alternate years) Offered on-campus.

ACC 420 Internship         3-12 Credits
Student applies classroom knowledge to a project or program in an established workplace. The faculty advisor must approve specific objectives before the internship begins. The work must be non-routine and managerial type. The student must devote 150 clock hours for every three hours of credit. Enrollment is limited to availability of placement and to availability of faculty. Application must be made at least eight weeks in advance of the regular fall or spring registration. Prerequisites: Senior status, completion of courses applicable to the internship, and a 3.0 GPA in accounting coursework. Offered on-campus.

ACC 502 Federal Tax II         3 Credits
Same course description as ACC 402. Students enrolled in the graduate course will be required to complete an approved graduate level research project. Prerequisite: ACC 401 F Offered on-campus.

ACC 507 Advanced Accounting         3 Credits
Same course description as ACC 407. Students enrolled in the graduate course will be required to complete an approved graduate level research project. Prerequisite: ACC 306. S Offered on-campus.

ACC 511 Cost Accounting II         3 Credits
Same course description as ACC 311. Students enrolled in the graduate course will be required to complete an approved graduate level research project. Prerequisites: ACC 310 and MAT 332. S Offered on-campus.

ACC 520 Internship         3 Credits
Student applies classroom knowledge to a project or program in an established workplace. The faculty advisor must approve specific objectives before the internship begins. The work must be non-routine and managerial type. The student must devote 150 clock hours for every three hours of credit. Enrollment is limited to availability of placement and to availability of faculty. Application must be made at least eight weeks in advance of the regular fall or spring registration. Prerequisites: Senior status, completion of courses applicable to the internship, and a 3.0 GPA in accounting coursework. F/S/Summer Offered on-campus.

 

ANT Anthropology

ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology         3 Credits
Students explore culture in its role of guiding human behavior and providing social order, structure, and stability for individuals and groups of people. Culture is presented as a system of adaptation involving beliefs, behavior, language, customs, socio/political strategies, traditions, and technology that evolve over time. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122. Offered online and on-campus.

ANT 234 Family, Kin, & Groups         3 Credits
The course explores kinship systems, ethnicity, neighborhood and other social arrangements in various cultural settings through the reading of selected ethnographic materials. Students will study the kinship on a cross-cultural and worldwide basis, beginning with immediate social ties in familial contexts to broad connotations in ethnic, national, and universal domains. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122. Offered online.

ANT 307 Anthropology of War         3 Credits
An examination of the nature of war, primarily as it occurs in pre-industrial societies, and a survey of the anthropological explanations regarding this phenomenon. Emphasis is on understanding the complexity, variability, and cultural embeddedness of war as it occurs around the world. Prerequisite: ANT 101. Offered online.

ANT 340 Anthropological Theory         3 Credits
This course explores anthropological theory in a historical perspective focusing on the rise of a distinct anthropological perspective on the comparative study of human societies and cultures. The course will detail various theoretical models developed in the 19th and 20th centuries to explain the similarities and differences in cultural systems. Prerequisite: ANT 101. Offered online.

ANT 343 Language, Culture, & Communication         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the study of the relationship of language and culture, including examination of the characteristics and structural principles of natural language. After exploring the basic characteristics of sound, word formation, and sentence structure, these principles are applied to such topics as: language variation, language change, psycholinguistics, and pragmatics. Prerequisite: ANT 101. Offered online.

ANT 347 Urban Anthropology         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to urban anthropology, with an emphasis on rural-urban migrations, adjustment and assimilation of urban migrants, urban kinship and family structure, poverty culture, rural-urban typologies, and the application of anthropological methods to the study of urban societies. Prerequisite: ANT 340. Offered online.

ANT 348 Native American Anthropology         3 Credits
This course examines the nature and distribution of North American Indian cultures from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Through the use of archeological, anthropological, and contemporary community studies, this course will explore the diversity of traditional North American Indian and Inuit cultures and the adaptation of indigenous peoples to America. Prerequisite: ANT 340. Offered online.

ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual         3 Credits
This course examines the nature of religious belief systems, myth and ritual, witchcraft, and magic and sorcery in various societies of the world. These behavioral and symbolic forms exist or have existed in virtually all human societies and cultures. In this course, students will study many different belief systems, define these entities; and develop an understanding of how they work in societies. The differences among traditions in nation states on cultures and political systems will be explored. Prerequisite: ANT 101. Offered online and on-campus.

ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender         3 Credits
This course examines cross-cultural analysis of gender roles, while focusing on non-Western societies, using data from other societies to better understand the gender system of our own culture. Issues include status of women and men, the meaning of “femaleness” and “maleness” historically and in contemporary society. Gender roles, transnational migrations, social movements, international relations and religion are explored. Prerequisite: ANT 340. Offered online.

ANT 462 Anthropological Research Methods         3 Credits
The course introduces students to the research methods of cultural anthropology. Students will learn such techniques as participant observation, informal and formal interviewing, ecological mapping, genealogy and oral history, social network analysis, use of archival documents, and photographic and audio documentation. The perspective guiding the course is ethnography as an empirical, scientific approach that describes social and cultural aspects of human life. Prerequisite: ANT 340. Offered online.

ANT 464 Applied Anthropology        3 Credits
This course introduces the use of anthropology and its application to problem solving in the areas of cultural dynamics, public policy, and contemporary social problems such as health, housing, nutrition, and education. Students will learn how anthropologists conduct research to address issues and solve problems facing living communities across the globe. Prerequisite: ANT 340. Offered online.

ANT 499 Ethnographic Study Capstone         3 Credits
This course will provide an overview of the ways in which anthropologists have studied and written about distinct cultural systems in numerous world regions. Using ethnographic case studies, the course explores how diverse cultural groups confront such issues as gender roles, political organization, economic strategies, and colonial systems. Particularly attentive to the problems of conducting ethnographic research in a changing world characterized by transnational ties, the course is meant to form the capstone experience for anthropology majors. Prerequisite: ANT 462 and Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

ART Art

ART 101 Art Appreciation         3 Credits
A survey course providing an overview of the history of Western Art and the principles of art as they relate to society. Students are encouraged to discover personal interests through their own research on historical or contemporary styles and themes in art. Offered online and on-campus.

ART 102 Study of Art & Culture Abroad         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the culture, religion, history, people, governance and power, the environment, and civic ideals and practices of the hosting country/countries through the study of art. This course will be conducted over a 10-day period abroad. Students will visit historic and contemporary sites and complete a portfolio reflecting their learning. Also offered as ART 202, ART 302, and ART 402. Offered on-campus.

ART 103 Two-Dimensional Design         3 Credits
Theory and practice in the basic principles of two-dimensional design in addition to producing artwork using basic design elements, developing skills in visual composition, and learning about the use of color. Lectures, slides, and class discussions provide a historical background to design theory and contemporary visual communication. Some drawing ability is required. Recommended: ART 101. Offered on-campus.

ART 105 Drawing I         3 Credits
Beginning course providing the basic skill level needed to use the medium of drawing as a means of visual expression and communication. Introduction to various drawing media and techniques in addition to practice in using basic design principles with an emphasis on developing composition skills through drawing. Recommended: ART 101. Offered on-campus.

ART 110 Figure Drawing Workshop         1 Credit
This course will focus on drawing the human figure from life. It is designed to introduce mature art students to the study of human anatomy and physiognomy. The course will stress the unique individual characteristics associated with the most difficult of all art subjects to draw, the human figure. A professional model will be used to strike a variety of short 10-15 second poses to more elaborate poses of 30 minutes. This course is essential for art students interested in understanding the human figure in art. Throughout the history of art, the rendering of the human figure has been seen as the basis for artistic knowledge and expression. The human form relates our feelings and emotions as people and requires dedication to master. Offered on-campus.

ART 200 Art Appreciation II: Modern Art         3 Credits
This course will be an alternative to and a continuation of Art Appreciation focusing on European and American art of the late 19th through 20th centuries. The course will examine the social, cultural, and political developments of the period in relation to movements in art including impressionism, Cubism, Fauvism, Surrealism, Regionalism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Feminist, and African American art. Offered on-campus.

ART 201 Art Skills for the Classroom Educator         2 Credits
Early childhood and elementary pre-service teachers learn to design and implement art experiences through developmental theories, practical skill, and teacher resources. Students will spend eight clock hours observing elementary art classrooms. Prerequisite: EDU 200, PSY 104, or PSY 201. (Not offered every year) S Offered on-campus.

ART 202 Study of Art & Culture Abroad         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the culture, religion, history, people, governance and power, the environment, and civic ideals and practices of the hosting country/countries through the study of art. This course will be conducted over a 10-day period abroad. Students will visit historic and contemporary sites and complete a portfolio reflecting their learning. Offered on-campus.

ART 204 Three-Dimensional Design/Sculpture         3 Credits
Basic course in 3-D design principles through the study of the history, development, and evolution of the sculptural form, with an emphasis on developing an understanding of the composition of 3-D forms through studio work. Students are encouraged to develop their own personal interests in sculpture and 3-D design in addition to investigating historical and contemporary approaches to 3-D mediums. Prerequisite: ART 101, ART 103, ART 105 or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

ART 205 Drawing II         3 Credits
Course builds on basic drawing and composition skills gained in Drawing I, but with an emphasis on drawing as the foundation for graphic design, painting, and sculpture, including figure drawing from live models and practice in illustrating ideas and abstract concepts. Opportunity for drawing students to fully develop personal interests in terms of specific drawing mediums and subject matter. Prerequisite: ART 105 or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ART 207 Painting I         3 Credits
Beginning course in use of painting mediums, with an emphasis on the use of acrylics and watercolors to develop basic composition skills using line, form, and color. Individual instruction and critiques. Prerequisites: ART 101, ART 103, and ART 105 or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ART 211 Ceramics I         3 Credits
An introduction to the methods and techniques of producing ceramic objects covering the various forming, finishing, and firing techniques. Emphasis is given to hand-building methods such as pinch, coil, slab, and sculptural construction. Students experience their own creative expression in the mysterious transformation of a natural material, clay. (Not offered every year) F Offered on-campus.

ART 215 Computer Art I         3 Credits
An introductory course that provides a foundation in design for understanding and speaking the visual language. This course explores the various design criteria required in the production of computer-generated images. Students will create their own artwork and designs in both Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator. Practical experience developing a personal design sense will be covered. Prerequisite: ART 110, ART 103 or ART 105, or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ART 217 Watercolor         3 Credits
Techniques of water media will be demonstrated including wet into wet, dry brush, creating texture, glazing, and collage. Techniques will then be applied to color and design theory information. Offered on-campus.

ART 220 Printmaking I         3 Credits
This course will explore the challenging medium of printmaking or the making of multiple images. The course will be devoted to the two traditional printmaking processes: intaglio (engraving, etching, drypoint, and mezzotint) and relief (woodcuts, linoleum cuts, wood engraving, and calligraphy). (Not offered every year) F Offered on-campus.

ART 225 Photography I         3 Credits
This course will introduce the basic principles of black-and-white photography. Students will learn the components of the camera, the characteristics of film, lens exposures, and the procedure of developing black-and-white film including enlarging, chemical processing, cropping, and compositional organization to produce images with unique visual qualities. Prerequisite: ART 103 or ART 105 or permission of the instructor. S Offered on-campus.

ART 300 Art Appreciation II: Modern Art         3 Credits
This course will be an alternative to and a continuation of Art Appreciation focusing on European and American art of the late 19th through 20th centuries. The course will examine the social, cultural, and political developments of the period in relation to movements in art including impressionism, Cubism, Fauvism, Surrealism, Regionalism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Feminist, and African-American art. Students taking the course for 300-level credit will be asked to write a substantial research paper. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ART 302 Study of Art & Culture Abroad         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the culture, religion, history, people, governance and power, the environment, and civic ideals and practices of the hosting country/countries through the study of art. This course will be conducted over a 10-day period abroad. Students will visit historic and contemporary sites and complete a portfolio reflecting their learning. Offered on-campus.

ART 305 Drawing III         3 Credits
This course builds on the basic drawing and composition skills gained in Drawing II but with an emphasis on advanced drawing techniques and skills. The course allows the necessary time for students to fully develop personal interests in terms of specific drawing media and subject matter. Students are encouraged to draw from their imagination and practice illustrating naturalistic forms, nonobjective ideas, and abstract concepts. Prerequisites: ART 205 and permission of the instructor. S Offered on-campus.

ART 307 Painting II         3 Credits
Course continues development of skills learned in Painting I with more emphasis placed on personal interests in terms of subject matter and more advance painting techniques, with students pursuing either representational or abstract painting styles. Individual instruction and critiques. Prerequisite: ART 101, ART 207, or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ART 310 Figure Drawing Workshop         1 Credit
This course focuses on drawing the human figure from life. It is designed to introduce mature art students to the study of human anatomy and physiognomy. The course will stress the unique individual characteristics associated with the most difficult of all art subjects to draw, the human figure. A professional model will be used to strike a variety of short 10-15 second poses to more elaborate poses of 30 minutes. This course is essential for art students interested in understanding the human figure in art. Throughout the history of art, the rendering of the human figure has been seen as the basis for artistic knowledge and expression. The human form relates our feelings and emotions as people and requires dedication to master. Offered on-campus.

ART 311 Ceramics II         3 Credits
A continuation of Ceramics I that includes advanced theory and techniques, emphasis on developing the traditional skills of throwing on the potter’s wheel, plus learning more about the complexities of glazing and firing. Prerequisite: ART 211. (Not offered every year) F Offered on-campus.

ART 312 Papermaking & Book Arts         3 Credits
This course focuses on the fascinating art and craft of papermaking and bookmaking. It will examine both Western and eastern methods of paper and book production that have been created since 400 A.D. in China. The course will incorporate papermaking using natural and recycled materials. It will also introduce students to the various techniques used for creating journals, sketchbooks, and albums. Prerequisite: Art 103 or ART 105 Offered on-campus.

ART 315 Computer Art II         3 Credits
The course description is the same as ART 215 with this addition: A student registering for ART 315 is required to complete an approved independent project in addition to class assignments and scheduled class meetings. Prerequisite: ART 215, sophomore standing, or permission of the instructor. S Offered on-campus.

ART 320 Printmaking II         3 Credits
This course continues the development of processes learned in Printmaking I, with more emphasis on personal subject matter created in the media of relief and intaglio printmaking. The course will also incorporate the techniques of monotypes, silkscreen, and experimental printmaking techniques. Prerequisite: ART 220 or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year) F Offered on-campus.

ART 325 Photography II         3 Credits
This course continues the development of processes learned in Photography I, with more emphasis on personal subject matter created in the media of black-and-white photography. The course will also incorporate non-traditional approaches and experimental photography techniques including multiple exposures, solarization, texture screens, colored filters, and spot coloring. Prerequisite: ART 225 or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year) F or S Offered on-campus.

ART 340 Figure Drawing         3 Credits
This course focuses on drawing the human figure in all its aspects. Working from a live nude model, clothed classmate models, plaster models, and photographs, students will learn to create lifelike portraits of the human body. Images of the human body have been a major aspect of how we as a people view ourselves and present ourselves and our culture to the world since the beginning of mankind. This course will help students become part of this major artistic tradition. Prerequisite: ART 105. Offered on-campus.

ART 350 Advanced Art Seminar         2 Credits
This course provides the necessary requirements for Computer Graphic Design majors to apply for jobs and graduate programs in their chosen field. The students are required to complete a professional electronic portfolio, resume, cover letter, artist’s statement, and press release in their area of study. Prerequisite: Junior/Senior standing. (Offered every other year) Offered on-campus.

ART 402 Study of Art & Culture Abroad         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the culture, religion, history, people, governance and power, the environment, and civic ideals and practices of the hosting country/countries through the study of art. This course will be conducted over a 10-day period abroad. Students will visit historic and contemporary sites and complete a portfolio reflecting their learning. Offered on-campus.

ART 403 Art Therapy Practicum         1 Credit
This course exposes the learner to theories and practices within the field. Organizational placements are selected using learner and Practicum identified outcomes, availability of participating organizations and overall accessibility. The Practicum experience is 50 hours per credit of which 40 hours will be the organizational experience and 10 hours of course materials addressing art therapy practices consistent with the observational experience. Offered on-campus.

ART 407 Painting III         3 Credits
A continuation of acrylic or oil painting with emphasis on advanced opaque and transparent techniques. Basic methods, techniques, and approaches will be presented through studio visuals and demonstrations. Students will implement these techniques through several projects. Individual and group critiques will be used to inform and evaluate student artwork. Prerequisite: ART 307 and permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ART 498 Senior Thesis/Project I         2 Credits
Under the direction of a member of the art department faculty, the student will write a research paper and mount an art exhibition. Students are required to produce a thesis statement, annotated bibliography, and completed outline of the thesis. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance by an art faculty member serving as the thesis/project director. Students are also required to defend their thesis and to exhibit to a thesis committee. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. S Offered on-campus.

ART 499 Senior Thesis/Project II         2 Credits
This course is a continuation of ART 498. During the semester, students will complete the senior thesis and art exhibition following the guidelines specified by the Art Department. The completed thesis and exhibit will be defended orally before and evaluated by the senior thesis committee. A minimum grade of "C-" is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisite: Successful completion of ART 498 with a "C-" or better. F/S Offered on-campus.

BIO Biology

BIO 100 Life Science         4 Credits
This is an introductory course that introduces students to the physical basis of life. It will provide a background of the scientific method and scientific ethics as well as a basic knowledge of biology within a model system. The interactions between the humans and their environment will be emphasized. The specific model system used may vary from year to year. This course includes weekly lectures and laboratories. This course fulfills the General Education Science requirement. Offered on-campus.

BIO 101 Humanity & the Environment         4 Credits
This course focuses on humans and their relationship with planet Earth. Lecture topics include evolutionary and ecological theories; the ecological, political, and social ramifications of human population growth; planetary pollution problems; and effects of current technological trends on the environment. During the laboratory section, specific scientific problems are investigated and analyzed using both biological and chemical assays. (Cross-listed under ENV 101.) F Offered on-campus.

BIO 103 Principles of General Biology I         4 Credits
A study of the principles of modern biology beginning with molecules and continuing with fundamental concepts in the cellular basis of life and heredity. Recommended for science-, medical-, and health-related majors. Course includes weekly lecture and laboratory. Offered on-campus.

BIO 105 General Zoology         4 Credits
A continuation and application of biological principles established in BIO 103 specifically to animals. Students will establish a knowledge base for continued studies in the biological sciences including the principles of animal taxonomy and phylogeny, the connections between form and functions of animal body systems, and concepts of animal diversity and ecology. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 103. Lecture and laboratory. Offered on-campus

BIO 201 Microbiology         4 Credits
A study of micro-organisms including their classification, culturing, structure, relationship to disease, control, and practical applications. Course includes weekly lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 105 or BOT 105. Offered on-campus.

BIO 202 Human Biology         4 Credits
This one-semester course provides an overview of the organ systems of the human body as they function together in a healthy person. Basic human anatomy and physiology of each organ system in the body will be covered, and laboratory investigations will focus on physiological function of the systems studied. This course is not intended to be taken with BIO 205 or BIO 206. A student cannot receive credit for BIO 202 in the Biology or Natural Science major if they are taking BIO 205 or BIO 206 for credit. This course includes weekly lectures and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 100, BIO 103, or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

BIO 204 Biology: Special Problems (Mu Sigma Eta)         1 Credit
An opportunity for the student who has demonstrated superior ability to study a biological problem, thus learning to use the tools of research and scientific literature. Admission by invitation only. S Offered on-campus.

BIO 205 Human Anatomy & Physiology I         4 Credits
This is the first semester in a two-semester course in Human Anatomy and Physiology. The major areas of study include the structures and functions of cells and tissues, as well as the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Interactions of these organ systems will be studied as they pertain to homeostasis, physiology, and kinesiology. This course includes lectures and weekly laboratories. Prerequisites: Successful completion of BIO 105 or permission of the instructor. CHE 152 is recommended. Offered on-campus.

BIO 206 Human Anatomy & Physiology II         4 Credits
This is the second semester in a two-semester course in Human Anatomy and Physiology. The major areas of study include the structures and functions of endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Interactions of these organ systems will be studied as they pertain to homeostasis and physiology. This course includes weekly lectures and laboratories. Prerequisites: Successful completion of BIO 205 or permission of the instructor. CHE 152 is recommended. Offered on-campus.

BIO 210 Field Techniques Laboratory         4 Credits
This course offers hands-on experience conducted on-site in northern Minnesota. Students will gain first-hand exposure to the northern forest ecosystem while conducting species inventory work at the Vince Shute Wildlife Sanctuary. Experiences will include orienteering, field identification of flora and fauna, habitat sampling techniques, data collection, and maintaining field journals. Side trips to local sites, including timber operations, Voyagers National Park, and other educational centers, will broaden the experience. A course fee is associated with this 18-day course to cover tuition, transportation, room, and board. This course is offered Pass/Fail. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 100 or BIO 103 lab course or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as BOT 210). Offered on-campus.

BIO 222 Science Division Internship         0.5-1 Credit
A student can earn one-half to one credit hour of credit per semester up to a maximum of six credit hours toward a degree through participation in an internship in a divisional activity such as lab assistant. Grading will be on a Pass/Fail basis. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. (This course does not apply toward biology electives required for a Bachelor of Science in Biology.) F/S Offered on-campus.

BIO 300 Environmental Biology         3 Credits
A study of biodiversity. The origin and evolutionary history of biodiversity, including the geological forces that shaped its course, will be discussed. This course will be made pertinent through discussions of the impact of human activity on biodiversity and subsequent impact on the human population. Prerequisites: Successful completion of BIO/ENV 101 and BIO 100 or BIO 105 or BOT 105, or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as ENV 300.) (Offered every other year) S Offered on-campus.

BIO 301 Science Seminar         3 Credits
Students examine a topic from within sciences and develop a working knowledge of the methodologies, perspectives, and limitations of the sciences as well as an appreciation of the insights that may be derived from scientific inquiry. Student research and presentations are required. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as LIB 301 and NAT 301.) (Offered every other year) S Offered on-campus.

BIO 310 Field Techniques Laboratory         4 Credits
Course content same as BIO 210. To earn upper-division credit, the student must also design, develop, and complete a research project during the 18-day course. The research project has to be designed and approved by the instructor prior to leaving the University. Participation of BIO 210 students in the research project is strongly encouraged. A course fee is associated with this 18-day course to cover tuition, transportation, room, and board. This is a graded course. Prerequisite: BIO 210. (Cross-listed as BOT 310). Offered on-campus.

BIO 318 General Ecology         4 Credits
This course introduces fundamental concepts in the ecology of individual organisms and the interactions between organisms and the nonliving environment. Emphasis is on terrestrial plant and animal ecology. This course explores the biodiversity in our region, perform small-scale experiments, and learn the process of inquiry by designing and conducting an ecological research project. Laboratories include field and laboratory work and statistical analyses of data. Prerequisites: Successful completion of BIO 105 or BOT 105 and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency or consent of instructor. Course includes weekly lecture and laboratory. F Offered on-campus

BIO 322 Internship in Biology         1-4 Credits
The student must complete 50 contact hours for each semester hour of credit given in normally non-remunerative work in a designated off-site facility. Students must provide evidence of learning through a written journal and keep an up-to-date time sheet. May be taken more than once to gain experience at different locations for a maximum of 4 credit hours. Prerequisites: Junior status or higher, permission of supervising faculty member and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Offered on-campus

BIO 330 Cancer Biology        3 Credits
This course will explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development with the aim of understanding how changes in the normal growth and cell division lead to the formation of tumors. Additional topics will include epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment methods for the disease. In this course, students will be exposed to scientific literature through class discussion. Lecture only. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 103. F Offered on-campus.

BIO 340 Cell Biology        4 Credits
The cell is the basic unit of life. This is a general course dealing with the basic molecular structure and function of all cellular organelles of eukaryotic cells. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 152 and either BIO 105 or BOT 105. Course includes weekly lecture and laboratory. (Offered every other year) F Offered on-campus.

BIO 345 Genetics         4 Credits
This course covers classical Mendelian genetics and inheritance patterns as well as the molecular nature of gene structure. The function and regulation of gene expression will also be discussed. Topics include features and patterns of inheritance in bacteria, fungi, plants, animals, and humans; gene and chromosome mutations; structure and function of chromatin; DNA replication; gene expression and regulation; recombinant DNA technology; non-Mendelian genetics; and population genetics. Course includes weekly lectures and laboratory. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 152 and either BIO 105 or BOT 105. Spring semester. Offered on-campus.

BIO 353 Cross-Sectional Anatomy        3 Credits
This course will introduce the student to fundamental principles of computer technology, and its role in medical imaging. CT, PET, and MRI will be discussed. Equipment and its application will be investigated. Basic cross sectional anatomy of the brain, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, spine and extremities will be covered. In addition, common pathologies that can be detected by CT, PET, and MRI will be discussed. Prerequisite or co-requisite: BIO 206. Offered on-campus.

BIO 356 Molecular Biology         4 Credits
This course examines the molecular structure of DNA and the coding of genetic information within the DNA sequence. The processes of transcription and translation, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, will be discussed, as well as the regulation that occurs in each of these processes. The causes and effects of mutations and mechanisms for repair will also be included. In addition, the manipulation of genetic material common in today’s research will be discussed. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 152 and either BIO 105 or BOT 105. Offered on-campus.

BIO 498 Senior Thesis/Project I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of the methodology of science by producing a thesis statement and bibliography, writing a proposal to include the design of an appropriate project/experiment, and starting the approved project, if warranted by the design. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the faculty member serving as thesis director and from the chairperson of the Biology Department. The choice of scientific format for the written thesis and the design of the experiment must be approved by the student’s committee. Prerequisites: Successful completion of MAT 332, fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. S (Cross-listed as NAT 498 and ENV 498) Minimum of "C-" required for the major. Offered on-campus.

BIO 499 Senior Thesis/Project II         2 Credits
A continuation of the senior thesis project started in BIO 498. Students demonstrate their mastery of the methodology of science by completing the research project using appropriate analytical skills and producing a written thesis document in an appropriate scientific format. The completed thesis project is defended orally before and evaluated by a faculty committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisite: BIO 498 with a minimum grade of “C-”. F/S (Cross-listed as NAT 499 and ENV 499.) Offered on-campus.

BOT Botany

BOT 100 Plants & Society         4 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the biology of plants, algae, and fungi, with an emphasis placed on their uses throughout human history. Lecture topics such as plant form and function, plant diversity and evolution, ecology of photosynthetic and decomposer organisms, biotechnology, and conservation are presented. Laboratory activities combine traditional microscope work and hypothesis testing with special consideration of selected topics in economic- and ethno-botany. Lecture and laboratory. Offered on-campus

BOT 105 General Botany         4 Credits
This course provides a rigorous introduction to the biology of plants and other non-animal groups. Lecture topics include: anatomy of tissues and organs, growth and development, nutrition and water relations, diversity and organic evolution, comparative reproductive biology, ecology of photosynthetic organisms, and responses to stimuli. Laboratory activities consist of microscopy that encourages building of essential technical skills, and student-directed scientific inquiry which makes hypothesis testing become a more intuitive process. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 103. Lecture and laboratory. Offered on-campus.

BOT 202 Plant Systematics         4 Credits
This course continues the introduction of foundational concepts and skills for plant biology began in BOT 105. Topics include: cladistic phylogenetics, species concepts, common flowering plant families, floral formulas, nomenclature, flowering plant breeding systems, plant identification, and molecular systematics. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BOT 105. Lecture and laboratory. Offered on-campus.

BOT 210 Field Techniques Laboratory         4 Credits
This course offers hands-on experience conducted on-site in northern Minnesota. Students will gain first-hand exposure to the northern forest ecosystem while conducting species inventory work at the Vince Shute Wildlife Sanctuary. Experiences will include orienteering, field identification of flora and fauna, habitat sampling techniques, data collection, and maintaining field journals. Side trips to local sites, including timber operations, Voyagers National Park, and other educational centers, will broaden the experience. A course fee is associated with this 18-day course to cover tuition, transportation, room, and board. This course is offered Pass/Fail. Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 100 or BIO 103 lab course or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as BIO 210). Offered on-campus.

BOT 310 Field Techniques Laboratory         4 Credits
Course content same as BIO 210. To earn upper-division credit, the student must also design, develop, and complete a research project during the 18-day course. The research project has to be designed and approved by the instructor prior to leaving the University. Participation of BOT 210 students in the research project is strongly encouraged. A course fee is associated with this 18-day course to cover tuition, transportation, room, and board. This is a graded course. Prerequisite: BOT 210. (Cross-listed as BIO 310). Offered on-campus.

BOT 318 General Ecology         4 Credits
This course introduces fundamental concepts in the ecology of individual organisms and the interactions between organisms and the nonliving environment. Emphasis is on terrestrial plant and animal ecology. This course explores the biodiversity in our region, perform small-scale experiments, and learn the process of inquiry by designing and conducting an ecological research project. Laboratories include field and laboratory work and statistical analyses of data. Prerequisites: Successful completion of BIO 101 or BIO 105 or BOT 105, and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency or consent of instructor. Course includes weekly lecture and laboratory. F (Cross-listed as BIO 318). Offered on-campus.

BUS Business

BUS 114 Principles of Supervision         3 Credits
This course studies the principles and activities of supervising and motivating personnel in a variety of organizational contexts. Emphasis will be placed on the human interaction in supervision. Offered online.

BUS 117 Introduction to Organizational Dynamics         3 Credits
This course is a study of group behavior and how group functioning affects organizational effectiveness. Emphasis is placed on decision-making and resolving conflict in groups. Adult learners develop strategies for efficient and productive group management and determine which tasks are handled by groups or individuals. Offered online.

BUS 119 Principles of Personal & Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This is a leadership skills development course. This course provides an overview and introduction to leadership principles and leadership applications in various organizational settings. It examines the concept of leadership, leadership styles, traits, and types, and the evolution of leadership behaviors observed during recent generations. Offered online.

BUS 181/381 Business & Professional Studies Seminar         1 Credit
This cross-disciplinary course provides opportunities for all students to enhance their academic programming and to create additional exhibits of learning to use for résumé and cover letter inclusion. Professional networking opportunities are abundant. No course prerequisite required; $20 course fee for professional membership to Phi Beta Lambda. Offered on-campus.

BUS 201 Principles of Management         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the nature and problems of management and organizations, leadership and control. The
relationships between the needs of the individual, the organization and society are examined. (Equivalent to MGT 330.) Offered online.

BUS 215 Personal Financial Management         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the field of personal financial management and planning, focusing on the tools individuals and families employ to manage their financial affairs. Offered online.

BUS 226 Introduction to Personnel Administration         3 Credits
This course examines relationships and issues in personnel administration within a broad range of organizations. Students study personnel management, organizational development, recruitment and selection, performance management systems, discipline, and collective bargaining. Offered online.

BUS 235 Introduction to Marketing         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to marketing principles, concepts and theories that define the marketing discipline. Basic marketing strategies relating to product, price, promotion and distribution, cultural trends, societal behavior, technology, and legal environments that influence effective marketing decisions are examined. Offered online.

BUS 244 Business Practicum         1-2 Credits
Prospective business administration majors function under the tutelage of professionals in manufacturing, banking, service industries, and other related entities. Students complete 52 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisites: Sophomore or junior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

BUS 250 Corporate & Social Responsibility         3 Credits
This course explores philosophic perspectives for understanding the meaning of corporate responsibility in society, and considers the leadership roles of managers in implementing corporate and social responsibilities. Topics include uses of power, government regulations, environmental issues, employee rights and responsibilities, consumer protection, and ethical integrity. Offered online.

BUS 303 Human Resource Management         3 Credits
An introduction to the field of human resource management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field. (Equivalent to MGT 445.) Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques         3 Credits
A survey of relevant quantitative techniques commonly used in accounting, business, and information systems. Topics will vary but, typically, elementary probability theory and applications, decision theory, and linear programming are included. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 308 Statistics for Managers         3 Credits
This course examines the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in business decision making. Additionally, the course focuses on the utilization of statistical methods as applied to business problems and operations. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 311 Business Law I         3 Credits
Introduction to the legal environment of business in the United States. Examination of the Constitution, administrative law, contracts, agency, and the protection of competition, consumers, employees, investors, the environment, and international trade. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 312 Business Law II         3 Credits
Continuation of Business Law I. In-depth study of specific laws and practices as related to contracts, the Uniform Commercial Code, commercial paper, secured transactions, real and personal property, estates, and bankruptcy. Prerequisite: BUS 311. Offered on-campus.

BUS 315 Professional Selling & Sales Management         3 Credits
This course covers tasks and responsibilities of professional selling and the challenges of managing both the individual and team sales function. Additionally, this course stresses analytical and interpersonal skills, account management, proposal development, and planning, as well as organizing, directing, motivating, and controlling a sales organization. Also examines legal and ethical dimensions of professional selling. Offered on-campus.

BUS 316 Financial Institutions & Markets         3 Credits
A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest-rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the U.S. economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments. Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203. (Cross-listed as ECO 316.) (Offered in alternate years) F Offered on-campus.

BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising         3 Credits
This course is designed to introduce students to the field of advertising as a promotional force with emphasis on institutions, planning, strategic practices, and tactical decisions made by advertising executives. It will also explore the various career opportunities including account executive, media buying, copywriting, production, and research. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 318 Organizational Behavior         3 Credits
This course is designed to develop the student’s skills in the understanding of factors that affect how individuals and groups act and interact with one another and with management. It also looks at how organizations manage their internal environment with the aim of improving productivity, efficiency, and communications among members. Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 319 The Social Responsibility of Organizations         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with insights into the complex environment that organizations of any size operate. Organizational leaders’ and organizational members’ responsibility to use ethical thinking to balance stakeholder interests with organizational duty are examined. Modern managers and leaders face increasing demands in local, regional, national and global environments with competing value expectations. The values and beliefs of organizational members fundamentally impact the success of the organization. In this course, students will gain appreciation for and understanding of social responsibility of the organization under such conditions. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 323 Risk Management & Insurance         3 Credits
In this course, students study identification and quantification of risk, the span of methods of handling risk, and common contracts for managing risk. Common commercial/industrial situations and personal risk management situations are addressed. Offered online.

BUS 330 Principles of Marketing         3 Credits
The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility. (Equivalent to MGT 350.) Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 336 Marketing Strategy         3 Credits
The objective of this course is to advance the students ability to develop, implement, and critically evaluate the marketing strategy for a product or service. It will provide the conceptual frameworks and hone the analytical and creative skills that are necessary to define and develop superior value, persuasively communicate that value, profitably deliver it to a carefully selected target market, and sustain both the value and the profitability in the face of ever-changing customer needs and competitive offerings. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 337 Principles of Retail Management         3 Credits
Principles and practices used in management of retail businesses. The course covers topics such as site selection, layout, organization, staffing, positioning, customer service, promotional techniques, and all aspects of the critical buying function. Offered online.

BUS 339 Marketing Research         3 Credits
Study and analysis of the marketing information system. Includes the organizational characteristics of marketing research, basic tools and procedures, and management science applications. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 340 Business Communications         3 Credits
Every aspect of contemporary business communications — from determining what information to communicate to processing information and sharing it — depends on technology. Students will learn to compose, format, and manage business letters, memos, reports, email, and resumes. Students will use software to access information and to evaluate the quality of the information they receive. Students will create electronic presentations to communicate information. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 342 Financial Planning & Practice         3 Credits
This course is a study of the various aspects of family financial planning from the perspective of the financial planning professional. It introduces the legal and regulatory issues affecting financial planners, defines the client-planner relationship, and prepares the planner to conduct family financial analysis. Emphasis is on providing the student with the knowledge and tools necessary to help families make informed financial decisions. Offered online.

BUS 343 International Marketing         3 Credits
Examination of cultural, economic, and political factors that affect marketing of goods and services worldwide. Emphasis is on adapting the marketing strategies of domestic marketers to international operations and the institutional structure that exists in international markets. Marketing strategies of firms operation within these markets are also examined. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 344 Business Practicum         1-2 Credits
Prospective business administration majors function under the tutelage of professionals in manufacturing, banking, service industries, and other related entities. Students complete 52 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

BUS 345 Business & the Environment         3 Credits
An environmental economics approach is used to illustrate the impacts of the firm on the environment and environmental policy on the firm. Cost-benefit analysis is developed in student-driven research projects. (Cross-listed as ENV 345) (Offered in alternate years) S Offered on-campus.

BUS 350 Consumer Behavior         3 Credits
This course illustrates the psychological, socio-cultural, and decision-making aspects of consumer behavior. Students study behavioral concepts, motivation, and the role of consumer behavior in our society. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 352 e-Business         3 Credits
An introduction to the fundamental concepts used in e-business and e-commerce. This course identifies and describes the wide range of applications in business. It explains what the Internet is and how it can be used for business applications in a competitive environment. Through Internet labs, this course will compare various Web strategies of current businesses. Students need to be proficient in using the Internet to find information. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 355 Corporate Communication Strategies         3 Credits
This course seeks to expand and improve the student’s understanding of corporate communication and shows how companies use communications to implement strategy. This course will examine a variety of cases and readings that will help the student to understand how corporate communication relates to general management and strategy in a corporation. The course will seek to answer the following question: “What is the best way to implement strategy using the power of corporate communication in the corporation?” Prerequisite: Junior standing or instructor permission. Offered on-campus.

BUS 357 International Business         3 Credits
Students examine functional areas of business from an international perspective. The importance of differing cultural and political assumptions in business is also addressed. (Equivalent to BUS 403.) Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the opportunities and challenges associated with the creation and management of entrepreneurial organizations. The course focuses on the issues associated with starting and managing a new venture including recognizing opportunity, basic business planning, essential human resources management, introductory marketing, legal issues, location selection, funding, buying a business as well as discussing various exit strategies. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation         3 Credits
This course focuses on creativity and innovation as a process in organizations. The course also examines how individuals can be innovative in organizations and the challenge of building innovative organizations. Prerequisite: BUS 362. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking         3 Credits
This course examines financing the start-up of a new venture, from bootstrapping with personal resources or bank debt to equity investment by angel investors or venture capitalists. The course also covers the four main aspects of venture capital: valuation, deal structuring, governance, and harvesting. Prerequisite: BUS 362. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 370 Organizational Development         3 Credits
The course overviews how, why, and when to integrate the behavioral sciences with human resources management principles to increase individual and organizational effectiveness. Students will also be introduced to many types of interpersonal, intra-group, inter-group, and organizational interventions that are used to effect comprehensive and lasting changes. Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations         3 Credits
The course provides students with both the common and complex issues related to human behavior in the workplace as it relates to employee relations, and an examination of relationships among unions, workers, management, laws and government regulation. Prerequisite: BUS 303. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 375 Employee Training         3 Credits
This course provides essential managerial-level comprehension of training theory and its practical applications in the business and management environment. Students learn the functions and duties of training: trainer/developer, the identification and assessment of training needs, program design and development, selection of delivery methods and means of instruction, the implementation of training programs, and evaluation. Prerequisite: BUS 303. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 378 International Business Law         3 Credits
This courses focuses on the legal environment associated with international commercial transactions, including an analysis of major Western and non-Western legal traditions and the supranational law of the European Community, a detailed analysis of the negotiation, formation, enforcement, and financing of international sales contracts, an analysis of international trade regulation, analysis of methods of regulating global competition, and of the protection of business property rights in international transactions. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 401 Principles of Finance         3 Credits
Basic corporate finance is presented with the emphasis on risk and return, bond and equity markets, valuation of bonds and equities, present value analysis, internal rate of return analysis, and project analysis using the weighted average cost of capital. Prerequisites: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. (Equivalent to BUS 320.) Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy         3 Credits
A case-based course that discusses the set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a company. The course includes environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation and control. Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330, ACC 205, and ECO 203 or ECO 204 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 405 Principles of Investments         3 Credits
The study and analysis of securities and other forms of investments. Emphasis is on investment principles from the manager’s point of view. Prerequisite: BUS 401. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 420 Internship         3 Credits
The internship program involves the application of classroom learning to practical business projects or programs. An educational program or project with specific objectives must be established before approval of the course. It must consist of non-routine internship work. The internship has a minimum requirement of 150 hours devoted to the laboratory, which must be in addition to any regular employment. Enrollment is limited to the availability of placement and to the availability of faculty. Application must be made through an advisor eight weeks in advance of the regular fall or spring registration. Prerequisites: Senior standing; completion of courses applicable to the laboratory work; 3.00 GPA overall; 3.00 GPA in accounting, business, and economics subjects; and permission of the Internship Committee. S Offered on-campus.

BUS 421 PR/Marketing Capstone         3 Credits
This course is designed to bring together the knowledge gained through the entire program and permits the student to demonstrate mastery in the various course competencies. Students are expected to apply and integrate a variety of skills, tools, and knowledge to assess real-world problems offering realistic solutions. Students will analyze, design, implement, and document an appropriate solution for a capstone project. The project should exemplify the student’s ability to apply program outcomes. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 422 Senior Thesis/Project         3 Credits
Students produce a written work or engage in a project at an appropriate level of analysis and skill. (Work previously submitted for credit may not be used.) Enrollment in this class and the thesis/project topic must be approved in advance by the faculty member serving as thesis/project director. The completed thesis or project is defended orally before and evaluated by a faculty committee. Students must earn a minimum grade of “C–” to fulfill concentration requirement. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered on-campus.

BUS 427 Sustainable Business Practices         3 Credits
Using readings and cases, students examine business strategies in response to and anticipation of opportunities resulting from shifting economic, political, and environmental conditions including social change, market failures, or interruption of business operations. Compliance and risk management strategies will be emphasized while emphasis focuses on business innovation and business sustainability. Offered online.

BUS 430 Finance Seminar         3 Credits
Using readings and case studies, students gain understanding the types of analysis performed and decisions made by the financial managers of corporations, focusing on valuation concepts and managing for value. Students also explore specific financing and investing decisions made by the firm’s management to mitigate corporate risk using insurance and financial derivatives; valuation of real options; real estate investment decision; issues and methods of corporate financial management in an international environment. Prerequisite: BUS 405. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 433 New Business Strategy         3 Credits
This course is intended to provide prospective entrepreneurs with information and tools for evaluating opportunities for starting a new firm—how to choose markets for entry, when to enter, and what resources and capabilities it will take to enter and provide a platform for future growth. Prerequisite: BUS 362. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management         3 Credits
This course reviews the fundamentals of wage and salary programs, including conducting salary surveys, defining compensable factors, adjusting pay structures, evaluating pay differentials, and relating pay to performance. Benefit programs and related employee incentive and service programs are also covered. Prerequisite: BUS 303. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 435 Small Business Ventures         3 Credits
This course explores the strategic planning, operating, financing, legal, career and other business issues found in launching a small business or operating family-owned and managed companies or privately-held firms. Other course topics include the challenge of identifying viable business opportunities, gaining the appropriate business skills and tools to be successful, and defining the capital requirements to operate the business. Prerequisite: BUS 362. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 437 Business Plan Development         3 Credits
This course gives students the opportunity to study the elements of a successful business plan and to put that knowledge to work in creating a comprehensive business plan for a new venture. Prerequisites: BUS 362 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 439 International Human Resources Management         3 Credits
In this course, students will examine human resources practices in an international business environment. The course also addresses HR strategies and practices to increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency as well as international compliance problems faced by HR professionals. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 441 Retail Pricing Management         3 Credits
The purpose of this course is to provide an in-depth understanding of the issues and considerations in the pricing of retail products, illustrate the role of pricing and product management in achieving strategic retail business goals, and demonstrate the link between pricing and product management within the context of the marketing mix within the marketing management process. Prerequisites: ECO 204 and SRV 340. Offered online.

BUS 442 Retail Merchandising         3 Credits
This course addresses the central issues of retailing business while emphasizing issues related to channel options available to the final consumer. The course features concepts applied to both store based (e.g., specialty store, department store, multi-unit retail) and non-store based (e.g., Internet and catalog) retailing channels. Offered online.

BUS 445 Total Quality Management         3 Credits
This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 446 Production Operations Control         3 Credits
Students analyze production control requirements as applied to both “push” and “pull” production environments. Students further learn to capture data and prepare for product changes in a variety of manufacturing environments. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 450 International Finance         3 Credits
An examination of the international aspects of corporate finance and investing, the course covers balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international banking. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 455 Internet & Social Media Marketing         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the use of the internet and social media applications as part of an integrated marketing strategy. Students will be exposed to a variety of alternative media as well as other online marketing tools and strategies. The course will also evaluate how these tools fit into the marketing theoretical framework. Prerequisite: BUS 330. Offered online.

BUS 458 Consumer & Family Finance Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides a link between the traditional advisement services (finance, investment, tax, insurance, retirement planning, trust planning) and the client’s life plan to manage financial affairs. As a final exercise, students complete a model financial plan for a mock client. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

BUS 461 Decision Modeling & Analysis        3 Credits
An introduction to the application of management science techniques and statistical tools to business decisions. Students will learn the assumptions and techniques necessary to apply and to implement solutions from optimization and other decision science models. The focus of the course will be on problem solving, which includes problem definition, problem analysis, evaluation and choice of alternatives, and implementation and evaluation of the decision. Prerequisites: MGT 330, BUS 308 or MAT 332. Offered online and on-campus.

BUS 497 e-Marketing Capstone         3 Credits
This course discusses the elements of a marketing plan as they are applied in an internet marketing situation. Students will create an e-marketing plan, beginning with an environmental scan and progressing through product strategy, channel strategy, and marketing communication. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

BUS 591 Financial Accounting & Analysis         3 Credits
This course is a study of how the firm’s management captures and uses financial information for reporting and analysis to both internal and external stakeholders. Various course topics include the accounting cycle, sources of the information contained in financial statements, time value of money, ratio analysis, the preparation and analysis of income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows. Offered online.

BUS 599 Introduction to Quantitative Principles         3 Credits
This course is an overview of the fundamentals of accounting, finance, and economics. Students will investigate the fundamental principles of accounting through the preparation of financial statements. The basics of managerial finance including the use of net present valuation models fundamental financial ratio analysis will be examined. Students will also explore modern economic philosophy including an understanding of basic supply and demand, and micro- and macroeconomics systems. Note: This course can be waived if the student has an undergraduate degree in business. Offered online.

BUS 600 Management Communications with Technology Tools         3 Credits
This course is designed to introduce the student to the Ashford University Graduate Business programs, with emphases upon conceptualizing communication and communication processes in the contexts of organizations and leadership. Emphasis will be on technology, theories and models, qualitative communication research methodologies, and research writing. Offered online.

BUS 604 New Business Venture Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on the important aspects of starting a new business enterprise with emphasis on the challenges faced by the entrepreneur in initiating a business venture and directing its early development. The course also addresses the process of forming business ventures, the identification and evaluation of new venture opportunities, and the development of appropriate entry strategies. Offered online.

BUS 605 Venture Capital & Private Equity         3 Credits
This course will examine the role of finance and the formation of financial strategies needed to support each phase of the business start-up. Sources of equity and debt capital along with entry strategies such as franchising and acquisition are examined. Alternative working capital, capital structure, and investment strategies unique to the start-up are presented. Offered online.

BUS 606 Global Comparative Management         3 Credits
This course reviews management systems within their political, social, and economic environments with a global perspective. This course also emphasizes the managerial processes in a global business environment and provides a strategic assessment of the fundamental issues involved in the management of multinational corporations. Topics include comparative studies of practices of management in foreign nations and examination of the influences of culture on business operations. Offered online.

BUS 610 Organizational Behavior         3 Credits
This course investigates behavioral factors that affect modern organizations and their management. Topics include group and team dynamics, organizational structure, motivation, leadership, power, and change management. Offered online.

BUS 611 Project Planning & Management         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the art and science of project management as applied to different types of project situations. Topics such as project life-cycle management, project organizations and leadership, project team building, RFPs, proposals and contracts, techniques for project scope definition, work definition, estimating, scheduling, risk management, control and closeout, the project management methodology, and PM software are covered. Offered online.

BUS 612 Advanced Project Procurement         3 Credits
This course emphasizes a hands-on approach to using project management knowledge areas to facilitate scheduling, estimating, tracking and controlling the schedule and costs of the project. A project baseline will be set so that actual schedule and cost variances can be compared to the project baseline and corrective actions can be developed to address the variances. In this course students will learn about the legal, ethical, and fiscal considerations in procurement and contracts. Students will examine ways of identifying, evaluating and mitigating risk in scheduling, cost control, contracting and procurement. Offered online.

BUS 616 International Business         3 Credits
This course studies the major functional business areas in a global context. Taking into consideration socio-political structural differences, the multinational corporation is investigated with applications in management, finance, marketing and operations. Offered online.

BUS 620 Managerial Marketing         3 Credits
This course examines the marketing function, focusing on the managerial application of marketing tools and methodology. Emphasis is placed on marketing decisions associated with allocating organizational resources including: product development and design, pricing, promotional strategies, and distribution-based activities. Course coverage includes the marketing concept, buyer psychology, strategic planning and implementation of marketing plans. Offered online.

BUS 630 Managerial Accounting         3 Credits
This course studies the role and major functions of the managerial accountant within the organization. Students of managerial accounting should not only be able to produce accounting information but also understand how managers are likely to use and react to that information. The goal of this course is to acquaint students of business with the fundamental tools of management accounting and to promote their understanding of the dramatic ways in which the field is changing. The emphasis through the text and course is on using account information to help manage an organization. Some topics covered in this course include: cost management, various budgeting theories and techniques, and decision-making processes. Prerequisite: BUS 591 or equivalent. Offered online.

BUS 631 Integrated Supply Chain Management         3 Credits
Study and analysis of supply chain management for products/services and the dynamic interaction of companies within an integrated supply chain. Topics include factors guiding companies’ supply chain development and management; Technology as a supply chain tool; Positioning of a company in terms of its role as a valuable member of the supply chain; and, performance measures used across the supply chain. Offered online.

BUS 632 Advanced Logistics         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of current logistics and distribution practices intended to advance current knowledge. Students should gain an understanding of the significant components of logistics management and the dynamics of what is considered best practice. Focuses on the complexities associated with the integrated flow of raw materials, in-process goods, finished goods, and information from point-of-origin through the production process to the end consumer. Offered online.

BUS 635 Media Markets & Systems         3 Credits
This course examines the various segments of the market that utilize media resources for organizational growth and communication. Examination of the components of media, stakeholders, markets available and cultures impacted by media will include assessment of technological and economic drivers that establish a congruent approach to the marketplace. Offered online.

BUS 636 Media Management & Innovation         3 Credits
Utilizing the key principles of organizational management, this course will focus on the media approach in an organization and providing systematic guidelines for oversight of the institutional media team. Creating a culture of innovation in the media team will be a strategic element in the course content. Offered online.

BUS 640 Managerial Economics         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide a solid foundation of economic understanding for use in managerial decision-making. The course offers an intuitive non-calculus based treatment of economic theory and analysis. A variety of examples is used to illustrate the application of managerial economics to diverse practical situations. The role that economic analysis plays in that process is emphasized throughout this course. Prerequisite: MAT 540 or equivalent. Offered online.

BUS 642 Business Research Methods & Tools         3 Credits
This course examines the use of quantitative techniques business decision-making. Using spreadsheet software, the course addresses managerial problem solving through the use descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, and correlation and regression (single and multiple) analysis. This course also provides a graduate foundation for conducting business research. Topic coverage includes: research methodology, literature review, hypothesis generation, data collection and summary techniques. Additional coverage includes study of qualitative and quantitative data as well as reviewing conceptual versus empirical research studies. Prerequisite: MAT 540 or equivalent. Offered online.

BUS 644 Operations Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on the principles associated with the effective design, implementation and management of organizational processes and systems. With an emphasis on efficiency, course coverage includes: systems design for products and services, inventory management systems, distribution and supply chain management. Offered online.

BUS 650 Managerial Finance         3 Credits
This course studies the role and major functions of corporate finance within the organization. Upon developing an understanding of the theoretical foundation of corporate finance, students will use financial tools in an applied case and problem format. Topics covered include: net present value analysis (time value of money), risk assessment, security valuation, decisions on capital structure and allocation, and the weighted average cost of capital. Prerequisite: BUS 591 or equivalent. Offered online.

BUS 655 Financial Investment Management         3 Credits
The central focus of this course is to develop an understanding of how security markets function, factors that influence security valuation, differentiating between various investment types and understanding investment risk and return principles. This course covers security markets operations, investment information, portfolio asset allocation; financial environment analysis; and evaluation of equity and fixed income securities. Offered online.

BUS 657 Corporate Managerial Finance         3 Credits
This course introduces the financial theory and practices firm managers use to attain their goal of maximizing corporate shareholder wealth. Topics covered are: analysis techniques of financial statement and cash flows; working capital management and financial forecasting; valuation methods for debt and equity capital; risk and rate of return theory; cost of capital, capital project budgeting decisions and cash flow estimation; optimal capital structure and dividend policy. Offered online.

BUS 660 Contemporary Issues in Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This course provides an in-depth examination of the multi-faceted concept of leadership studies by presenting the student with the vocabulary, concepts, theories, and applicable research that are fundamental to the understanding of leadership. The course examines contemporary and historical leadership issues, moral and ethical responsibilities of leadership, and leadership in a variety of contexts. Leadership as a social and political influence process is examined. Offered online.

BUS 661 Leading Organizational Change         3 Credits
This course blends theories of leadership with concepts and models of organizational change. The change process consists of a series of steps that focuses on vision, implementation, change agents, and other internal and external components. The course provides insight into types of changes that impact organizations and possible strategies to effectively address those changes. Offered online.

BUS 665 Environmental Law & Compliance         3 Credits
This course begins with an analysis of The Solid Waste Disposal Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Further, it will familiarize students with an environmental manager’s duties in permitting, reporting, record keeping and sampling. It emphasizes a systematic approach to identifying obligations with respect to regulated media and developing appropriate responses. Obligations under United States environmental laws, their relationship to state and local laws, and state and local obligations are considered as a model for analysis and response. Offered online.

BUS 667 Energy, Environment & Economics         3 Credits
This course deals with the linkage of energy, environmental and economic issues. The impact of energy supply and end-use on human well-being and the ecosystem is covered. It also includes a comprehensive approach to the resolution of resource, technical, economic, strategic, environmental, socio- and geopolitical problems of the energy industries. In addition, pathways to a sustainable global energy system are presented. Offered online.

BUS 668 Macroeconomics of Financial Markets         3 Credits
This course examines the monetary aspects of production, spending, borrowing, and lending decisions, organization, performance and scope of services provided by financial markets and institutions, and the powers of the Federal Reserve System to use monetary policy and limits to credit expansion. The regulatory and globalization aspects and relevance of market behavior to the financial system are also examined. Offered online.

BUS 669 Managerial Economic Analysis         3 Credits
Managerial economics introduces the basic principles of economic analysis as applied to managerial decisions to determine how an organization can achieve its aims most efficiently. This course applies statistical and quantitative tools and the methodological approaches commonly used by economists to business problems as demand estimation, product pricing, profit maximizing level of output, cost minimizing level of input use, and forecasting. Offered online.

BUS 670 Legal Environment         3 Credits
This course involves the study of business law, its foundations, and the role it plays in managing a business, with a particular emphasis on the corporate form. Topics of relevance to be explored include the following core concepts: constitutional law, case law, government regulation, ethics, contracts, anti-trust law, securities regulations, employment law, environmental law, and crimes and torts. Offered online.

BUS 680 Training & Development         3 Credits
This course provides in-depth knowledge of training and performance development concepts essential for line managers or human resource specialists. Beginning with fundamental principles of performance, the course focus is on identifying critical factors in workplace performance and in determining how to analyze the causes of performance problems. Additionally, this course distinguishes between training and development and addresses their complementary functions in the modern organization. Offered online.

BUS 681 Compensation & Benefits         3 Credits
This course provides in-depth knowledge into compensation theories, policies, systems, and practices, with particular emphasis toward designing effective compensation programs. Offered online.

BUS 688 Business Strategy:The Sustainable Enterprise         3 Credits
This course integrates environmental management issues with use of strategic planning tools for assessing and responding to the driving forces of the “next” economy: globalization, technology, demographics and the environment. The course examines the challenge of corporations competing in the global economy of the new millennium in such a way that will allow the planet to support them indefinitely. Emphasis is on the company’s ability to build and sustain a competitive advantage utilizing traditional management concepts as well as new sustainability practices. Offered online.

BUS 689 Market Structure & Firm Strategy         3 Credits
This course focuses on the study of markets, laws, and government regulations used to smooth significant market imperfections, especially the problems caused by market structure and market power. The course further examines how firms formulate business strategies and activities to position themselves for profit advantage. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MBA/Business Economics curriculum. In addition, the capstone project requires the generation and presentation of an industry economic analysis. Offered online.

BUS 690 Business Strategy         3 Credits
This capstone course explores the formulation, implementation, and evaluation/control of organizational strategic management. In the context of a globally competitive market, students will explore methods of directing an entire organization through applied case analysis. Topics include analysis of competitive position, value creation, development of system-wide goals and objectives, and creation of a strategic plan. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MBA curriculum. Additionally, the capstone project requires the generation and presentation of an industry analysis. Offered online.

BUS 691 Strategies in Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This course builds on leadership, business, and management concepts. This strategy course provides the student with the opportunity to synthesize all prior learning in leadership and related coursework and experiences, both personal and professional. The course expands the leader’s thinking and explores the arena of leadership and how it will impact the future of the individual, the organization, and the world in which we live. Offered online.

BUS 692 Strategies in Human Resource Management         3 Credits
This course examines how to manage human resources effectively in the dynamic legal, social, and economic environment currently impacting organizations. The course examines human resource management in the current business environment and develops alignment with vision, strategy, organizational values, and HR functions. Emphasis is placed on integrating human resource management with the overall business strategy. Offered online.

BUS 693 Global Business Strategy         3 Credits
This course builds on the leadership, business, and management concepts while integrating a comprehensive look at strategic planning and management in a global environment. The course is designed to employ case analyses, critical assessments, global market evaluations, and a comprehensive strategic planning project to lead the student to fluency in the global strategic planning process. Offered online.

BUS 694 Finance Capstone Seminar         3 Credits
This course will cover advanced financial topics including: International financial management, corporate risk management, merger and acquisitions, portfolio management theory and real options. Offered online.

BUS 695 Marketing Capstone Seminar         3 Credits
This course builds on the leadership, business, and management concepts contained in the MBA program while introducing the principles and tools for managers to apply in the development, implementation, and review of marketing strategy for organizations. Topics include internal and external environmental analysis; value, competition, and strategic choice; strategic positioning; and implementation and control issues. In addition, the capstone project requires the generation and presentation of strategic marketing plan. Offered online.

BUS 696 Strategic Thinking for Entrepreneurs         3 Credits
This course focuses on application of key strategic and managerial approaches necessary for entrepreneurs to implement the strategy for a start up or business takeover enterprise. It examines and discusses how entrepreneurial firms develop and implement innovative business plans, create functional operations, and incorporate technology strategies. Emphasis is placed on the vision of the firm, the strategic planning process, and strategic management. The final component is the generation of a business plan as a capstone project. Offered online.

BUS 697 Project Management Strategy         3 Credits
This course focuses on application of managerial approaches necessary to align significant projects with organizational strategy. It examines and discusses how firms determine business benefits and project feasibility, report progress, and measure project quality while communicating with key organizational stakeholders. Emphasis is placed on Earned Value Management techniques and achieving project progress and technical performance of the project. Offered online.

BUS 698 Supply Chain Strategic Management         3 Credits
This covers addresses the strategic implications of sourcing and supplier relationships in the context of supply chain management. Critical elements including identifying and selecting suppliers, negotiating contract terms and conditions, implementing contracts, and measuring performance in the context of the organization’s strategic plans are covered. Practical examples of sourcing excellence are provided. Offered online.

BUS 699 Media Strategies & Applications         3 Credits
This course is the capstone for the Media Management specialization that is designed to integrate media management concepts in to a strategic plan. The course is focused on building and implementing the media strategies for an integrated and comprehensive plan that is consistent with an institution’s vision and mission and follows standard strategic planning theory and practice. Offered online.

CGD Computer Graphic Design

CGD 217 Survey of Graphic Communications         3 Credits
This lecture course is a survey of design principles and practices used in computer animation, Web design, and print media. The course teaches students to understand the proper audience, marketing strategies, design criteria, and choices of graphic software to produce professional graphic art. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency. (Cross-listed as JRN 217.) Offered on-campus.

CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business         3 Credits
This course examines the evolution and trends in digital media utilized in business. Course content and activities focus on message content and creation and the visual principles and theories that shape effective visual communication in the business environment. Legal and ethical issues relating to visual communication will be introduced and incorporated into projects that develop visual literacy and visual problem-solving skills. Offered online and on-campus.

CGD 220 Storytelling & Storyboarding         3 Credits
Students will learn to create both linear and nonlinear stories, moving from “word” to “image” and, consequently, engaging in valuable preproduction concepts. Prerequisites: ART 105 and ART 110 or permission of instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 221 2-D Computer Animation         3 Credits
This is an introductory course into the world of 2-D computer animation using the latest in 2-D computer animation software for the Web. Students gain a broad knowledge of basic primitive animation, squash and stretch, walk cycles, lip synch, composition, color theory, storyboarding, timing, and character design and development. Prerequisite: ART 110 or permission of instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 223 3-D Modeling I         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the basic principles of building three-dimensional objects, to environments, and to characters, with the high-end 3-D animation software, Alias Maya. Students will learn basic concepts such as modeling techniques with NURBS, polygons, and subdivisions; lighting; texturing; rendering; and composition. The class is largely based on tutorials, in-class demonstrations, group critiques, and larger project assignments. Prerequisite: ART 110 or permission of instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 240 Media Writing & Editing         3 Credits
An introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication. Practical experience includes writing for campus media. (Cross-listed as JRN 240.) Offered online and on-campus.

CGD 305 Communication Design         3 Credits
In this course, students are introduced to graphic design with an emphasis on theory and practice in designing visually effective communication media. Emphasis is placed on understanding principles of visual literacy and design to communicate ideas through electronic and print publishing. The course also includes study and practice in visualizing communication problems in the layout and design of publications and introduction to desktop publishing using Adobe Creative Suite. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of Information Technology competency or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 307 Web Publishing         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to creating web sites on the Internet. The class provides an opportunity to work with current Web publishing software. This course will cover navigational organization, selection, web page layouts, and linking photos and sound to those pages. An introduction to HTML will be included. A design class such as CGD 305 or ART 103 is recommended before taking this class. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of Information Technology competency or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 318 Public Relations Practices & Promotional Writing         3 Credits
An introduction to current procedures and duties of public relations personnel will be studied. Students will write news releases, brochures, speeches, reports, memos, scripts, and ad copy using workshop format. (Cross-listed as JRN 318.) Offered online and on-campus.

CGD 323 3-D Modeling II         3 Credits
In this course, students expand their knowledge and skills in 3-D computer modeling. New techniques will be taught and evaluated by use of in-class demonstrations, group critiques, tutorials, and large-scale projects. The focus of the class is on building strong organic character-modeling techniques. Projects will range from creating life like human characters to stylized cartoon characters. Throughout this course students will also build a larger body of work with demo-reel-quality models. Prerequisite: CGD 223. Offered on-campus.

CGD 324 3-D Animation I         3 Credits
This course will familiarize students with the basics principles and theory of primitive animation using Alias Maya. Students will be exposed to a greater level of function using Maya’s animation tools and functions including such things as key framing, blend-shapes, motion paths, deformers, and set-driven key. Much of the class revolves around tutorials, in-class demonstrations, group critiques, and larger project assignments. Prerequisite: ART 110 and CGD 223 or permission of instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 325 3-D Animation II         3 Credits
This course will familiarize students with character animation using Alias Maya. Students will be exposed to a greater level of function using Maya’s animation tools and utilities. Animation will primarily focus on motion based character animation Students will focus on mastering the concepts of weight, timing, and body mechanics in regards to creating realistic character driven animation. Much of the class revolves around tutorials, in class demonstrations, group critiques, and larger project assignments. Prerequisites: CGD 221 and CGD 324. Offered on-campus.

CGD 326 3-D Dynamics         3 Credits
Students will learn the basics of 3-D dynamics in Alias Maya. Rudiments of fundamental principles of dynamics in 3-D space are covered including rigid bodies, soft bodies, particle systems, and MEL. Much of the class revolves around tutorials, in-class demonstrations, group critiques, and larger project assignments. Prerequisite: CGD 223. Offered on-campus.

CGD 327 Advanced 3-D Seminar I         3 Credits
This course will focus on honing students’ individual skills in 3-D computer graphics. Each student will choose a concentration in 3-D computer graphics (e.g., modeling, animation, special effects, etc. and produce a 3-D computer graphic film. Coursework will include script writing, storyboarding, group discussions and critiques, and full production of the student’s own 3-D film to be screened at the end of the semester. Prerequisites: CGD 220, CGD 223, CGD 324, and CGD 325. Offered on-campus.

CGD 330 Digital Still Imaging         3 Credits
An exploration of the impact of digital technology on the process of creating still images. Current hardware and software will be utilized to create and manipulate images and to prepare them for publication or multimedia use. Creative and ethical aspects of this technology will also be examined. Prerequisite: ART 215 or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

CGD 331 Digital Video & Audio         3 Credits
A course in the creation of digital imagery and sound for multimedia productions including capturing digital still camera images, creating digital videos, and recording and shaping sounds. This course uses traditional analog audio/video devices as well as digital synthesis to edit, shape, and manipulate imagery and sound with computer software. Projects include making music videos and short films. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency and ART 110. Offered on-campus.

CGD 332 Multimedia Authoring         3 Credits
Multimedia authoring is the incorporation of animation, video, still imaging, and audio elements into interactive entertainment, informational, promotional, or educational productions for CD-ROM and the Web. Prerequisite: CGD 217. Offered on-campus.

CGD 340 Print Production         3 Credits
This course covers the proper procedures for creating print-ready files in both native and prescript formats. Students will study the technological innovations in the printing procedures. Prerequisites: CGD 303 and CGD 330. (Cross-listed as JRN 340.) Offered on-campus.

CGD 344 Computer Graphics Practicum         1-2 Credits
Prospective Computer Graphic majors function under the tutelage of professionals in graphics communication, public relations, and other related entities. Students complete 52 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

CGD 353 Dynamic Publishing         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the basic concepts of dynamic media, interactive Websites, video games, advertising, and issues involved in generating and delivering content dynamically. Students will evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic media with regard to usability and accessibility for different audiences. Recommended prerequisites: CGD 221 and fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency. Offered on-campus.

CGD 360 Digital Texturing & Lighting         3 Credits
This course introduces the fundamental concepts, terminology and techniques of computer-generated 3D texturing and lighting. Students will create and apply textures to 3D objects, as well as work with concepts and techniques that will be used to create realistic objects and scenes. Students will explore the use of Photoshop and other software tools to create texture sources, and will work to create various real-world lighting effects, textures, texture maps, and lighting schemes for 3D objects. Prerequisites: ART 110 and CGD 223. Offered on-campus.

CGD 392 IS Internship         3 Credits
Internships are designed to open new career paths, foster personal growth, and expose the student to practical computer projects or programs. Participants in the program are responsible for completing real projects typical of those assigned to computer technology graduates in entry-level positions. Every effort is made to place interns in positions that match their primary career interests, although this cannot be guaranteed. A minimum of 150 hours is devoted to the internship. Application must be made through an advisor eight weeks in advance of the regular fall or spring registration. Prerequisites: Senior standing; completion of courses applicable to the internship work; 3.00 cumulative GPA; 3.00 GPA in computer graphics design, management information systems, or computer science/math; and permission of the Internship Committee. Offered on-campus.

CGD 405 Advanced Web Publishing         3 Credits
Employ web-programming software and techniques to develop an on-line presence for a business. Topics will include the use of XHTML forms, web-site behavior and presentation using CCS, PHP and JavaScript scripting languages, rules for database development, and use MySQL to develop that database. Prerequisites: CGD 253, BUS 352, INF 247, and INF 322. Offered on-campus.

CGD 427 Advanced 3-D Seminar II        3 Credits
This is the second of a two-part class where students focus on specific areas of interest in 3-D animation by making a film. Students will continue work on their films already in production. In addition, students will develop a demo reel for submission to future employers. At the end of the course, students will screen their films to the staff and to the student body of Ashford University. Prerequisite: CGD 327. Offered on-campus.

CGD 432 3-D Animation III         3 Credits
This course will familiarize students with character animation using Alias Maya. Students will be exposed to a greater level of function using Maya’s animation tools and utilities. Animation will primarily focus on acting, dialogue driven animated performances. Much of the class revolves around tutorials, in class demonstrations, group critiques, and larger project assignments. Prerequisites: CGD 324 and CGD 325. Offered on-campus.

CGD 497 3D Seminar         3 Credits
This course will focus on honing students’ skills in 3-D computer graphics. Each student will choose a concentration for the course (e.g., modeling, animation, special effects, texturing, etc.), and produce a portfolio quality project based on their chosen focus. The goal of this course is to strengthen the student’s portfolio of work in their desired focus and encourage specialization in their preferred areas of interest. Prerequisites: CGD 223, CGD 324, and CGD 326. Offered on-campus.

CHE Chemistry

CHE 108 Introductory Environmental Chemistry         4 Credits
This course will cover chemical concepts and principles in the context of real-world societal issues such as air pollution, water pollution, acid rain, and global warming. The course includes three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. (Cross-listed as ENV 108.) F or S Offered on-campus.

CHE 151 General Chemistry I         4 Credits
An introduction to modern inorganic chemistry including the study of structure and bonding patterns of the elements, stoichiometry, physical and chemical properties of matter and solutions. Laboratory exercises reinforce principles covered in lecture. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 225 or equivalent) F Offered on-campus.

CHE 152 General Chemistry II         4 Credits
A continuation of General Chemistry 151. Topics include kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 151 or equivalent and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 225 or equivalent) S Offered on-campus.

CHE 203 Demonstrations for Teachers         3 Credits
Provides an opportunity for teachers to perform practical chemistry demonstrations and to review fundamental chemical principles and fundamental safety procedures. These demonstrations are suitable for incorporation into the physical, biological, and earth science curricula. If appropriate, applications to the teacher side of laboratories will be explored. This course includes two lectures weekly. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Science Requirement. (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

CHE 204 Chemical Problems (Mu Sigma Eta)         1 Credit
Undergraduate seminar to study selected chemical problems and to undertake research and literature searches in the area. Admission by invitation only. F or S Offered on-campus.

CHE 222 Science Division Internship         0.5-1 Credit
A student can earn one-half credit hour of credit per semester up to a maximum of 4 credit hours toward a degree through participation in an internship in a divisional activity such as lab assistant or tutor. Grading will be on a Pass/Fail basis. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. F or S Offered on-campus.

CHE 301 Organic Chemistry I         5 Credits
A study of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and the functional derivation of these organic compounds with emphasis on nomenclature, reaction mechanisms, and stereochemistry. Laboratory includes instruction in physical methods of analysis and synthesis of organic compounds. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: Successful completion of CHE 152 or equivalent and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 225 or equivalent) F Offered on-campus.

CHE 302 Organic Chemistry II         5 Credits
A study of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and the functional derivation of these organic compounds with emphasis on nomenclature, reaction mechanisms, and stereochemistry. Laboratory includes instruction in physical methods of analysis and synthesis of organic compounds. Course content is a continuation of CHE 301. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 301 or equivalent, and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 225 or equivalent). S Offered on-campus.

CHE 306 Environmental Chemistry         4 Credits
This course will cover chemical concepts and principles of air, water and soils pollution and the analytical analysis of their impacts. The course includes three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 225 or equivalent) and successful completion of CHE 152 or equivalent (Cross-listed as ENV 306). (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

CHE 313 Nuclear Chemistry         3 Credits
An introductory course in the applications of radionuclide’s in chemistry. Key topics include principles of radioactive decay, interactions of radiation with matter, radiation detectors, radioactive tracers, nuclear methods of analysis, and sources of radioactive materials. Three lectures weekly. Prerequisites: Successful completion of both CHE 152 (or equivalent) and MAT 227 (or equivalent). S Offered on-campus.

CHE 315 Quantitative Chemistry         4 Credits
This course explores the theory and practice of chemical analysis and basic laboratory instrumental analysis, with emphasis given to gravimetric and volumetric techniques. Laboratory experience with basic quantitative techniques, including statistical methods of data analysis, is included. Lecture, discussion, and four hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 152 or equivalent and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 228 recommended). F Offered on-campus.

CHE 318 Introduction to Biochemistry         3 credits
The chemistry, nutrition and metabolism of biological systems. This course is an introduction to the chemistry of biological systems that covers such topics as the structure, organization, function and regulation of enzymes, macro-molecules and other proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and nucleic acids. The course introduces metabolic pathways and bioenergetics, including glycolysis and photosynthesis, fermentation and respiration, and oxidation of fatty acids. Lecture only. Prerequisite: CHE 301. Offered on-campus.

CHE 322 Internship         1-6 Credits
The student must devote 50 hours for each credit hour of normally non-remunerative work in an off-site laboratory environment such as an industrial or medical laboratory to learn the use and applications of specialized laboratory equipment. Prerequisites: Successful completion of CHE 152 or equivalent, Junior standing, approval by a supervising faculty member, and a cumulative grade point average of 3.00. F or S Offered on-campus.

CHE 355 Biochemistry of Metabolism        4 Credits
The chemical and biological foundations of metabolism. This course surveys the major metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, including glycolysis, photosynthesis, beta-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the urea cycle. Within this context, key concepts such as structure-function relationships, enzyme kinetics, regulation, signal transduction, and bioenergetics are explored. Part of a two-semester sequence that includes BIO356. Lecture and lab. Prerequisites: BIO 103 and CHE 301. Offered on-campus.

COM Communications

COM 200 Interpersonal Communication         3 Credits
This course is designed to aid students in understanding the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. Verbal and nonverbal communication patterns between people in personal, social, academic, and professional settings will be examined, and the nature of those interactions will be evaluated using contemporary communication theory. The course will enable students to identify their interpersonal communication behaviors and to more critically evaluate their own oral communication and that of others. A primary goal of the course is to improve the quality of students’ communication in their personal and professional relationships. Offered online.

COM 321 Communication Theory         3 Credits
This course examines theoretical perspectives and research findings concerning human communication. Students will examine classic approaches and new theories and research in interpersonal, group, organizational, and public communication. They will analyze and critique these theories and research findings and assess the impact of technology on communication patterns. Relationship stages, theories, and contemporary views of “family” are examined, as well as the impact of family, culture, and gender on communication patterns. Types of groups and organizations are identified, as well as concepts of power and interaction in group, organizational, and public settings. In this class, students will also have an opportunity to examine the practical implications of these concepts in building their own communication skills. Offered online and on-campus.

COM 323 Persuasion & Argumentation         3 Credits
Students will learn critical thinking methods to enable them to analyze and evaluate arguments and understand which contribute to effective and non-effective persuasion. They will formulate persuasive arguments and learn to deliver those arguments effectively, both in oral and written forms. This course examines the purpose and function of research in supporting elements of argument and persuasion and the need to understand receiver variables. Offered online.

COM 325 Communication & Conflict         3 Credits
The course provides students with conflict resolution techniques through communication. Students will analyze the purpose of conflict, learn to work with difficult people, and understand communication as a significant factor in the development, management, and resolution of conflict at the interpersonal, small group, organization, and societal levels. Offered online.

COM 340 Technical Writing         3 Credits
This course provides students with technical writing concepts and principles and the skills necessary to compose effective technical documents for a broad range of professions. Emphasis is placed on making complex and technical information understandable to a variety of audiences. Students will explore types of technical documents and the specific techniques applicable to technical writing such as outlines, abstracts, definition, and classification strategies. They will have an opportunity to apply their knowledge by writing a process or mechanism description, a proposal/recommendation report, and a detailed instruction for performing a task or operation. Offered online.

COM 345 Media Writing for Communication         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication. Offered online.

COM 352 Environmental Communication         3 Credits
In this course, students will examine the environment through the lens of communication. Communication about the environment shapes how we think about it, value it, and treat it. Sites of academic exploration include public controversies, political debates, educational campaigns, green marketing, environmental journalism, risk communication, public relations about environmental issues, green marketing, the environment in popular culture, and public participation in environmental decision making. Theories about the impact of environmental communication are balanced with historical and contemporary case studies. Prerequisite: SPE 103 or equivalent. Offered on-campus.

COM 357 Political Communication         3 Credits
This course guides students through an academic exploration of the role of communication in politics. Areas of study may include examinations of political rhetoric, public speech, legislation, media, ideologies, lobbying, policy decision-making, campaigns, and social movement. Theories about political communication are balanced with historical cases and contemporary communicative practices. (Equivalent to POL 357.) Prerequisite: SPE 103 or equivalent. Offered on-campus.

COM 360 Advanced Communications in Society         3 Credits
This course integrates the use of advanced communication techniques into a variety of contexts shaped by socially and culturally-constructed distinctions between and among individuals and groups. Topics include intercultural, multicultural, international, and inter-gender communications. Offered online.

COM 425 Communication in Organizations         3 Credits
This course investigates the role of communication in creating an effective and ethical organizational environment. Students will be assisted in developing and strengthening such communication skills as self- awareness, intrapersonal efficacy, interpersonal competence, and leadership and team skills. Offered online and on-campus.

COM 480 Communication Studies Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a summative compilation of representative work from each course in the program. Students will create an electronic portfolio containing the assignments completed throughout the program to demonstrate professional achievement. Students will complete a comprehensive research project on a selected career field. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

CRJ Criminal Justice

CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice         3 Credits
This course involves an analysis of the criminal justice system focusing on the police, courts, and corrections. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice         3 Credits
This course describes prevalent patterns of juvenile delinquency, relates these patterns to theories of child and adolescent development, and examines various theories pertaining to the causes of criminal behavior among juveniles. In addition, the course surveys the roles of police, courts, and delinquency intervention programs in the administration of juvenile justice. Emphasis will be given to strategies of prevention and early intervention. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 303 Corrections         3 Credits
An analysis of correctional procedures and institutions, especially jails, prisons, parole, and probation is the focus of this course. Other topics include inmate subcultures, rehabilitation, and prisonization. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 304 Police Operations         3 Credits
This course examines the risks, responsibilities, issues, and trends related to contemporary law enforcement organizations. It also provides an in-depth look at community policing, policing in selected foreign countries, stress recognition and management, civil liability, public expectations, and police careers. Offered on-campus.

CRJ 305 Crime Prevention         3 Credits
This course explores strategies of crime prevention including programs designed to reduce opportunities to commit crime, programs to alleviate demoralizing community social and economic conditions that foster criminal behavior, programs to improve police/community cooperation, and programs to educate young people as to likely consequences of criminal behavior. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure         3 Credits
A survey of constitutional rights, police compliance to constitutional rights, and constitutional amendments that specifically apply to the individual. The course examines the application of these rights in the enforcement, investigation, and adjudication of specific crimes. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 308 Psychology of Criminal Behavior         3 Credits
Psychology of Criminal Behavior is an integrated course applying the research and methodology of psychology and sociology to the understanding of criminal conduct. Theories of psychology are explored including biological, developmental, cognitive, social learning, and psychoanalytic. The sociological concepts of social process and structure, social control, and social conflict are introduced. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 311 Forensics         3 Credits
Forensic science applies scientific methodology to crime scene investigation and crime solving. This course analyzes techniques of crime scene investigation and the lawful gathering of evidence. Emphasis is placed upon the Federal Rules of Evidence, including the admissibility of physical evidence at trial, as well as the role of forensic science in the criminal justice system and the identification, collection, and preservation of physical evidence (chain of custody issues). Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 320 Families & Domestic Violence         3 Credits
This course looks at the growing issues of domestic violence, child abuse, child neglect, and dependent adult abuse. This course will look at the theories as to why these issues are occurring, how social service agencies and the criminal justice system are working together to deal with these issues, and how the media is used to discourage these issues. The intent of this course is to show students the problem, the causes, and some solutions to the issue of family and domestic violence. Offered on-campus.

CRJ 420 Criminal Justice Practicum         3 Credits
Students apply the skills and knowledge learned from the criminal justice curriculum in a work environment. Performance of 150 hours of normally non-remunerative work in a criminal justice setting under faculty supervision is required. Approval of the supervising faculty member and a cumulative grade point average of 2.75 are required. Prerequisite: Senior standing. Offered on-campus.

CRJ 422 Criminal Justice Capstone         3 Credits
Students will review all learning objectives achieved throughout previous coursework and develop a comprehensive, focused study of a modern criminal justice issue while applying solutions and predictions for future trends in criminal and social justice. Successful students will focus on the pragmatic application of principles and theories that guide criminal justice practice in the United States. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 433 Principle & Theory of Security Issues         3 Credits
This course outlines the principles and topics relevant to business and organizational security management. Students gain understanding of established management functions, including the role of the Chief Security Officer. Various facets of physical, personnel, and information security are studied, as well as aspects of loss prevention and the protection of assets. Offered online.

CRJ 435 Evaluation of Security Programs         3 Credits
This course examines industry standards and practices and methods of determining the adequacy of security management programs. It also explores the concepts of legal liability, management structures and techniques, and their impact on security operations. Offered online.

CRJ 437 Contemporary Issues in Security Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on the current topics in security management such as substance abuse, violence, adjudication and reconsideration reviews, security countermeasures, case management, use of examinations such as polygraphs, report writing, international commercial sales, and media relations. The role of the security manager in personnel management, security planning, organizational communication, recruitment, retention, training and development, and management of contracts are also examined. Offered online.

CRJ 439 Security Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the real world applications for security managers. Staff selection and employee screening are discussed, as well as daily operating procedures, guard operations, securing information systems, and investigations are discussed. Students will be introduced to current topics in workplace violence, managing change, security awareness training, and physical security. Offered online.

CRJ 441 Homeland Defense         3 Credits
This course will examine the boundaries of the national security mission by evaluating the threats, actors, and organizational structures and resources affecting the security of the United States. Offered online.

CRJ 443 Intelligence & Homeland Security         3 Credits
This course examines the relationship between intelligence and homeland security strategy during the 20th century with emphasis placed on the Cold War. Using a case study approach, students will analyze past and present national security issues from an intelligence perspective. Offered online.

CRJ 445 Consequence Management:Terrorism Preparation & Response         3 Credits
This course addresses the potential results of nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare and incidents. Topics include public health consequences, emergency planning and response measures, detection and management technologies, and vulnerabilities. Course objectives include examination of the historical uses of chemical and biological weapons and the impacts of chemical and biological weapons. Offered online.

CRJ 447 Homeland Security Organization         3 Credits
Students will examine federal, state, local, private, and other organizational structures involved in homeland security. The course focuses on development of homeland security from early to modern times with an emphasis on the emerging homeland security structure and culture. Offered online.

CRJ 451 Homicide Investigation & Evidence Gathering        3 Credits
This course provides students with the skills and knowledge necessary for the resolution of homicide investigations. A historical overview is provided and current topics are explored. Topics include criminal behavior, the role of the crime laboratory, DNA testing, and medical/legal causes of death. Students will also be introduced to policies and procedures for evaluating and gathering evidence, with attention to blood stain and physical evidence and the impact of physical force on bodies and objects. Offered online.

CRJ 453 Criminal Profiling         3 Credits
This course defines the motivators and environmental influences leading to criminal behavior, as well as the patterns of offending. Students are introduced to profiling approaches and techniques and their relationship to crime solving. Offered online.

CRJ 455 Criminal Law         3 Credits
This course provides an in-depth analysis of criminal law. The principles of criminal liability are emphasized as well as the actions, mental state, and circumstances that are common to individuals committing crimes against society, persons, or to property. Offered online.

CRJ 457 Forensic Evidence & the Law         3 Credits
Students are exposed to the historical and contemporary contexts in which arguments are made about the quality of forensic evidence and the legal burden of proof in criminal litigation. Methods and strategies for the gathering, analyzing, and application of forensic evidence are discussed. This course examines the principles and practices of crime scene investigation as well as the procedures for the collection, preservation, documentation, and analysis of physical evidence. Offered online.

CRJ 461 Corrections Administration & Management         3 Credits
This course evaluates and develops the competencies necessary in corrections management and administration at all levels. Topics include strategic planning, risk assessment, effective leadership strategies, and current issues in corrections management. Students gain an understanding of the structure of the correctional facility as an organization. Ethical, legal, and social implications of corrections administration are discussed in detail. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 463 Contemporary Corrections Issues         3 Credits
This course focuses on a broad range of contemporary concerns and topics in criminal justice such as racism in sentencing, racial profiling, police use of deadly force, national drug control policy, community policing, court authorized electronic intercepts, and prosecutorial discretion. Students will research current criminal justice issues and make analytical observations using concepts and methodologies learned in the class. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 465 Corrections & Incarceration         3 Credits
This course examines approaches of correctional facilities and provides an overview of historic and contemporary philosophies and practices in the American Penal System. Treatment programs, prisoners’ rights, intermediate sanctions, and intuitional management are among the topics discussed, as well as correctional issues pertaining to race/ethnicity and women. Offered online and on-campus.

CRJ 467 Probation & Parole         3 Credits
The purpose and procedures pertaining to probation and parole are analyzed in this course. Topics include pre-sentence investigation, supervision of probationers, parole administration and services, treatment theory, juvenile services, and parole officers. Students are introduced to such new concepts as community-based corrections, the justice model, and determinate sentencing and their impact on traditional policy and practice. Offered online and on-campus.

DRA Drama

DRA 100 Theater Production         1 Credit
This course is designed for students who participate in fall or spring theatrical productions. Students can earn one credit hour per semester, up to a maximum of 4 credit hours toward a degree. Pass/Fail. Offered on-campus.

DRA 201 Acting & Directing         3 Credits
This course will examine basic techniques and methods for acting in and directing a play, and how to engage in the creative process concerning bringing a theatrical piece to life, whether it be a monologue, a scene or a full production. Participating students are encouraged to be involved in the campus theater production occurring during the semester. Offered on-campus.

DRA 202 Introduction to Theatrical Design         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the technical aspects of theater, including lighting design, costume design, set design, stage management and other areas necessary in mounting a successful theater production. Participating students are encouraged to be involved in the campus theater production occurring during the semester. Offered on-campus.

ECE Early Childhood Education

ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the field of early childhood education including history, philosophy, advocacy, public policy, issues, trends, and careers. This course includes 10 hours of observation in an early childhood environment for on-campus endorsement. Offered online and on-campus.

ECE 201 Introduction to Early Childhood Behavior Management         3 Credits
This course will address age appropriate behavior expectations for classrooms and ideas for supporting student learning. Motivation theory, positive reinforcement and behavior support plans will be covered. Major theories of behavior will be considered as they relate to educational settings. Offered online.

ECE 203 Introduction to Curriculum & Instruction for the Early Childhood Classroom         3 Credits
Designing and implementing effective instruction for young children is not a simple task. Students will learn the theory behind various instructional strategies to support student engagement and learning. Curriculum design and planning as well as assessment of student learning will be supported through this course. Offered online and on-campus.

ECE 205 Introduction to Child Development         3 Credits
Introduction to Child Development provides an overview of child development from birth to age eight. This course is designed to provide students with the opportunity to explore the various theories of child development. In addition, developmental milestones and developmental domains will be explored at each of the stages of child development. Factors that influence child development will be examined and ways to support development will be discussed. Students will examine strategies and environments that promote development. Offered online and on-campus.

ECE 212/312 Administration of Early Childhood Education Programs         3 Credits
This course focuses on the development and implementation of early childhood programs for a variety of age groups and purposes. Specifically, curriculum development, materials, teaching strategies, evaluation, budgets, hiring procedures and state guidelines/regulations are addressed as are the skills and competencies to implement the above. Must be taken concurrently with one of the ECE practica for the on-campus endorsement. ECE 212 offered on-campus. ECE 312 offered online.

ECE 213/313 Collaboration with Parents & Community         3 Credits
Factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with parents of babies and preschool-aged children, families and community resources are considered in this course. ECE 213 offered on-campus.ECE 313 offered online.

ECE 214 Nutrition & Health of Children & Families         3 Credits
This course provides a study of the health and nutrition needs of children and families. Offered online.

ECE 222/335 Children’s Literature         3 Credits
Students learn how to select and use children’s books and other media relating to physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development of babies and preschool-aged children. ECE 222 offered on-campus. ECE 335 offered online.

ECE 311 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods         3 Credits
This course focuses on curriculum development in early childhood and teaching strategies with a developmentally appropriate approach. Students will prepare curriculum and practice teaching strategies which illustrate the characteristics of play and creativity. The guidance of young children to include behavior management and creating positive learning environments will also be emphasized. Must be taken concurrently with one of the ECE practica for the on-campus endorsement. Offered online and on-campus.

ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the developmental stages of language acquisition in young children from birth to the age of 6. The focus of the course is on the facilitation of language acquisition in young children. Must be taken concurrently with one of the ECE practica for the on-campus endorsement. Offered online and on-campus.

ECE 316 Practicum—Infant/Toddler         1 Credit
A 30 clock hour practicum with infants and toddlers. Offered on-campus.

ECE 317 Practicum—Pre-K         1 Credit
A 30 clock hour practicum with children from 3-6 years of age in a preschool. Offered on-campus.

ECE 318 Practicum—K         1 Credit
A 30 clock hour practicum in a kindergarten classroom. Offered on-campus.

ECE 332 Child Development         3 Credits
This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through early childhood. Students learn about motor, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, aesthetic, and language development in early childhood. Offered online.

ECE 341 Social & Emotional Growth of Infants & Toddlers         3 Credits
Social-emotional development including the management of emotions and the ability to establish positive relationships with others will be covered in this course. Students will learn the important elements in a childcare setting that support healthy social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment in infants and toddlers. Offered online.

ECE 343 Quality Care Environments for Infants & Toddlers         3 Credits
Students will learn both theory and application of why and how to set up, arrange and change early childhood learning environments to effectively meet the developmental needs of very young children. The role of the teacher, the importance of the environment, design principles, health and safety will be covered in this course. Offered online.

ECE 345 Infant & Toddler Learning & Development         3 Credits
Emphasis will be placed on effective activities and practices to promote language development, cognitive development and motor skill development in young children. Sensory, music and movement development will also be covered in this course. Appropriate behavior teaching and coaching for infants, toddlers and two year olds will be discussed. Offered online.

ECE 347 Culture, Family & Childcare         3 Credits
This course will increase the students expertise and understanding of all the components that must work together to create an effective childcare setting in which all children can thrive. Elements to be covered in the planning of a childcare environment include discipline and behavior management as well as consideration of the child’s developmental level, the family and cultural context. Offered online.

ECE 351 Play & Learning for the Young Child         3 Credits
This course will explore the critical role that play has in the development of young children. Students will study the major theorists and their ideas on the role of play in learning. Various forms of play will be reviewed and the benefits of each type of play activity discussed. Ideas for implementing play and centers into an early childhood setting will be shared. Offered online.

ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children         3 Credits
Gain knowledge of cognitive and brain development in children from birth to eight years of age. The variations in rates of cognitive development and the impact on development in other areas will be explored throughout the course. Students will apply this knowledge to designing programs to meet the needs of children with varying needs and abilities. Offered online.

ECE 354 Assessment & Intervention During Early Childhood         3 Credits
This course explores the issues around early assessment and intervention with young children. Specific developmental concerns will be identified and intervention programs will be examined. Offered online.

ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics         3 Credits
This course explores developmental theory and the relationship to the socialization and education of young children in child rearing, caring, and education. Special emphasis will be placed upon exploring how the child is viewed in the context of his or her family and the community at large. Offered online.

ECE 405 Children & Families in a Diverse Society         3 Credits
This course will provide a clear and practical introduction to multicultural and anti-bias issues, and aid students in developing culturally relevant methods in working with children and families in early childhood settings. Offered online.

ECE 419 Student Teaching in Pre-K         4 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner. They will spend 4 to 8 weeks in a Pre-K classroom to meet licensure guidelines. Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

ECE 420 Student Teaching in K         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner. They will spend 8 weeks in a Kindergarten classroom. Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

ECE 430 Early Childhood Education Capstone         3 Credits
This is the capstone course for the Early Childhood Education and the Early Childhood Education Administration Major, to be taken at the completion of the major courses. This course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply their learning from the course of study for Early Childhood Education in a comprehensive manner. Students will reflect on the courses taken and develop an understanding on the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards, developmentally appropriate practices based upon child development research, center-based curriculum and professionalism. This course will culminate with a comprehensive final project that integrates the student learning throughout the program as well as a final exam that covers the program learning outcomes. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

ECE 497 Child Development Capstone         3 Credits
The capstone course is designed to be taken at the completion of all courses in this area of study. This capstone course will bring together information regarding advocacy and legislation for children and families and ways that this shapes children’s experiences and opportunities. Students will have the opportunity to integrate and apply their learning from the course of study in the Child Development major in a comprehensive manner. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

ECE 601 Introduction to Early Childhood Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the field of early childhood education including history, philosophy, advocacy, public policy, issues, trends, and careers. Offered online.

ECE 605 Children & Families in a Diverse Society         3 Credits
This course will provide a clear and practical introduction to multicultural and anti-bias issues and will aid students in developing culturally relevant methods in working with children and families in early childhood settings. Offered online.

ECE 611 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods         3 Credits
This course focuses on curriculum development in early childhood and teaching strategies with a developmentally appropriate approach. Students will prepare curriculum and practice teaching strategies which illustrate the characteristics of play and creativity. The guidance of young children to include behavior management and creating positive learning environments will also be emphasized. Offered online.

ECE 612 Administration of Early Childhood Education         3 Credits
This course focuses on the development and implementation of early childhood programs for a variety of age groups and purposes. Specifically, curriculum development, materials, teaching strategies, evaluation, budgets, hiring procedures and state guidelines/regulations are addressed as are the skills and competencies to implement the above. Offered online.

ECE 623 Collaboration with Parents & Community         3 Credits
Factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with parents of babies and preschool-aged children, families and community resources are considered in this course. Offered online.

ECE 625 Family & Community Engagement         3 Credits
This course focuses on factors that promote effective engagement with families of infants, toddlers and preschool-aged children, and the impact of this relationship on young children’s development, learning and behavior. Integration of concepts with best practice in early care and education, as well as family context and community resources are considered in this course. Offered online.

ECE 630 Language, Physical & Social Development in Young Children         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the developmental stages of language acquisition, physical and social development in young children from birth to 6. The focus of the course is on the specific developmental milestones in young children. Offered online.

ECE 653 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children         3 Credits
This course deals with theories regarding cognitive development in children from birth to eight years of age including knowledge resulting from brain research. The relationship between the rate of cognitive development and overall development will be explored throughout the course. Students will apply this knowledge to design programs to meet the needs of children with varying needs and abilities. Offered online.

ECE 654 Assessment & Intervention in Early Childhood         3 Credits
This course explores the issues around early assessment and intervention with young children. Specific developmental concerns will be identified and intervention programs will be examined. Offered online.

ECO Economics

ECO 100 Survey of Contemporary Economic Issues         3 Credits
Contemporary economic issues are discussed and relevant economic theory is introduced throughout this course of study. The economic theories of supply and demand, competitive markets, and price elasticity are explored. Offered online.

ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics         3 Credits
Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed. Recommended prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Critical Thinking competency and Information Technology competency. Offered online and on-campus.

ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics         3 Credits
Introduction to the theory of consumer equilibrium, market structure, and wage determination. Recommended prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Critical Thinking competency, Mathematical competency, and Information Technology competency. (Equivalent to ECO 308). Offered online and on-campus.

ECO 308 Economics for Managers         3 Credits
This course will provide a survey of the field of economics as it relates to effective management. The course is designed to provide a basic understanding of the principles, concepts, and operational aspects of our economic system. (Equivalent to ECO 204). Offered online.

ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets         3 Credits
A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the U.S. economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments. Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203. (Cross-listed as BUS 316.) F Offered online and on-campus.

ECO 317 Money & Banking         3 Credits
The nature and function of the commercial banking system, the Federal Reserve System, and the role of money and monetary policy in the national economy. Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203. (Alternate years) F Offered on-campus.

ECO 320 International Economics         3 Credits
This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade. Offered online and on-campus (on-campus in alternate years).

ECO 342 Principles of Econometrics         3 Credits
This course introduces students to multiple regression methods for analyzing data in economics and related disciplines. The mathematics of econometrics will be introduced only as needed and will not be a central focus. Prerequisites: BUS 308 or MAT 332, and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. Offered online.

ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth         3 Credits
Topics include analysis of economic fluctuations and their impact on corporations and consumers; different explanations for business cycles; monetary and fiscal policy for stabilizing economic fluctuations; effects of public debt, investment, employment and trade policy on economic growth. Prerequisite: ECO 203. Offered online and on-campus.

EDU Education

EDU Prefix - Core courses required for Elementary and/or Secondary Education. ESE 325 and ESE 315 are also core courses.

EDU 108 Introduction to Policy & Education         3 Credits
This course examines the theory, analysis, development and implementation of educational policy. It will explore the reasons for change in educational policy, ways to track its’ evolution, and manners in which educational policy may be influenced. The history of educational policy will also be explored. Offered online.

EDU 120 Principles of Instructional Design         3 Credits
This introductory course will cover learning theories including behaviorist, cognitive, constructivist and social learning as well as examine their relationship to instructional practices and course design. Basic principles and vocabulary for e-learning will be introduced. Additional topics covered will include factors that influence learning including motivation, learner engagement and learning styles. Students will begin to identify learning outcomes that can be addressed in an e-learning setting. Offered online.

EDU 200 Introduction to Education & Field Experience         1 Credit
During the one-hour seminar held each week, students are introduced to basic concepts of curriculum, teaching methodology, and cooperative learning. Within the weekly field experience component (25 hours per semester), students participate in classrooms of local schools under the direction of experienced teachers. Placements for field experience are made in preschools, elementary classrooms, or secondary classrooms, depending on the University student’s area of focus. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment or prior successful completion of PSY 104 (with a grade of "C-" or above), a minimum overall grade point average of 2.00, or permission of the course instructor(s) and advisor. S Offered on-campus.

EDU 203 Child & Adolescent Literature         3 Credits
Students learn to select and use children’s books and other media relating to the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development of preschool, elementary, and middle school students. The course highlights popular authors. Prerequisites: PSY 104 and sophomore standing. Offered on-campus.

EDU 215 Educational Psychology         3 Credits
Students explore major psychological and sociological factors in the teaching-learning situation: principles of learning, testing and measurement, learning techniques, methods and media of instruction, classroom management, classroom/educator influences upon achievement, and criteria for evaluation. Prerequisite: PSY 104 or permission of the instructor. S. Offered on-campus.

EDU 230 Performing & Visual Arts for Elementary Teachers         3 Credits
This course examines elements of storytelling, role play, drama, dance, instrumental music, and creative arts as tools of communication and involvement for elementary students. Offered on-campus.

EDU 232 Instructional Design for E-Learning         3 Credits
Students will be introduced to a variety of instructional design strategies and address the selection of specific strategies to address learning needs in an educational or training environment. The role of needs assessment to inform design and formative evaluation to monitor instructional effectiveness will be addressed in this course. Prerequisite: EDU 120. Offered online.

EDU 235 Health and Physical Education for Elementary Teachers         2 Credits
This course examines ways to enhance the physical, mental, and social health for elementary students such as personal safety, drug education, nutrition, social interaction, communication techniques, fitness games, sports, and gymnastics leading to a healthy and active lifestyle. Offered on-campus.

EDU 250 Foundations of American Education         2 Credits
The philosophical, historical, and social foundations of American education are studied, and basic concepts of curriculum are introduced. Students explore the ethical aspects of schooling, legislation, and public policy that affect all children and families with and without disabilities and the legal aspects of education in the 21st century. Current trends and issues of the profession that may help reform and improve practice in schools are identified. Prerequisite: EDU 200, ENG 122, or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

EDU 270 Principles of Education & Field Experience II         2 Credits
During the seminar sessions held twice each week, students study curriculum, lesson planning, classroom guidance and discipline, active nonviolence, etc. Within the weekly field experience component (25 hours per semester), students participate in classrooms of local schools under the direction of experienced teachers. Placements for field experiences are made in preschools, elementary classrooms, or secondary classrooms, depending on the University student’s area of focus. This course must be taken at the University. Prerequisites: Successful completion of PSY 104 and EDU 200 (with a grade of “C-” or above) and completion or concurrent enrollment in EDU 250. Students must meet eligibility requirements to apply for admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program (an overall grade point average of 2.50 and a minimum grade point average of 2.70 in core education and endorsement courses) or permission of the course instructor(s) and advisor(s). Offered on-campus.

EDU 300 Internship in Education         1-8 Credits
Students take part in regularly scheduled weekly activities in area schools under the direction of a cooperating teacher. An Education professor who coordinates the school experience conducts University classroom activities. University students meet weekly with the University professor to plan activities and to document participation in the school. Variable credit, typically 28 hours of in-school contact for each college credit. Can be repeated with a change in school placement. Prerequisites: Prior consent of Academic Advisor and Dean of the College of Education before registration in the course. (Arranged Only) Offered on-campus.

EDU 301 Language Arts in the Elementary Schools         3 Credits
The curriculum and materials of teaching language arts (reading, spelling, listening, writing, speaking, viewing, and handwriting) are taught in conjunction with pedagogical methods for instruction of elementary students. Prerequisites: Admission into the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment in EDU 303 and EDU 305. F Offered on-campus.

EDU 303 Introduction to Reading Curriculum & Methods         3 Credits
Students analyze reading curriculum, materials, and methods to become aware of modern instructional procedures for grades K-6. Prerequisites: Admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment in EDU 301 and EDU 305. F Offered on-campus.

EDU 304 Introduction to Education         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with a broad view of the various components involved in education and schools today. An introduction to current legislation and trends in education as well as curriculum standards will be covered. The complex diversity of students today, as well as assessment and accountability issues, will also be addressed. Offered online.

EDU 305 Clinical Experience:Language Arts/Reading Methods         1 Credit
Prospective teachers work directly with students in classrooms of local schools. Under the direction of experienced teachers, 30 hours are spent in the areas of reading and language arts. Students will present approximately six lessons as instructed by the classroom teacher. Prerequisites: Admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment in EDU 301 and EDU 303. F Offered on-campus.

EDU 310 Integrating Technology in the Classroom         2 Credits
Focus on student demonstration of competency in using technology to enhance instruction at the elementary and secondary levels. Course assignments and projects require the use of productivity tools, presentation tools, digital cameras, Internet Websites, and SMART Board technologies. Among other topics are evaluation of Websites, CD-ROMs, and copyright legalities in education. Prerequisite: EDU 270 or concurrent enrollment in EDU 270. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 311 Social Studies Curriculum & Methods         2 Credits
Students explore the development of basic concepts and curricula of social studies in the elementary schools and examine inquiry and problem solving as well as the thematic method of teaching social studies. A geography competency test must be satisfactorily completed by the student. Prerequisites: Admission into the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment in EDU 313, EDU 315, and EDU 317. S Offered on-campus.

EDU 313 Elementary Curriculum & Methods of Science         2 Credits
Students actively engage in the selection, organization, and use of curricular resources and audiovisual materials, lesson and unit planning, and the discovery method. Prerequisites: Admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment in EDU 311, EDU 315, and EDU 317. S Offered on-campus.

EDU 315 Curriculum & Methods of Teaching Mathematics in the Elementary Schools         2 Credits
The course examines the goals, content, materials, and teaching strategies for planning and implementing a mathematics program for K-6. Prerequisites: MAT 223 or equivalent, admission into the Practitioner Preparation Program, and concurrent enrollment in EDU 311, EDU 313, and EDU 317. S Offered on-campus.

EDU 317 Clinical Experience: Social Studies/Science/Math Methods         1 Credit
Prospective teachers work directly with students in classrooms of local schools. Under the direction of experienced teachers, 30 hours are spent in instructional activities in the areas of social studies, science, and math. Students will present approximately six lessons as instructed by the classroom teacher. Students pursuing the Middle School Endorsement will be placed in a middle school setting and will complete an additional 30 hours of field experience. Prerequisites: Admission to the Practitioner Program and concurrent enrollment in EDU 311, EDU 313, and EDU 315. S Offered on-campus.

EDU 321 Introduction to Serving English Language Learners         3 Credits
This course provides a sufficiently broad yet detailed exposure to the realities of teaching English Language Learners. The course is designed to prepare students to deliver content area instruction to English Language Learners with diverse abilities using the sheltered instruction approach. Offered online.

EDU 323 Introduction of Secondary Reading Curriculum and Methods        3 Credits
This course explores research-based literacy strategies and curriculum for modern instructional procedures in secondary content areas. Students will evaluate and select materials for learners at various stages of reading and writing development as well as from varied cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Students will develop instructional plans, use assessment strategies, and appropriate technology to support literacy across curriculum content. The foundations of literacy will be emphasized in the instructional planning process. Prerequisite: Admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment with EDU 351. Offered on-campus.

EDU 324 History of American Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of sentinel events, theories, and important historical figures that have shaped the United States education system. (Cross-listed as HIS 324.) Offered online.

EDU 325 Specific Methods in Elementary Physical Education         3 Credits
The course gives student the opportunity to develop their skill and knowledge in traditional and contemporary elementary school physical education skills including: ball handling skills, locomotion skills, tumbling, juggling, rope activities, dance, parachute, rhythmic games, floor hockey, scooters, soccer, basketball, softball, track and field and fitness testing. This course provides an introduction to developing and practicing current pedagogy in elementary physical education. Offered on-campus.

EDU 326 Practicum in Elementary Physical Education         1 Credit
Prospective physical education teachers study directly in classrooms of local schools under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies. Co-requisite: EDU 325. Offered on-campus.

EDU 327 Specific Methods in Secondary Physical Education         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to developing and practicing current pedagogy in secondary physical education. Students will design curriculum and teach lesson plans and activities. Offered on-campus.

EDU 328 Practicum in Secondary Physical Education         1 Credit
Prospective physical education teachers study directly in classrooms of local schools under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies. Co-requisite: EDU 327. Offered on-campus.

EDU 330 General Methods of Secondary Education         3 Credits
Prospective secondary school teachers study current general methods of teaching at the secondary level. The course must be taken at the University. Prerequisite: Admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program. F Offered on-campus.

EDU 331 Practicum in Secondary General Methods         1 Credit
Prospective secondary school teachers work directly in classrooms of local schools (grades 7-12). Under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours (minimum 30 hours) are spent in observation of and participation in general methods areas. Students pursuing the Middle School Endorsement will be placed in a middle school setting and will complete and additional 30 hours of field experience. This course must be taken at the University concurrent with EDU 330. Prerequisite: Admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program. F Offered on-campus.

EDU 334 Adult Learning in the Workplace         3 Credits
Students will be introduced to the various learning needs of adults from a generational perspective. Strategies and ideas for the development of training and instruction to address the needs of learners for present generations as well as learners from diverse backgrounds and cultures will be reviewed. The role of needs assessment to inform design and formative evaluation to measure instructional effectiveness will be addressed in this course. Offered online.

EDU 335 Design Concepts & Application for Online Learning         3 Credits
The application of instructional design for online learning will be emphasized as students apply their knowledge to analyze, select and design instructional strategies that are most effective for engaging and teaching online learners. Students will learn methods for managing and delivering online instruction utilizing course management tools and multimedia technologies in both synchronous and asynchronous environments. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 336 Evaluation of E-Learning         3 Credits
Students will examine the components of on-line instruction and classroom design for high quality standards. Learners will evaluate and assess instructional design and its impact on student learning through a review of various sites and programs. Tools for evaluation of instructional material will be reviewed. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 337 Collaboration in the Virtual Classroom         3 Credits
The use of e-learning to promote collaboration and team work in a virtual environment will be explored in this course. Opportunities for collaboration utilizing social networking and other tools will be evaluated. Students will utilize a variety of tools to experience real time learning in the virtual classroom. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 338 Human Development & Learning         3 credits
Brain development as related to human development and the capacity for learning will be explored throughout this course. The neuroscience of brain development and how this information translates into education, as well as the implications of this information for maximizing learning, memory, behavior and overall functioning, are topics that will be addressed. Offered online.

EDU 340 Business Education Methods         3 Credits
Prospective secondary school teachers study current methods of teaching Business Education at the secondary level. The course must be taken at the University. Prerequisite: EDU 330 and EDU 331. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 341. Offered on-campus.

EDU 341 Practicum In Business Education         1 Credit
Prospective secondary school teachers study work directly in classrooms of local schools (grades 7 - 12). Under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours (minimum 30 hours) are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies specific to Business Education. The course must be taken at the University. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 340. Offered on-campus.

EDU 342 Secondary Education - English Methods         3 Credits
Prospective secondary school teachers study current methods of teaching English at the secondary level. The course must be taken at the University. Prerequisite: EDU 330 and EDU 331. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 343. Offered on-campus.

EDU 343 Practicum in Secondary English         1 Credit
Prospective secondary school teachers study work directly in classrooms of local schools (grades 7 - 12). Under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours (minimum 30 hours) are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies specific to English/Language Arts. The course must be taken at the University. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 342. Offered on-campus.

EDU 344 Secondary Education–Mathematics Methods         3 Credits
Prospective secondary school teachers study current methods of teaching Math at the secondary level. The course must be taken at the University. Prerequisite: EDU 330 and EDU 331. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 345. Offered on-campus.

EDU 345 Practicum in Secondary Mathematics         1 Credit
Prospective secondary school teachers study work directly in classrooms of local schools (grades 7 - 12). Under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours (minimum 30 hours) are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies specific to math. The course must be taken at the University. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 344. Offered on-campus.

EDU 346 Secondary Education–Science Methods         3 Credits
Prospective secondary school teachers study current methods of teaching Science Education at the secondary level. The course must be taken at the University. Prerequisite: EDU 330 and EDU 331. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 347. Offered on-campus.

EDU 347 Practicum in Secondary Science         1 Credit
Prospective secondary school teachers study work directly in classrooms of local schools (grades 7 - 12). Under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours (minimum 30 hours) are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies specific to Science. The course must be taken at the University. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 346. Offered on-campus.

EDU 348 Secondary Education - Social Science Methods         3 Credits
Prospective secondary school teachers study current methods of teaching Social Science Education at the secondary level. The course must be taken at the University. Prerequisites: EDU 330 and EDU 331. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 349. Offered on-campus.

EDU 349 Practicum in Secondary Social Science         1 Credit
Prospective secondary school teachers study work directly in classrooms of local schools (grades 7 - 12). Under the direction of experienced teachers, practicum hours (minimum 30 hours) are spent involved with instructional activities, including but not limited to presentation of lessons and other instructional strategies specific to Social Science. The course must be taken at the University. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 348. Offered on-campus.

EDU 351 Practicum in Secondary Reading         3 Credits
Students will use content reading techniques and strategies in the secondary setting. Students will select and implement research based literacy strategies and assessment for a content area under the guidance of qualified College of Education faculty and licensed cooperating teachers. Students will complete 30 hours in a secondary school setting. Prerequisite: Admission into the Practitioner Preparation Program and concurrent enrollment with EDU 323. Offered on-campus.

EDU 352 Foundations of Educational Technology         3 Credits
Strategies and ideas for the use of technology to enhance learning will be explored in this course. The latest in Web applications will be explored and evaluated for their instructional application. Offered online.

EDU 356 Emerging Issues in Educational Technology         3 Credits
Strategies and ideas of including the latest in technology advancements to promote student engagement and learner success will be examined in this course. Mobil learning, the use of social media such as blogs, Facebook, etc. as well as other Web 2.0 applications will be explored and evaluated for instructional application. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 358 Assessment of Student Learning         3 Credits
Students will learn to identify the differences in formative and summative evaluation data and design on-line learning scenarios to address both of these. The effectiveness of e-learning will be explored through research. The philosophy, use and development of grading rubrics for assignments will be explored. Issues of plagiarism and cheating in e-learning will also be examined. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 360 Philosophy of Education         3 Credits
This course provides a sufficiently broad yet detailed exposure to the realities of teaching. The text introduces the vantage points of teaching in four main categories. Part I, the world of teachers and students. Part II, examines the structure, climate and culture of schools today. Part III, reviews the historical, philosophical, legal and financial foundations that shape our educational system. Part IV, provides opportunities to debate, explore and discuss educational issues and trends facing educators in the 21st century. The primary goals of this course are to support students by providing a comprehensive understanding of the world of teaching, by developing critical skills related to the teaching profession, and by developing a teaching philosophy. Offered online.

EDU 362 Adult Learning & Instruction         3 Credits
Students will learn about the various theories and practices associated with adult learning. Various modalities of instruction will be addressed including e-learning, accelerated courses, and training sessions. Offered online.

EDU 363 Education & Social Justice         3 Credits
The influences of educational policy and its’ convergence with social justice will be studied in this course. Issues of race, gender, sexuality, globalism, and other multicultural issues within the study of politics and policy will be explored throughout this course. Offered online.

EDU 365 Politics of American Education         3 Credits
The political dimensions of policy formation/implementation in education and the use of power to influence educational policy will be explored. Conflict resolution and the analysis of consequences and impact will be examined. Offered online.

EDU 367 Elementary & Secondary School Media         3 credits
This class will explore the role of the teacher librarian and role of the library media center at three different levels of education (elementary, middle, and high school). Students will research programs, library practices, teaching styles and management in the facilitation of a library media center. Offered online.

EDU 370 Human Relations Skills For Educators         1 Credit
This course explores cultural diversity and awareness; sensitivity to potential experiences with dehumanizing bias, racism, and sexism; the affective knowledge of self and others; interpersonal communication skills; and materials for positive classroom human relations. Students learn to adhere to professional and ethical codes and to participate as effective team members with other professionals to develop, maintain, and promote quality learning environments for children. This course may have an international travel option. Prerequisite: Admission into the Practitioner Preparation Program. F and/or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 371 Phonics-Based Reading & Decoding         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of research, curricular content, and instructional practices associated with Research Based Systematic Phonics Instruction (RBSPI) and other methods for teaching reading. Emphasis and focus are on methods mandated by Arizona legislation. This course covers the history of written language, alphabetic reading and writing systems, and implementation of effective methods for reading instruction. Note: Students enrolled in EDU 371 will be required to find a student to teach or instruct for this course. The student can be a child or adult, age 5 or above. The time commitment will be approximately 3 hours per week for three weeks beginning the second week of this course. There are no exceptions to this requirement. Offered online.

EDU 372 Educational Psychology         3 Credits
Educational Psychology explores the theories of how people learn. Selected learning theories are analyzed from the perspective of teaching and learning. Developmental theory and environmental and social factors are explored as they interface with the learning process. Educational psychology’s research is applied to the measurement, assessment, and evaluation of learning and the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching-learning interactions. (Cross-listed as PSY 372.) Offered online.

EDU 381 Curriculum & Instructional Design         3 Credits
Students will examine the pedagogy involved in designing, selecting and assessing curriculum to meet the needs of diverse learners. The basics such as how to write learning outcomes based on academic standards to selecting the research based materials and activities to support student learning, will be covered. Evaluation of student learning will be included in the course. Offered online.

EDU 382 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners         3 Credits
Students will explore the variety of learning differences found in the classroom today including linguistically diverse students, students with mild to moderate disabilities as well as Gifted and Talented learners. Specific strategies and classroom accommodations that may be used at all levels to meet the needs of all students will be addressed. Working as a member of a collaborative team will also be covered. Offered online.

EDU 411 Reading & Cognition         3 Credits
The task of learning to read is a very complex process involving the application of perceptual, sensory, linguistic, and cognitive skills to making meaning of text. Exploration of the specific cognitive functions that are applied while reading and strategies supporting reading instruction and reading comprehension skills will be addressed. The implications of digital media on reading skills will also be explored in this course. Offered online.

EDU 416 Intelligence Assessment        3 Credits
This course will explore different theories of intelligence, the use of intelligence tests to create a numeric score, and the impact of family and culture on intelligence. Educational expectations and programs based on intelligence scores and cultural biases that may impact educational opportunities. Offered online.

EDU 417 Cognitive Studies Capstone         3 Credits
In this capstone course, students in the Cognitive Studies degree program will demonstrate their attainment of the program learning outcomes through the completion of a project. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EDU 422 Public Policy & Special Education         3 Credits
A study of the educational, legal, sociological and ethical issues that influence public policy related to the provision of special education to students with disabilities. Offered online.

EDU 428 Student Achievement in Public Schools         3 Credits
This course will examine various factors influencing student achievement in public schools. Influencing factors will include motivation theories, as well as the impact of families, teachers and schools on student success. Issues of equity and access to quality educational programs will be considered. Offered online.

EDU 431 Advanced Instructional Design         3 Credits
Students will apply a systematic approach to instructional and informational design to meet specific identified learner outcomes. Applying all of the steps for instructional design students will bring together the strategies and theories explored in the pre-requisite courses to a learning project. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 433 Project Management for Instructional Design         3 Credits
Instructional design requires careful and thoughtful collaboration among a variety of design team members. In this course various project management tools, procedures, and methodologies will be introduced as they are applied to projects in education or training. Students will explore the relationship of time constraints, cost, scope and the nature of the project being designed. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232. Offered online.

EDU 440 Information Literacy         3 Credits
This course will provide students with hands-on experiences in strategies to access information in the 21st century, evaluate resources, and effectively use search engines to locate information. Students will learn Web 2.0 tools in a systematic way recommended by professional library associations. Offered online.

EDU 441 Research & Analysis Skills         3 Credits
This course will introduce students to the theory and methods of evaluating research methods. It explores the ways in which professionals identify and frame research and evaluation questions, assess current scholarly literature on specific topics, locate and critically use primary and secondary source data, and formulate worthwhile evaluation projects. Emphasis will be placed on the research tools and processes professionals use and the role information professionals play in their development, dissemination, and use. Offered online.

EDU 443 Literature for Children & Teens         3 Credits
This class will expose students to many different types of children and young adult literature, media, and resources. Students will develop material lists for different genres, explore current trends in student interests, and exhibit knowledge of library published journals. Offered online.

EDU 450 Student Teaching in the Elementary School         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days in an elementary classroom under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner for eight weeks with a minimum of 10 consecutive days of full responsibility. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 451 Student Teaching in the Elementary School         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days in an elementary classroom under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner for seven weeks with a minimum of 10 consecutive days of full responsibility. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 452 Student Teaching in the Elementary School         15 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner for 15 weeks. Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 453 Student Teaching Special Education in the Elementary School (K-6)         4-8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner. They will spend 4-8 weeks in a special education elementary school classroom. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 458 Student Teaching Seminar         1 Credit
The seminar is a mandatory component of the student teaching semester and is required for student teachers in all endorsement areas. The seminar meets for 15 hours throughout the semester. Student teachers are given guidance in resume writing, credential file preparation, application for licensure, job search procedures, interviewing techniques, etc. Discussions with seminar participants and guest presenters center on topics such as classroom management, substitute teaching, meeting diverse student needs, and professional growth opportunities. Students must successfully complete seminar requirements to be eligible to be recommended for a teaching license. Pass/Fail F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 460 Student Teaching in the Secondary School         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days in a secondary setting under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade classrooms for eight weeks with a minimum of 10 consecutive days of full responsibility. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 461 Student Teaching in the Secondary School         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days in a secondary setting under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade classrooms for seven weeks with a minimum of 10 consecutive days of full responsibility. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 462 Student Teaching in the Secondary School         15 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade classrooms for 15 weeks. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 463 Student Teaching Special Education in the Secondary School (7-12)         4-8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner. They will spend 4-8 weeks in a special education secondary school classroom. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 466 Student Teaching Business Education in the Secondary School (5-8)         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade business classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 467 Student Teaching Business Education in the Secondary School (9-12)         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade business classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 468 Student Teaching in Elementary Physical Education         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days in a physical education setting under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher for eight weeks with a minimum of 10 consecutive days of full responsibility. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 469 Student Teaching in Secondary Physical Education         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days in a physical education setting under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher for seven weeks with a minimum of 10 consecutive days of full responsibility. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

EDU 471 Public Policy Issues in Education         3 Credits
Public policy issues in education including historical, international and political will be examined in light of current research perspectives. Current policy strategies for reforming U.S. public schools will be highlighted. Offered online.

EDU 473 Divergent Perspectives in Educational Policy & Practice         3 Credits
Current issues and debates in the field of education will be investigated. Students will examine the purpose of schooling and the challenges of meeting a variety of visions for what the school system should accomplish today. Offered online.

EDU 477 Student Teaching English in the Secondary School (5-8)         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade English classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 478 Student Teaching English in the Secondary School (9-12)         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade English classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 481 Student Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School (5-8)         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade mathematics classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 482 Student Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School (9-12)         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade mathematics classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 483 Student Teaching Science in the Secondary School (5-8)         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade science classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 484 Student Teaching Science in the Secondary School (9-12)         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade science classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 486 Educational Policy & Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the societal and political contexts in educational settings. Students will examine various issues that are likely to have an impact on teaching and learning in diverse educational settings. Educational policy areas considered include governance, curriculum, accountability, personnel development, and school finance. Offered online.

EDU 487 Student Teaching Social Science in the Secondary School (5-8)         7 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade social science classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 488 Student Teaching Social Science in the Secondary School (9-12)         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating teacher in 5th through 12th grade social science classrooms. Eight weeks are spent at one grade level and seven weeks at another grade level. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. F or S Offered on-campus.

EDU 489 Student Teaching: Secondary Content Reading         8 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a licensed University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner in a literacy environment in a state accredited school. This requirement applies only to those candidates student teaching outside of the English Language Arts endorsement. Prerequisite: Admission to the Student Teaching Semester. Offered on-campus.

EDU 490 Interdisciplinary Capstone         3 Credits
This is the capstone course for social science majors with a concentration in education. The course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply learning from their professional programs of study in a comprehensive manner. Students will also assess the impact of their educational experiences on their ethical perspectives and critical thinking skills. Students will reflect on and evaluate their personal and professional growth, the benefits of lifelong learning, knowledge and strategy evaluation, and the impact of these elements on their future. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EDU 495 Library Science & Media Capstone         3 Credits
The Capstone Course is an opportunity for students to demonstrate understanding of the Library Science and Media program outcomes through the application of concepts and tools of inquiry to create learning environments, evaluate technology tools and applications for instruction and research, create learning opportunities for a variety of learners, and analyze literature materials for inclusion in specific settings and programs. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EDU 496 Capstone Instructional Design         3 Credits
As the culmination of the BA in Instructional Design students throughout this course will complete a design project demonstrating their achievement of all program outcomes. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EDU 497 Capstone: Education & Public Policy Development         3 Credits
The capstone course is an examination of influences affecting policy development and decision making in the education arena. It will cover policy management, policy execution, establishing and measuring criteria for policy success, and effective communication throughout the public policy process. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained throughout the completion of the EPP major. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EDU 498 Education Studies Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply learning from their professional program of study in a comprehensive manner. Students will also assess the impact of their educational experiences on their ethical perspectives and critical thinking skills. Students will reflect on and evaluate their personal and professional growth, the benefits of lifelong learning, knowledge and strategy evaluation, and the impact of these elements on their future. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EDU 600 Introduction to Online Learning    3 Credits
This course presents an overview of the online learning environment from the instructor's point of view. It is a description of the terminology, tools, and skills needed to create a successful online learning experience. Areas addressed in this course include basic online learning concepts, the roles of the teacher and student in online learning, and the components of the online learning environment. Also covered in the course are teaching methodologies, types of blended learning, and guidelines for making the transition from the traditional classroom to the online classroom. Hardware, software, and other tools and technologies used in online learning are discussed. Offered online.

EDU 601 Promoting Student Success in the Online Learning    3 Credits
This course covers the basic tools needed for student success in an online learning environment. Topics include communication, collaboration, and software skills required to succeed in online learning. Also covered are instructor and student responsibilities and expectations, as well as potential roadblocks to success. Tools and techniques for organizing, prioritizing, and completing course tasks are discussed. Finally, instructional methods for guiding students and evaluating student progress in online courses are also addressed. Prerequisite: EDU 600. Offered online.

EDU 602 Assessing Knowledge & Skills in the Online Learning Environment      3 Credits
This course examines approaches that assess student knowledge and skills in the online learning environment. Directed instruction, or objectivism, is compared and contrasted with constructivist or inquiry-based learning and assessment theories. Traditional assessment strategies are discussed as applied in directed instructional models of online learning. Nontraditional assessment approaches are explored in constructivist models, such as group products, web pages, multimedia projects, student portfolios, and student projects graded by self-report assessment instruments and rubrics. This course will focus on the use of discussions, pre- and post-testing, writing activities, graded assessments, self-grading assessments, and hands-on projects on student learning and assessment. Prerequisite: EDU 601. Offered online.

EDU 603 Mathematical Thinking for Teachers         3 Credits
This course focuses on the thought processes involved in learning mathematical concepts as a base for student-centered mathematics instruction. Students will gain a strong theoretical perspective of how children learn mathematics and gain ideas and strategies for how to teach math. Offered online.

EDU 605 School Media Center         3 Credits
Technology has changed the ways in which information is accessed today dramatically impacting the traditional role of the school library media center. This course will review the historic role of library instruction and the changes that need to take place to prepare students with the information acquisition skills necessary today. Offered online.

EDU 607 Information Literacy in the 21st Century         3 Credits
This course will support teachers and others in thinking critically about information and media resources prevalent today. Skills will be taught that can be readily utilized with students to teach them to be critical reviewers of all materials and reference sources. Offered online.

EDU 608 Children’s & Young Adult Literature         3 Credits
Students will explore contemporary literature for children and young adults at the early childhood, elementary, middle and high school levels. The ability to select and evaluate quality literature for children and youth, and the skills necessary to plan and integrate literature into a K-12 program will be addressed. Offered online.

EDU 609 Online Teaching Internship       3 Credits
Learners will have the opportunity to demonstrate professional skills and knowledge in meeting the unique needs of online learners by using a Learning Management System (LMS) to develop their own online course. Learners will create engaging content and activities that reflect best practices for promoting critical thinking, student retention, and ensuring a robust community environment in the online classroom. Learners will use a professional online course evaluation instrument to rate their courses and those of their peers to inform the improvement and finalization of a quality online course. Prerequisite: EDU 602. Offered online.

EDU 610 Introduction to Teaching & Learning with Technology         3 Credits
The tremendous growth of technology has had an enormous impact on academics, and knowledge acquired has perpetually altered the dynamics of teaching. However, pedagogical preparations for the use of the new learning technologies requires an understanding of their worth in the context of historical implications, philosophical foundations, educational psychology, and learning theories. Offered online.

EDU 613 Technology Issues in Instruction         3 Credits
The focus will be on issues related to the use of technology in learning including equity, access, technology literacy, plagiarism, the effective use of games and simulations, and the trend toward e-learning. Students will evaluate various examples of technology-based instruction for instructional quality as well as relevance to the classroom and training environment. Course assignments will include participation in discussions, evaluation of courseware, online journal articles and other web sites, and individual reviews of relevant literature. Offered online.

EDU 615 Leading the Change Process in Curriculum & Instruction         3 Credits
The course will explore the role of the change agent in the identification, planning, implementation, and assessment of change initiatives for improved achievement. The impact of change on the individual, course, program, and system level will be studied. Research-based standards for successful leadership will be identified and applied as students examine the impact of administration and management on teaching and learning. Offered online.

EDU 616 Methods & Materials for Teaching & Learning With Technology         3 Credits
This course focuses on the application of technology to enhance instruction. Students will be exposed to the courseware, software applications, and technologies used in instructional technology and discuss ways they can be used effectively. Course assignments and projects require the use of productivity tools, presentation tools, digital imaging, Internet Websites, and online learning platform technologies. Teaching style with technology-based instruction will be explored. Various software and hardware tools will be utilized to enhance presentations, strengthen professional productivity, and encourage critical thinking skills of learners. Offered online.

EDU 617 School, Family & Community Partnerships         3 Credits
Parent and community involvement is a crucial element to school success. Promoting the social, emotional and academic skills necessary for student success in the 21st century requires a team effort of collaboration with schools, families and the community. Students in this course will explore strategies and research for engaging partners in the ongoing education of children in the community. Offered online.

EDU 618 Assessment of Learning Outcomes With Technology         3 Credits
Learner-centered principles are used in this course to present a multidimensional approach to assessing learner outcomes. Technology is utilized to integrate fundamental statistics, learning system designs, and learner characteristics into the assessment of outcomes. Offered online.

EDU 619 Technology for Mathematics Education         3 Credits
Students will investigate and evaluate technology that supports user interactivity and mastery of mathematical concepts in grades Pre-K through middle school in this course. Alignment to mathematical standards and recommendations from The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) will be explored as a part of the evaluation of materials. Assessment and differentiation of instruction and student learning will also be addressed. Offered online.

EDU 620 Meeting Individual Student Needs With Technology         3 Credits
This course fosters awareness of individual learner characteristics that impede successful achievement. Milder forms of learning disabilities, emotional disorders, and dysfunctional social conditions that are prevalent in typical instructional situations are evaluated. Alternative pedagogies utilizing computer technology applications to alleviate such barriers are explored. Prerequisite: EDU 673. Offered online.

EDU 622 Development of Interactive Learning Modules         3 Credits
The focus in this course is the development of resources to be used for instruction. Using the information gathered from previous courses, the student creates a project that engages learners in interactive activities. The activities in this course will utilize technology as a tool to enhance pedagogical practices. The performance outcomes of these activities must promote both creative and complex thinking skills. Offered online.

EDU 623 Introduction to Teaching & Learning         3 Credits
This course is designed to introduce the student to the Master of Arts in Education Program. Students will engage in self-assessment and reflection focused on the philosophy of serving the needs of all students within the context of the community. (Equivalent to EDU 650.) Offered online.

EDU 625 Managing the Instructional Environment         3 Credits
In this course the student identifies and explores the internal and external factors that serve to challenge teachers and trainers in instructional environments. Logistical and behavioral components of creating an engaging learning environment are explored. Individual and group dynamics with the integration of technology are evaluated. Offered online.

EDU 626 Research Design & Methodology         3 Credits
In this course the student accesses sources of educational information, evaluates research evidence, studies various types of educational resources, and applies research to the instructional setting. The focus of this course is research on issues in educational technology and the use of technology tools for making data-driven decisions using both quantitative and qualitative methods. (Equivalent to EDU 671.) Offered online.

EDU 627 Culturally Responsive Learning Environments         3 Credits
This course will explore how cultural influences affect learning. Research-based teaching strategies for diverse populations will be examined. The challenges impacting the teaching and learning within diverse environments will be explored. A learning plan will be developed reflective of considerations to diverse cultural needs. Offered online.

EDU 629 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners         3 Credits
This course explores strategies and techniques to support the success of language and culturally diverse students. The values, customs, and communication styles of cultural groups and their implication for teaching are considered. Research-based instructional approaches to developing English learner literacy will be examined. Offered online.

EDU 631 Politics, Policy-Making & Political Action in Education         3 Credits
This course is designed to prepare learners with the ability to compare and contrast roles of various stakeholder groups in the making of public education policy. Additionally, learners will be able to make informed predictions about the educational policy based on historical and contemporary landmark cases. Learners completing this course will be able to evaluate the influences special interest groups have in shaping individual and group power within educational institutions and create an informed position on a topic of personal interest in the field of education. Offered online.

EDU 633 Educational Policy Formation         3 Credits
This course is designed to focus on theories and models of policy-making process, including pluralism, elitism, systems analysis, structuralism, and state autonomy models. The course examines how different theories view the roles of political leadership, institutions, interest groups, academics experts, and external influences in the policy-making process. The course examines how different factors influence policy outcomes and processes at various stages of the development process. The course provides students with analytical tools to understand variations in the policy-making process and the opportunity to develop their own applications. Offered online.

EDU 635 Community & Youth Development         3 Credits
This course will support teachers and others with the development of practical strategies and tools to support community-wide efforts to strengthen and support youth today. Advocacy for youth development as well as strategies to support youth from a wide range of backgrounds will be addressed. Offered online.

EDU 637 Planning, Implementing & Assessing Instruction for Diverse Learners         3 Credits
This course is designed to develop and assess appropriate instruction and programs for diverse learners. Students will explore the relationships between first and second language proficiency in identifying the cultural influences on learning. Effective instruction and program development will be explored in assessing culturally responsive education. Offered online.

EDU 638 Intercultural Communications & Global Learning         3 Credits
This course explores communication styles within a culturally diverse environment. Students will examine the effects of oral and nonverbal communication styles. Personal and social barriers within diverse settings will be explored. Students will develop and evaluate a plan to lead efforts in promoting cultural awareness within a work setting. An optional international visit will be offered based upon availability. Offered online.

EDU 639 Human Relationships & Learning in the Multicultural Environment         3 Credits
Students will explore and experience the impact of interpersonal communication concepts and skills upon the creation and maintenance of positive human relationships. The student will develop a knowledge base of selected cultural groups to acquire the competency to identify basic cultural modalities that have an effect upon the teaching and learning processes. Students will demonstrate the integration of the course content to their own personal values and teaching styles. The student will also demonstrate application of human relationship skills to the educational setting and the community. Prerequisite: EDU 650. Offered online.

EDU 642 Understanding & Teaching English Language         3 Credits
In this course students will study the structure of the English language in order to better understand the difficulties that arise in learning a second language. English phonology, syntax, analysis, and application of linguistic theory will be studied. Offered online.

EDU 643 Methods, Materials & Technology for Learning a Second Language         3 Credits
Strategies for English Language Learners in the content areas while maintaining a language development focus will be illustrated. Specific strategies, materials, technology, and learning activities will be examined to support learning. Offered online.

EDU 644 Child & Family Welfare         3 Credits
This course will examine public policies in place to support children and families in at-risk situations. A focus on the services and programs offered to support families and children as well as the development of protective factors in families will be offered in this course. Offered online.

EDU 645 Learning & Assessment for the 21st Century         3 Credits
Supporting the measurement of 21st Century Thinking Skills requires assessments that appropriately measure student skills and content knowledge. Such assessments must be meaningful, relevant and supportive of long-term success in the 21st century and be used to monitor student progress, driving instructional decisions to meet the needs of all learners. Using real-world applications, students of EDU 645 will learn how student learning is enhanced through instructional & curricular rigor and alignment of formative and summative assessments. Further, how student measurement data can be used to monitor student progress and make instructional decisions will be explored. (Equivalent to EDU 618.) Prerequisite: EDU 673. Offered online and on-campus.

EDU 646 Algebra Instruction for Elementary & Middle School Teachers         3 Credits
Today’s teachers must be prepared to teach students more than memorization of rules and procedures to solve equations. This course will prepare teachers to teach the process standards of problem solving, communication, reasoning and proof, connections and representations as outlined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Offered online.

EDU 647 Families, Communities & Diversity         3 Credits
This course will focus on establishing relationships and partnerships within families and community of diverse cultures. Specific strategies in developing programs promoting cultural competence within families and communities will be explored. Students will analyze available family and community resources within their community in promoting and supporting cultural diversity. Offered online.

EDU 648 Teaching & Learning with Technology         3 Credits
This first course is an overview of the field of educational technology including instructional design, influence of learning theory on technology application as well as the various technologies available and their application to learning. Offered online.

EDU 649 Technologies for Teaching & Learning         3 Credits
This course focuses on identifying appropriate technologies for teaching and learning. Special attention will be directed in analyzing teaching and learning styles. Identifying and evaluating technologies to meet individual needs will be explored in both educational and corporate environments. Offered online.

EDU 650 Teaching, Learning & Leading in the 21st Century        3 Credits
This course is designed give students a real world perspective into the what it is like to teach, learn, and lead in the 21st century classroom. This course provides an opportunity for students to experience the world of the classroom and analyze the range of perspectives and topics that impact being a successful teacher, learner, and leader in the 21st century. The course will bring together a unique set of ‘voices’ from the field, to explore the contemporary nature of what it is like to teach in today’s changing schools while focusing on identifying innovations that can develop students’ capacity to be agents of innovation, collaboration, and creativity. (Equivalent to EDU 623.) Offered online.

EDU 651 Collaboration & Learning in a Virtual Environment         3 Credits
Students will explore teaching and learning in virtual worlds. Project-based design, facilitation, and evaluation of instruction, research, and other resources will be examined. The use of online collaboration for student learning and effective uses of various technologies for social networking will be explored. Offered online.

EDU 652 Instructional Design & Delivery         3 Credits
This course covers various elements of the instructional design process including needs assessment, instructional problems, learner characteristics, instructional objectives, content sequencing, instructional strategies, and evaluation instruments. Students are expected to learn how to plan, develop, evaluate, and manage the design of effective instructional materials. Offered online.

EDU 653 Teaching in Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will examine education theories, methods, and strategies for the improvement of instruction in higher education. Emphasis will be placed on the unique challenges of teaching in a changing environment in higher education. Students will explore factors that affect adult learning and the organizational cultures that promote or inhibit learning. Offered online.

EDU 654 Student Development in Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will examine student development theories from a socio-cultural and psychological developmental perspective. Factors affecting the teaching and learning related to the college environment will be analyzed. Theories of student development and their applications in student affair programs, services, and activities will be reviewed. Offered online.

EDU 655 Trends & Issues in Instructional Design & Technology for On-line Learning         3 Credits
Students gain the necessary skills and knowledge to design effective instructional materials for use in an on-line learning environment. Powerful innovations that may redefine teaching and learning practices will be explored throughout the course. Offered online.

EDU 656 Technology Solutions for Just in Time Training & Learning         3 Credits
This course will allow students to develop an understanding of the planning for and application of technology for training that meets institutional and organizational needs. Students will utilize technology to effectively develop a request for proposal plan for training utilizing technology to inform, motivate, and prepare learners. Offered online.

EDU 657 History & Philosophy of American Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will provide an overview of the historical development and cultural backgrounds of higher education in America. Emphasis will be placed on the major themes and developments in American higher education including the ideologies, people, cultures, and movements that have particularly influenced those developments. Current issues and trends in higher education will be explored. Offered online.

EDU 658 Instructional Leadership         3 Credits
This course focuses on leadership in the educational or corporate environment to bring about change required to meet learning and training needs. Students will evaluate their personal leadership in their professional environment. Leadership tools to provide increased learning opportunities will be used to design learning experiences and evaluate results. Offered online.

EDU 659 Testing & Assessment for English Language Learners         3 Credits
Various tools and methodologies for assessing English proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing for both ELL children and adults will be critiqued. Formative and summative assessments will be explored with an emphasis on the application and appropriateness of their use for instructional design. Offered online.

EDU 660 Tests & Measurements         3 Credits
This course will explore the selection and use of tests and measurements for individuals planning a career in school and non-school settings. Technical skills will be examined for selecting and properly employing tests and measurements (reliability, validity, norming, test scores) and major types of tests such as ability, intelligence, achievement, personality, family, and behavioral. Offered online.

EDU 661 Data Analyses & Decision-Making         3 Credits
This course is designed to focus on technology for the administration and scoring of assessment. The strengths and limitations of technology applications to assessment will be examined. Offered online.

EDU 662 Curriculum & Assessment in Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will study the relationships between planning and student learning at course, program, and institutional levels. Modes of curriculum design, development and change in higher education will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on examining curricular leadership and assessment strategies. Offered online.

EDU 663 Assessment & Public Policy         3 Credits
This course provides the foundations and history of program assessment, accountability, and quality assurance to the governance, funding, and purposes of assessment and measurements. Implementation and reporting of assessment data to multiple audiences will be explored. The course will examine the roles of program evaluators in improving performance and achievement. Offered online.

EDU 664 Teaching Mathematics & Science through Literature         3 Credits
Teachers today are being called upon to integrate the various content areas across the curriculum to allow for real-life connections and application of various skills. This course will explore research supporting curriculum integration with a specific focus on the integration of literature for teaching math and science concepts. Students will explore units of study that address content standards in math and science utilizing children’s literature. Offered online.

EDU 665 Performance Assessments         3 Credits
This course is designed to examine the design, development, and implementation of performance-based assessment. Task analysis and design, scoring schema, and assessment delivery are covered through critique and practice. Offered online.

EDU 667 Reading Instruction & Early Intervention         3 Credits
Reviews of various research based reading programs will be examined critically. Evaluation will be based on cost, alignment to standards, and research in regard to program effectiveness. Intervention programs for struggling readers and their role in a traditional school setting will be explored. Offered online.

EDU 668 Reading Comprehension Across the Curriculum         3 Credits
This course will support teachers and others in working with students to improve reading comprehension across all areas of the curriculum. Research investigations into the brain activity required for reading comprehension will be reviewed. Specific strategies for addressing reading comprehension difficulty will be explored. Offered online.

EDU 669 The Reading, Writing Connection         3 Credits
This course will emphasis the connection of reading and writing with a focus on the content areas. Students will be exposed to a variety of approaches including vocabulary techniques, comprehension strategies, and study techniques to use with learners. Issues of assessment, motivation, and cultural as well as linguistic diversity will also be addressed. Offered online.

EDU 671 Fundamentals of Educational Research         3 Credits
This educational research course is designed to teach students how to use digital sources to locate and evaluate research articles and apply that information in a learning environment. Students will also consider ethical aspects of research. Finally, students will evaluate and propose ways to become change agents by effectively applying action research principles to real world educational problems and issues. (Equivalent to EDU 626.) Prerequisite: EDU 620 or EDU 652. Offered online.

EDU 673 Instructional Strategies for Differentiated Teaching & Learning         3 Credits
During this course, students will learn about and use evidence-based differentiated strategies and materials to meet diverse academic instruction that incorporate the progressive needs of 21st century learners using student’s cultural schemata (i.e., personal experiences, cultural/language norms and family belief systems). Instruction will align with the Common Core State Standards and alternative assessment methods to provide a rich inquiry of learning styles while applying strategies that promote critical thinking and incorporate digital tools and resources. Prerequisite: EDU 650. Offered online.

EDU 674 Foundations & Trends in Curriculum & Instruction         3 Credits
The course will provide an overview of the foundational pieces necessary for effective design and delivery of curriculum and instruction. Current trends will be compared and contrasted with brain-based research from the field. Emphasis will be placed on processes and procedures for developing both an engaging curriculum and a caring and responsive learning environment. Offered online.

EDU 675 Change Leadership for the Differentiated Educational Environment         3 Credits
Change Leadership for the Differentiated Educational Environment is designed to ensure that students demonstrate mastery of the MAED program learning outcomes through the continuation of the capstone project. Change Leadership for the Differentiated Educational Environment bridges the learning activities between EDU 671 Fundamentals of Educational Research and EDU 695 MAED Capstone. This course experience is designed to ensure that students continue their exploration of action research principles in which they will seek out and solve an organizational problem within their area of concentration. Topics in this course will be related to implementing change in an organization, evaluating the impact of the applied intervention, communicating outcomes, collaboration, and 21st century leadership practices. Prerequisite: EDU 671. Offered online.

EDU 676 Curriculum & Instruction Design for Increased Achievement         3 Credits
The course will teach a backward design model for curriculum and instruction that emphasizes clear targets and goals for increased achievement. Curriculum integration and mapping techniques will be examined and implemented as students model the power of collaborative planning and individual reflection. A variety of delivery models will be explored. Offered online.

EDU 677 Monitoring & Evaluating Curriculum & Instruction through Systems Thinking         3 Credits
The course will define and apply the concepts of differentiated instruction and systems thinking in the development of curriculum and instruction. Processes and procedures for monitoring and evaluating programs will lead to an understanding of the complexity of an effective change process for increased achievement. Offered online.

EDU 678 Seminar in Curriculum & Instruction for Diverse Needs         3 Credits
The course will simulate the real-world role of the change agent in successful implementation of curriculum and instruction for improved teaching and learning. Students will identify a need, develop an action plan, implement the steps of the plan, and evaluate both individual and organizational achievement that results. Prerequisite: Completion of the previous four Curriculum & Instruction courses or instructor approval. Offered online.

EDU 679 Technology Solutions for Organizational Improvement         3 Credits
In this course, students will examine theories, organizational learning outcomes, and models of assessment and evaluation that lead to institutional improvement and effectiveness in the use of technology. Students will follow a logic model to conduct a program evaluation and develop a proposal for organizational improvement.

EDU 684 Shared Vision of Learning         3 Credits
Students will learn how to develop a shared vision of student achievement and integrate it into the school plan. By developing and articulating a belief system and shared vision of teaching and learning, students will learn how to link improved teaching strategies to school-wide and district-wide instructional priorities. From this initial building of a shared vision, students will develop a theory of action directed at getting to the shared vision by ensuring that relevant student data are available and examined regularly. Students will learn and apply strategies for guiding, motivating, delegating and building consensus among diverse constituencies in the school and community. The reality is that school leaders must encounter multiple voices in the community and as such, they need to ensure that those voices are part of the consensus building for shared visions of schooling. Offered online.

EDU 686 Educational Policy & Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the societal and political contexts in educational settings. Students will examine various issues that are likely to have an impact on teaching and learning in a diverse educational setting. Education policy areas considered include governance, curriculum, accountability, personnel development, and school finance. Offered online.

EDU 687 Building a Learning-Centered Culture         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide an opportunity for participants to learn how to advocate, nurture, and sustain a school culture and instructional program that is conducive to student learning and staff professional growth in a standards-based system of learning. In this course students will develop an understanding of the rationale for and the components of standards based curriculum and instruction and how they link to students’ learning needs. Students will learn to apply student data to determine policy decisions and leadership actions to improve the instructional program. They will learn to apply site-based teacher-practice data to determine leadership actions to drive professional development and identify student support systems that result in increased student performance. Students will also explore research on diverse learning styles and differentiating instruction for all learners. It is in this course that students learn the power of a system-based approach that builds coherence through a standards-based curriculum and instruction; supervision that supports differentiated instruction in support of accelerating student learning, and the development, implementation, and evaluation of professional development that supports standards-based curriculum and instruction. Prerequisite: EDU 684. Offered online.

EDU 688 Organizational Management for Student Learning         3 Credits
Students are introduced to safe school environments, data-driven decision-making strategies, practice using various assessment tools and monitoring systems for teaching and learning, and learn district, state, and federal accountability systems. Students will gain an understanding of the legal polices pertaining to classified and certificated personnel. Students will also continue to apply a system-based approach that builds coherence through the alignment of fiscal, human, and material resources to support the learning of all sub-groups of students. Prerequisite: EDU 687. Offered online.

EDU 689 Personal Ethics & Leadership Capacity         3 Credits
This course develops students' ability to model integrity and justice while learning and applying a variety of decision-making and problem-solving strategies. In this course, students will write a personal code of ethics that includes their moral purpose and belief system for the improvement of teaching and learning. Students will also address issues of equity such as race, language, religions, and sexual harassment. Students will learn ways to inspire and motivate others, and to effectively communicate shared decision-making outcomes to stakeholders. Students will continue to build understanding around the leadership practices that create a learning-centered and trustworthy school community that provides high levels of learning for all students. Prerequisite: EDU 688. Offered online.

EDU 690 Electronic Summative Portfolio         3 Credits
Using LiveText software, students will begin to create an electronic, professional, portfolio that documents personal and professional growth. Artifacts that parallel INTASC standards will be required for classroom teachers. Corporate trainers will focus on skill-based instruction and outcomes in accordance with the NETS-T standards. This will be an ongoing project through the remainder of the courses within this program and will be finalized in EDU 697. Offered online.

EDU 692 Creativity, Culture, & Global Contexts in Education Decision Making        3 Credits
This course provides rich opportunities for participants to learn how culture, creativity, and innovation impact teaching and student learning in the 21st century. Participants will adopt a global perspective of teaching and learning to understand how the infusion of 21st century skills impacts curriculum and prepares learners for the challenges associated with living and working in the 21st century. Through scenario-based activities, participants will directly apply skills needed to make informed decisions about the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of culturally relevant instructional practices to support the learning of 21st century skills. Prerequisite: EDU 650. Offered online.

EDU 695 MAED Capstone         3 Credits
The Capstone is a course in which students will demonstrate their attainment of the program outcomes through a spiraled process of skill demonstration including reflection, application, and evaluation. First, students will reflect on patterns in academic work as well as design and development challenges associated with previous course work so as to take control of one’s professional growth and become a more self-directed learner. Next, students apply the framework of 21st Century teaching and learning to redesign prior MAED activities and then evaluate how 21st Century skills influence program learning outcomes. Last, students will use digital tools to showcase their scholarly artifacts through the creation of a digital portfolio for both course, and professionally related purposes. Prerequisite: EDU 675. Offered online.

EDU 697 MATLT Capstone:A Project Approach         3 Credits
This Capstone course requires students to synthesize their skills and knowledge acquired throughout the MATLT program. The Capstone project must present a practical application that is appropriate for a professional environment in the students’ chosen field of work, be appropriate for inclusion in a professional portfolio, and incorporate a relevant problem or issue that can be supported through formal research. Furthermore, the project should demonstrate significant content across the spectrum of MATLT courses and promote the accomplishment of professional and personal goals. In addition, students will create a professional brochure highlighting their skills, strengths, and educational preparation. Offered online.

ELL English Language Learner

ELL 240 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners         3 Credits
This course explores strategies and techniques to support the success of language and culturally diverse students. The values, customs, and communication styles of cultural groups and their implication for teaching are considered. Research-based instructional approaches to developing English learner literacy will be examined. This course may have a travel abroad component. F Offered online and on-campus.

ELL 242 Understanding & Teaching English Language         3 Credits
In this course students will study the structure of the English language in order to better understand the difficulties that arise in learning a second language. English phonology, syntax, analysis, and application of linguistic theory will be studied. F Offered online and on-campus.

ELL 351 Listening & Speaking in a Second Language         3 Credits
The stages of language development as well as ideas and strategies to enhance oral language learning and acquisition in the classroom will be applied in this course. Theories and methods of teaching language as communication in oral and aural modes will also be applied. Offered online.

ELL 353 Reading & Writing in a Second Language         3 Credits
The relationship between first and second language comprehension as well as the reading comprehension and writing connection will be explored in this course. The use of differentiated literacy instruction for English Language Learners will be the central focus. Offered online.

ELL 355 Methods, Materials, & Technology for Learning a Second Language         3 Credits
Strategies for English Language Learners in the content areas while maintaining a language development focus will be illustrated. Specific strategies, materials, technology, and learning activities will be examined to support learning. S Offered online and on-campus.

ELL 357 English Language Teaching & Adult Learners         3 Credits
Theory and methodology applicable to English language instruction are integrated in the context of working with adults. Materials and methods suitable for working with adult English learners will be explored and evaluated in this course. Offered online.

ELL 358 Instructional Methods, Materials, and Technology for Teaching a Second Language         3 Credits
The development of language and reading acquisition from birth through adolescence will be explored. Strategies for English Language Learners in the content areas while maintaining a language development focus will be illustrated. Specific instructional strategies, materials, technology, and learning activities will be examined to support learning. (Equivalent to ELL 355.) Offered online and on-campus.

ELL 359 Contemporary Issues in English Language Instruction         3 Credits
Historical influences on instructional design in second language education will be explored. National and state standards for all learners and the implication for ELL instruction will be analyzed. Dual language instruction, bilingual education, and the politics of this as contrasted to English Language immersion programs will also be examined. Offered online.

ELL 361 Language Learning in a Global Context        3 Credits
This course introduces students to the issues surrounding second language learning around the world. Emphasis will be given to educational, civic, business, governmental, and cultural issues. F Offered online and on-campus.

ELL 420 Testing & Assessment for ELL Students         3 Credits
Various tools and methodologies for assessing English proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing for both ELL children and adults will be critiqued. Formative and summative assessments will be explored with an emphasis on the application and appropriateness of their use for instructional design. S Offered online and on-campus.

ELL 497 English Language Learner Studies Capstone         3 Credits
This is the capstone course for the English Language Learner Studies major, to be taken at the completion of the major courses. This course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply their learning from the course of study for English Language Learners studies in a comprehensive manner. Students will reflect on the courses taken and develop an understanding of the Teachers of English to Other Language Speakers (TESOL) standards and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards, developmentally appropriate practices based upon language development research, and professionalism. This course will culminate with a comprehensive final project that integrates the student learning throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

EMS Education Middle School

EMS Prefix – Middle School courses required for a Middle School Endorsement

EMS 220 Grammar for Educators         1 Credit
This course provides students with an intensive review of English grammar using a transformational approach. The subconscious rules underlying the formation of English sentences are discovered by examining a wide variety of grammatical structures. Applications are made to the teaching of grammar in upper elementary and middle schools. Prerequisite: ENG 122. S Offered on-campus.

EMS 225 Growth & Development of the Middle School Age Child         3 Credits
Students learn about the growth and development of the middle school age child. The emotional, physical, and mental characteristics of this age group will be addressed as will the needs of middle school age children. Prerequisites: PSY 104, EDU 200, and second semester sophomore status. S Offered on-campus.

EMS 325 Middle School Curriculum Design & Instruction         3 Credits
Students learn about the areas of curriculum design and instruction that are unique to the middle school philosophy. The course will address teaming and middle school pedagogy and instructional methods. Prerequisites: EDU 250, junior status, and admission to the Practitioner Preparation Program or permission of the instructor/Dean of the College of Education. F Offered on-campus.

ENG English

ENG 100 Introduction to College Writing         3 Credits
This basic writing course concentrates on writing at the word usage, sentence, and paragraph levels. Students learn what constitutes a sentence and how to recognize and avoid sentence fragments and other common errors. They further learn to craft cogent paragraphs and are introduced to writing as a process. Offered on-campus.

ENG 106 Strategies for College Reading         3 Credits
Students learn, practice, and apply pre-reading strategies, comprehension strategies, critical reading and critical thinking strategies, post-reading strategies, and “emergency” reading strategies when material is difficult to understand. In addition to the required text, students read news magazines and newspapers. Homework assignments require students to learn, practice, and apply the strategies on an individual basis while class activities are designed around cooperative learning groups. Two group projects are required. Offered on-campus.

ENG 121 English Composition I         3 Credits
This course is designed to enable students to develop competence in analyzing, organizing, and developing ideas; to locate and use library resources for supporting ideas; and to adapt one’s writing to various audiences. Instruction and practice in writing and critical reading is a focus in this course. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 122 English Composition II         3 Credits
This course provides instruction and practice in writing effective expository and persuasive essays. The techniques for doing research and writing research papers are explored. Attention is given to the development of library research skills. Prerequisite: Successful completion of ENG 121 or equivalent with a grade of “C-” or better. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 125 Introduction to Literature         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the basic elements of fiction, poetry, and drama. Emphasis is on reading literature to perceive the techniques used in each genre, to understand the basic theoretical approaches to literature, to acquire the vocabulary associated with literary criticism, and to analyze and evaluate literature. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 201 American Literature to 1865         3 Credits
This course will examine American literature from early colonization through 1865, including texts from the colonial, revolutionary, and antebellum periods. The focus will be upon literary analysis and literary movements contextualized by American history and culture. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 202 American Literature After 1865         3 Credits
This course will examine American literature focusing on a selection of works published between 1865 and the present. We will explore the impact of social and cultural transformations on our national literature working through literary movements and paying close attention to the development of ideas about gender, race, region and nation as expressed in fiction, poetry, and drama. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 212 African-American Literature         3 Credits
Students experience the artistry of American writers of color by tracing their development from early slave narratives to contemporary works in film, novels, and poetry. Students sharpen analytic skills by discussing literary texts and familiarize themselves with critical theories of cultural and ethnic distinction. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or permission of the instructor. (Offered every other year.) S Offered on-campus.

ENG 217 International Voices         3 Credits
An introduction to recent international writing in its cultural context. Students read fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and interviews and are introduced to music, art, film, and cuisine of cultures beyond U.S. borders. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or permission of the instructor. (Offered every other year.) F Offered on-campus.

ENG 220 Women Writers         3 Credits
An exploration of the tradition of English and/or American women writers with primary concentration on 19th and 20th century writers. The course includes the intensive study of at least one major writer in this tradition. The specific course topic will vary from year to year. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or permission of instructor. (Offered every other year.) S Offered on-campus.

ENG 225 Introduction to Film         3 Credits
This course is designed to help students understand and appreciate movies and film more completely. The course examines the ways in which movies and films are shot, tell stories, develop characters, and depict physical reality. Classes consist of critique and analysis of movies and films. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 250 London Theatre Tour         1 Credit
The course is designed to enable students to appreciate and experience theater in London. Prerequisite: ENG 125 or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

ENG 303 Survey of Shakespeare         3 Credits
An in-depth study of eight of Shakespeare’s greatest works including significant films of productions. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Offered every other year) Offered on-campus.

ENG 305 Nineteenth-Century American Novel         3 Credits
An examination of some of the standard masterpieces by Cooper, Hawthorne, and Melville as well as newly rediscovered texts by women and minority writers. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

ENG 306 Twentieth-Century American Novel         3 Credits
The study of classic American novels with emphasis placed on interpretive analysis of the novels and the relationship of their themes to social events in American history as well as to basic human problems. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

ENG 307 Directed Readings in English         2 or 3 Credits
A course in literature designed to fit an individual student’s needs. Readings include selected critical work in addition to the primary sources selected for the course. A research paper is required. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. F or S Offered on-campus.

ENG 311 Twentieth-Century British Novel         3 Credits
The study of classic twentieth-century British novels. Emphasis is placed on interpretive analysis of the novels and the relationship of their themes to contemporary social and cultural trends. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) S Offered on-campus.

ENG 312 African-American Literature         3 Credits
Same course description as ENG 212. Students do the same readings but are required to do additional written assignments and/or oral reports. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Offered every other year.) S Offered on-campus.

ENG 315 Business & Professional Writing         3 Credits
Instruction in the planning, organization, construction, style, and tone of several forms of business and professional correspondence: letters, interoffice communication, resumes, and formal reports. A review of grammar, punctuation, and usage is incorporated into the course. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. F Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 317 International Voices        3 Credits
An introduction to recent international writing in its cultural context. Students read fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and interview, and are introduced to music, art, film, and cuisine of cultures beyond U.S. borders. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of English Proficiency requirement. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 318 Creative Writing         3 Credits
This course provides writing experiences in fiction, nonfiction and poetry for students who have a strong interest in creative expression and have some experience in writing in one of these genres. Various aspects of the imaginative process are explored with separate application made to the genres of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. Students write in each genre, participate in workshops with instructors, join with instructors and writing practitioners in critiquing colleagues’ work, and make presentations of their own work. On-campus students may repeat this course for up to 9 credits. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 320 Women Writers         3 Credits
Same course description as ENG 220. Students do the same reading but are required to do additional written assignments and/or oral reports. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Offered every other year.) F or S Offered on-campus.

ENG 321 Introductory Linguistics         3 Credits
This course provides students with an introduction to the principles and methods of linguistic theory. Basic concepts included are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. The developmental stages of language acquisition and the variations of dialect and style observed in spoken and written English are also examined. Students practice applying linguistic theory to explain language-related phenomena encountered in everyday life. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 323 Twentieth-Century American Poetry         3 Credits
A critical examination of the work of modern and contemporary poets as well as the cultural context in which they produced their work. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

ENG 325 Intermediate Composition         3 Credits
Intermediate Composition is designed for students who have some experience with college-level writing but want to develop their ability to write. The goal of this course is to help students learn techniques for writing effective narrative, reflective, analytical, and research essays. These techniques include the effective use of specific details to engage and persuade readers, methods of organization that enable readers to follow a line of thinking, and strategies for editing sentences for clarity and conciseness. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 328 Scientific & Technical Writing         3 Credits
Students will develop the skills necessary for writing about scientific, environmental, medical, and technological topics. Emphasis is placed on making complex and technical information understandable to a variety of audiences. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and fulfillment of the General Education Science requirement. (Cross-listed as JRN 328.) Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 330 Teaching Literary Genres & Techniques         1 Credit
This course guides the prospective teacher in preparing a written document that analyzes the literary genres typically covered in high school English courses and provides a critical review of the significant literary techniques and conventions associated with each one. The overview document prepared by the student is developed as if it were an analytical “Introduction” to an anthology of literature, accompanied by a “List of Literary Works” from each genre that could be used successfully at the high school level. Offered on-campus.

ENG 341 Studies in Literary Genres         3 Credits
This course will introduce students to literary genres such as poetry, short fiction, creative non-fiction, drama, and the novel. Students will read, analyze, and write critically about representative selections in the various genres. Offered online.

ENG 345 British Literature I         3 Credits
This course examines writing by representative British authors in various genres from the Anglo-Saxon period through the mid-eighteenth century. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 346 British Literature II         3 Credits
This course provides a survey of writing by representative British authors in various genres from the Romantic Period to the present. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 350 London Theatre Tour         1 Credit
The course is designed to enable students to appreciate and experience theater in London. Prerequisite: ENG 125 or permission of the instructor.

ENG 380 Literary Research         3 Credits
This course is designed to teach the techniques for conducting literary research. Students will focus on particular authors while focusing on the essential skills of literary research. In addition to short critical essays, students will produce a major research paper. Offered online and on-campus.

ENG 382 London Studies         3 Credit
This is a five week, three credit course that offers you the opportunity to explore British Literature, History, and Architecture including a one week Study Abroad in London. This course allows you to choose from different areas of emphasis for the week in London. For each option, emphasis will be placed on the way in which environment/culture shapes literature and literature shapes environment/culture. You will study each author’s situation and look at how society and history shaped the author or perhaps the author had an impact on shaping society and history. Offered on-campus.

ENG 388 Destination Course: Literary & Historical Developments in 19th Century England         3 Credits
A course designed to include an extended travel component that provides an experiential encounter with historical or contemporary aspects of the course content. The “destination course methodology” may be applied to an existing course or to special courses. Destination courses may be offered in classroom or online modalities. Students may receive credit for the General Education Literature requirement. (Equivalent to HIS 388 and TVL 311.)

ENG 410 Selected Authors         3 Credits
Students do a critical examination of the works of a selected author or authors. In addition to some short critical essays, students produce a major research paper. Prerequisite: Senior standing or permission of the instructor. May be repeated with change of topic. (Offered every other year) F Offered on-campus.

ENG 438 Literary Theory         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and tools to develop an understanding the nature of literature, what functions is has, what the relation of the text is to the author, the reader, to language, to society and to history. Offered online.

ENG 480 Communications Portfolio         3 Credits
Students assemble a portfolio of representative work in consultation with a faculty member. Portfolios will include examples of different types of student work and will include work produced during the portfolio semester as well as in previous courses. Prerequisite: Senior standing. (Cross-listed as JRN 480.) Offered on-campus.

ENG 490 Communications Internship         2-4 Credits
Students apply the skills, knowledge, and abilities developed in the major and concentration in an appropriate communication-focused work environment. Each credit hour has a requirement of 50 applied hours of normally non-remunerative work in an approved setting is required, under faculty supervision. (Cross-listed as JRN 490.) Offered on-campus.

ENG 497 English Capstone         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate mastery of the concepts and methodology in the major by producing a final project that includes extensive research into the selected topic. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

ENG 498 Senior Thesis I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of concepts and methodology in the major by producing a thesis statement, an annotated bibliography, and a completed outline of the thesis/project. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the faculty member serving as thesis director. During the semester, the student will complete the senior thesis or project following specified guidelines. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered on-campus.

ENG 499 Senior Thesis II         2 Credits
This course is a continuation of ENG 498. The completed thesis or project is defended orally before and evaluated by the senior thesis committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisite: Successful completion of ENG 498 with a “C-” or better. Offered on-campus.

ENV Environmental Studies

ENV 101 Humanity & the Environment         4 Credits
This course focuses on humans and their relationship with planet Earth. Lecture topics include evolutionary and ecological theories; the ecological, political, and social ramifications of human population growth; planetary pollution problems; and effects of current technological trends on the environment. During the laboratory section, specific scientific problems are investigated and analyzed using both biological and chemical essays. (Cross-listed as BIO 101.) S Offered on-campus.

ENV 108 Introductory Environmental Chemistry         4 Credits
This course will cover chemical concepts and principles in the context of real-world societal issues such as air pollution, water pollution, acid rain, and global warming. The course includes three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. (Cross listed as CHE 108.) F or S Offered on-campus.

ENV 230 Concepts of Sustainability         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide a sound understanding of the ecological, technological, economic, political, and ethical dimensions of environmental sustainability. Through the study of selected incidents and current projects, students will examine food systems, transportation, energy, urbanization, rainforests and global climate change, and defend a position in sustainability. Offered online.

ENV 300 Environmental Biology         3 Credits
A study of biodiversity. The origin and evolutionary history of biodiversity, including the geological forces that shaped its course, will be discussed. This course will be made pertinent through discussions of the impact of human activity on biodiversity and subsequent impact on the human population. Prerequisite: An introductory biology course or SCI 207. (Cross-listed as BIO 300.) Offered online and on-campus.

ENV 306 Environmental Chemistry         4 Credits
This course will cover chemical concepts and principles of air, water and soils pollution and the analytical analysis of their impacts. The course includes three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (MAT 225 or equivalent) and successful completion of CHE 152, with a grade of "C-" or higher, or equivalent (Cross-listed as CHE 306). (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

ENV 310 Environmental Policies         3 Credits
Examines political, social, and economic policies and their impact on the global environment. Also explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment. Prerequisite: POL 201 or BUS 311. (Cross-listed as POL 310.) (Offered every other year) S Offered on-campus.

ENV 322 Energy & Environmental Systems         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide knowledge relative to the relationship between energy consumption, energy generation, their related externalities, and conservation in the context of diminishing reserves of fossil fuels and increasing availability of renewable resources. Students will defend a position related to a particular energy source and its effect on the environment. Offered online.

ENV 325 Environmental Management         3 Credits
This course examines the issues in the urban environment and the interactions between theory and policy relating to urbanization, industrialization and the impact of population growth on the environment. Offered online.

ENV 330 Environmental Ethics         3 Credits
This course is a study of the ethical dimensions of selected contemporary environmental controversies. Students will examine the major theoretical approaches to environmental ethics, value systems, and specific issues including biodiversity and wilderness preservation. Offered online.

ENV 333 Environmental Impact         3 Credits
Following the guidelines set by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its subsequent modifications, students will learn the fundamental methods of analysis required for conducting a robust Environment Impact Statement (EIS). Students will learn the fundamental elements of an EIS through the examination of contemporary cases. Offered online.

ENV 345 Business & the Environment         3 Credits
An environmental economics approach is used to illustrate the impact of the firm on the environment and environmental policy on the firm. Cost-benefits analysis is developed in student-driven research projects. (Cross-listed as BUS 345.) (Alternate years) S Offered online and on-campus.

ENV 420 Environmental Internship         1-6 Credits
Students apply the skills and knowledge developed from the environmental studies curriculum to a field experience. Each credit hour has a requirement of 50 applied hours of normally non-remunerative work in a designated institution or agency, under faculty supervision. Prerequisites: Junior status, approval by a supervising faculty member and a cumulative grade point average of 2.75. F/S Offered on-campus.

ENV 495 Environmental Research         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the various stages in the environmental research process. Course design focuses intensely on scientific journal article construction as well as research design, data collection, and statistical analysis. Offered online.

ENV 497 Environmental Studies Capstone         3 Credits
Students will utilize knowledge gained throughout the program to construct a final Capstone Project focused on the design and implementation of a sustainable community. This Project will allow students to display content area knowledge over all completed courses. Offered online.

ENV 498 Senior Thesis I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of concepts and methodology in the major by producing a thesis statement, an annotated bibliography, and a completed outline of the thesis/project. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the faculty member serving as thesis director. During the semester, the student will complete the senior thesis or project following specified guidelines. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Minimum of "C-" required for degree requirements. Offered on-campus.

ENV 499 Senior Thesis II         2 Credits
This course is a continuation of ENV 498. The completed thesis or project is defended orally before and evaluated by the senior thesis committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisite: Successful completion of ENV 498 with a “C-” or better. Offered on-campus.

ERE Education Reading

ERE Prefix - Course required for Reading endorsements

ERE 230 Assessment & Diagnosis in Reading         3 Credits
Students learn about test procedures, tests, and diagnostic techniques used in the diagnosis of reading difficulties in the reading process: print concepts, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary development, fluency, and comprehension. Students will participate in 20 hours of field experience. Students will have practice administering and interpreting test results. Prerequisites: EDU 215 and EDU 270. Required for K-6 Reading Endorsement. F Offered on-campus.

ERE 231 Techniques & Strategies for Corrective Reading         3 Credits
Students learn about the nature and causes of reading disabilities. Current techniques and strategies will be researched and developed for application with struggling readers. Prerequisites: EDU 215, ERE 230, and EDU 270. Required for K-8 Reading Endorsement. S Offered on-campus.

ERE 232 Practicum in Corrective Reading         3 Credits
Students will use corrective reading techniques and strategies in tutoring children under the guidance of a university supervisor and cooperating practitioner for 30 hours. Prerequisites: ERE 230 or permission of the instructor and completion or concurrent enrollment in EDU 231 and EDU 270. Required for K-6 Reading Endorsement. S Offered on-campus.

ERE 240 Secondary Reading        3 Credits
This course examines reading skills and instructional needs of junior high and high school students, with emphasis on teaching in classrooms with a range of reading levels. Includes comprehension strategies, basic study skills, the coordination of teaching reading at the secondary level, and recreational reading. Prerequisites: PSY 104 and EDU 215. (Offered once every 2 years.) S Offered on-campus.

ERE 312 Reading in Secondary Education Content Areas         3 Credits
This course is intended for prospective and current secondary teachers desiring to incorporate strategies for reading into their content area. Current techniques and research-based strategies will be explored to afford students an opportunity to develop applications relevant to secondary content and the reading challenges encountered by students. Vocabulary, writing, comprehension, and study skills are discussed and applied to actual content area textbooks. Prerequisite: EDU 270 or concurrent enrollment in EDU 270. F/S Offered on-campus.

ESE Education Special Ed

ESE Prefix - Course required for Special Education endorsements

ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students         3 Credits
An investigation into the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors needed to identify and instruct students with disabilities in varied school settings. Attention will be given to the variety of students that special educators are likely to come into contact with. Students will examine the issues of providing services to identified individuals within and outside school settings. (Cross-listed as PSY 315.) F Offered online and on-campus.

ESE 317 Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
This course provides a theoretical frame of reference within which to view challenges faced by students with learning disabilities (LD). A functional definition of LD, possible causes of LD, characteristics of students with LD, typical academic deficits experienced by students with LD, and methods that have been effective in addressing the needs of students with LD will be examined. Prerequisite: ESE 315. S Offered on-campus.

ESE 319 Diagnostics of Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
The student will become familiar with the basic concepts and procedures relating to assessment in special education. Norm-referenced, achievement, diagnostic, informal, curriculum-based, intellectual, and adaptive assessment will be covered. Interpretation will be stressed. Application of course principles will be provided in one or more student-conducted testing situations. Prerequisite: ESE 315. F Offered on-campus.

ESE 321 Methods for Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
This course will cover critical issues and specific methods and materials relating to the instruction of students with a varying range of needs. Major emphasis will focus on students with mild disabilities such as LD as well as students with other mild to moderate disabilities. Major emphasis will also be on the framework for appropriate instruction for students in light of their learning stages, the nature of the learner, and the content. Students will be expected to work in a classroom setting under the direction of a cooperating teacher. Course includes 30 practicum/clock hours. Prerequisite: ESE 315. S Offered on-campus.

ESE 325 Behavior Management in the Classroom         3 Credits
This course provides strategies for changing inappropriate behaviors and prompting the acquisition of adaptive behaviors through positive management procedures. Designed to provide the prospective teacher practical “how to” skills in classroom management, modification of behavior, and other management skills directed toward establishing an environment of learning. Concurrent enrollment with EDU 330 and EDU 331 or any elementary methods class. Prerequisite: ESE 315. F Offered on-campus.

ESE 327 Collaborative Relationships & Transition         3 Credits
Factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with individuals, parents, families, and school and community personnel are considered. Elements of effective transition of students with disabilities across age span are addressed. Prerequisite: ESE 315. S Offered on-campus.

ESE 340 Adapted Physical Education         3 Credits
This course provides understanding of the various physical and emotional needs of the special education student and how to adapt curriculum. Students will have a required amount of hours of field experience. Prerequisite: ESE 315. (Cross-listed as PED 340.) Offered on-campus.

ESE 370 Learning & the Brain         3 Credits
Teaching and learning issues within a cognitive processes context are explored. This course covers the study of emotion, memory, and recall as well as early brain development and its relationship to learning. (Cross-listed as PSY 370.) Offered online.

ESE 456 Student Teaching in Special Education         4 Credits
This course is for students who have completed the requirements for an initial teaching license and are adding an endorsement in special education. Students must complete four weeks of full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating/mentor teacher in a special education classroom or setting. Offered on-campus.

ESE 631 Survey of the Exceptional Child         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the education of students with diverse learning abilities and styles, including children with mental retardation, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, those identified as gifted and talented, and those diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder. These and other disabilities and special abilities are explored with a focus on the identification of individual differences in development and learning, and risk factors associated with exceptionalities. Developmental variations and patterns of these exceptionalities are examined along with the educational support strategies, the effects on the family and the rights of children. Offered online.

ESE 633 Collaborative Relationships & Transition         3 Credits
This course focuses on effective education-based collaboration strategies for special educators who have multiple roles and serve numerous functions when designing and implementing developmentally appropriate and challenging learning experiences for students with a disability. As the special educator job is multifaceted, additional focus is on formulating a team-centered framework that provides academic support for various service delivery models. Additionally, candidates will learn how to effectively collaborate through verbal, written, and digital communication with collaborative transition team members who enable students to meet 21st century standards post-high school completion. Prerequisite: ESE 631. Offered online.

ESE 684 Instructional Methods for Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
This course will cover critical issues and specific methods and materials relating to the instruction of students with a varying range of needs. Class sessions will focus on students with mild disabilities and implementation and evaluation activities. Major emphasis will also be on the framework for appropriate instruction for students in light of their learning stages, the nature of the learner, and the content. Additional topics include: service delivery systems, roles of teachers and ancillary personnel, legal requirements, and major issues confronting the field of special education. Offered on-campus.

ESE 688 Diagnosis & Evaluation of Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
The student will become familiar with the basic concepts and procedures relating to assessment in special education. Norm-referenced, achievement, diagnostic, informal, curriculum-based, intellectual, and adaptive assessment will be covered. Interpretation will be stressed. Application of course principles will be provided in one or more student-conducted testing situations. Offered on-campus.

ESE 691 Behavior Management in the Classroom         3 Credits
This course provides strategies for changing inappropriate behaviors and prompting the acquisition of adaptive behaviors through positive management procedures. Designed to provide the teacher practical “how to” skills in classroom management, modification of behavior, and other management skills directed toward establishing an environment of learning. Prerequisite: ESE 631.Offered online.

ESE 697 Characteristics of Students with Mild & Moderate Disabilities & Evidenced-Based Strategies for Instruction         3 Credits
This course investigates the characteristics of students with mild and moderate, high-incidence disabilities (LD, EBD, ID), as well as the most effective strategies for teaching students with these disabilities. The central focus of the course is to design quality instruction to meet the needs of a range of learners in an inclusive classroom, as well as to leverage effective approaches and strategies to teaching and assessing students with disabilities. Prerequisite: ESE 631. (Equivalent to ESE 695.) Offered online.

ESL English as a Second Language

ESL 100 Intermediate Grammar         1-3 Credits
An overview of the structure of the simple English sentence; the course concentrates on the noun phrase and the verb phrase. The course will help students build an overall framework for understanding the organization of the English language. Students will learn which structures are more appropriate for oral communication and which are more appropriate for written communication. Structures will be studied in context. F or S Offered on-campus.

ESL 102 Intermediate Reading         1-3 Credits
This class is designed to help develop vocabulary and reading skills at the intermediate level. Students will improve comprehension by reading for the main idea and supporting details like scanning, previewing, inferring, skimming, etc. that will make them become better readers in the college setting. F or S Offered on-campus.

ESL 104 Intermediate Listening/Speaking         1-3 Credits
Refine the listening/speaking skills of international students to a level at which they can function effectively in a college setting. Students will discuss topics and listen for main ideas and will take notes from classroom lecture. F or S Offered on-campus.

ESL 106 Intermediate Writing         1-3 Credits
Master the paragraph and learn the structure of the essay. Students will learn the steps of process writing and also practice the mechanics of writing that will produce an acceptable final product. F or S Offered on-campus.

ESL 190 Advanced Grammar         1-3 Credits
Review grammar rules and the patterns of the complex sentence. The course will focus on how the English language shows relationship among idea units. Sentence types, clause types, sequencing of tenses, and connecting words are studied in detail. Offered on-campus.

ESL 192 Advanced Reading         1-3 Credits
Gives students extensive practice reading college texts and essays. Particular attention is given to the structure and organization. Students will participate in discussions and continue to develop vocabulary based on extensive reading passages. F or S Offered on-campus.

ESL 194 Advanced Listening/Speaking         1-3 Credits
Teach listening/speaking skills and strategies needed to participate in the American college classroom. Students will practice listening strategies to help them understand and recall lectures. Students will be taught the technique of note taking. Small group discussion, role playing, and debates will be used in the classroom. F or S Offered on-campus.

ESL 196 Advanced Writing         1-3 Credits
Students will acquire the level of writing they need to succeed in college. By the end of the course, students should be able to write well-organized essays. Students will continue to work through the writing process and learn how to apply research skills in their essays. F or S Offered on-campus.

EXP Freshman Experience

EXP 103 Freshman Experience         3 Credits
The primary goal of this course is to assist all first-year students in their personal adjustment to college life. This is accomplished by investigation and practice of specific academic skills, by inquiry into life skills necessary for citizenship in any diverse community, and by knowledge of history, traditions, and values at Ashford University. Offered on-campus.

EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education         3 Credits
This course is designed to help adult learners beginning their university studies to achieve academic success. Students will explore learning theories, communication strategies, and personal management skills. Adult learners will develop strategies for achieving success in school and work. Students will also be introduced to the University’s institutional outcomes and learning resources. Successful completion with a “C-” or better or equivalent is required. Offered online.

EXP 200 Fundamentals of Adult Learning         3 Credits
This course presents adult and experiential learning theories and applies them to the student’s life and experiences. Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning will be examined and used to analyze prior learning experiences. Students will investigate the roles of reflection and metacognition in the learning process. Guidance and practice will be given in developing an experiential essay structure that will plausibly demonstrate college-level experiential learning outcomes. The experiential essay written in the course can be submitted to the Prior Learning Assessment Center at the completion of the course for a potential of three additional credits. Offered online.

GEN General Education

GEN 499 General Education Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides students with a cumulative and integrative learning experience grounded in their general education experience. Through the study of selected interdisciplinary topics and course-embedded assessments students will demonstrate mastery of essential competencies and application of different ways of knowing. Students will apply the general education principles informed by ethical and critical sensibility and provide evidence of growth in acquiring the habits of active citizenship. A minimum grade of “C – “ is required to meet course requirements. Prerequisite: 75 credits or permission of the student’s school or college dean. Offered online and on-campus.

GEO Geography

GEO 201/301 Survey of World Regional Geography         3 Credits
The Survey of World Regional Geography course introduces students to the study of the world’s regions and the way physical, political, economic and cultural aspects influence these regions. Emphasis is placed on geographical concepts, spatial thinking, locating places on maps, and on contemporary issues that influence the changing patterns of human occupancy in the world. Offered on-campus.

GEO 308 GIS Software Application         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software that is widely used to conduct spatial analysis in the areas of environmental science, business, defense and intelligence, education, government, health and human services, public safety, transportation, and utilities and communication. Students will learn the ArcGIS system and become experienced in the analysis of spatially related data and the digitized map system. Offered online.

GRO Gerontology

GRO 320 Adult Development & Aging         3 Credits
This multi-disciplinary course presents views, perspectives, and research on aging and the aging process with emphasis on the life-span perspective. Current research and theory covering psychological, sociological, anatomical, physiological, and biological aspects of aging are explored. Offered online.

GRO 325 Aging & Health         3 Credits
This course examines the interface between health and aging. A broad range of health concerns and issues of older persons are explored from physical, mental, and emotional perspectives. Offered online.

GRO 330 Social Policy & Aging         3 Credits
This course explores the context and process for policy making impacting older adults in the United States. Topics covered include elder advocacy, retirement, inequities in access and procurement of services, employment, Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, delivery and regulation of health care, elder abuse, and social/community services. Offered online.

GRO 338 Mental Well-Being & Aging         3 Credits
This course explores models of mental health for older adults. The content examines mental well- being in older adults from both the individual (micro level) and societal perspectives (macro level.) Offered online.

GRO 410 Death & Dying         3 Credits
This multi-disciplinary course offers an overview of psychosocial aspects of death and dying. Topics include attitudes toward death, preparation for death, care of terminally ill patients, funeral issues, mourning, grief practices, suicide, and euthanasia. Offered online.

GRO 440 Ethics & Legal Aspects of Aging         3 Credits
This course explores major ethical and legal issues impacting older adults and the provision of services to this population. Case studies and court decisions are incorporated throughout the course to address legal and ethical considerations/issues from social, cultural, and individual perspectives. Offered online.

GRO 497 Gerontology Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of gerontology. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HCA Health Care Administration

HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care         3 Credits
This is an introductory course that explores the historical evolution of health care in the United States, its financing sources, technology, delivery of care and the stakeholders who comprise the health care system. The structure of the health care system, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, better known as Obamacare, will be discussed along with the various components that influence health care such as legal, ethical, regulatory, and fiscal forces. Students will also explore other health care systems and examine the potential future of health care in the United States. Offered online.

HCA 221 Practicum in Health Care         1-3 Credits
Prospective students in the allied health areas such as Nuclear Medicine Technology and Physical Therapy gain experience in patient care under the supervision of appropriately licensed professionals. Students complete 50 contact hours for each credit hour given and must provide evidence of learning through a written journal and keep an up-to-date time sheet. May be taken more than once to gain experience at different locations for a maximum of 4 credit hours. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or higher and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Offered on-campus.

HCA 281 Accounting Concepts for Health Care Professionals         3 Credits
This course is designed as an applied managerial and financial accounting course, designed to provide health care decision-makers with fundamental concepts of health care accounting practices and procedures. Prerequisites: Successful completion of Mathematical and Information Technology competencies. (Cross-listed as ACC 281.) Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 305 The U.S. Health Care System         3 Credits
This is an introductory course that explores the historical origins, foundations, values, and resources of the U. S. Health Care System. Other national health care systems are discussed in a comparative discourse with that of the United States. Throughout the course, the health care service component is integrated with market place, legal, ethical, regulatory, and financial factors as forces influencing the continued evolution of the U.S. Health Care System and the resulting opportunities. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 311 Health Care Financing & Information Systems         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to health care’s fundamental financing concepts. The interaction of funding resources among government agencies and the private sector in the funding of health services is explored. Political and social policies contributing to the demand for health services are discussed. Cost control strategies such as managed care, fee for service and specified contractual arrangements provide the foundation for analyzing health care financing. Health services financing and disbursement systems are presented across the domains of for-profit, non-profit, public, grant funding and managed care. Focused attention is given to discussion of government financing of health services including, Medicare, Medicaid, and specific entities such as veterans administration and other categorical funding. Prerequisites: HCA 281 and HCA 305. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law         3 Credits
This course presents the ethical and legal implications of health care administration. The unique legal aspects encountered in the provision of health services are analyzed. Concepts of access, affordability, health care interventions and human rights are interfaced with legal and ethical issues challenging the provision of health care services. Concepts of risk management, continuous quality assurance, guardianship, Institutional Review Boards, and needs of special and diverse populations provide discussion points in the course. The overlapping domains of ethics and medical law are examined. Case studies and discussion of ethical and legal precedent setting decisions are used to link theory with reality. Prerequisite: HCA 305. On-campus students may take this course concurrently with HCA 305. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 331 Introduction to Health Education         3 Credits
This course is a foundational course designed to provide an introduction to health education and the health education profession. Health educators are often responsible for developing and implementing health education programs that aim to improve the quality of life of individuals and communities. The roles, responsibilities, skills, settings, and professional networks of health educators will be reviewed in this course. Offered online.

HCA 333 Introduction to Long-Term Care         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the long-term service delivery continuum. Course topics include: the concept of patient-family-centered services, introduction to theories of adult development and aging, modalities of the long term care delivery system, organizational culture, introduction to regulatory agencies, financial resources, and assurance of quality. Offered online.

HCA 340 Managing in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
An upper-level management course providing basic management theory for the beginning manager. Management challenges, human service environments, management theories, organizational design, program planning and implementing supervisory relations, managing finances program evaluation, leadership theories and teams in organizations are explored. Prerequisite: HCA 305. May be taken concurrently with HCA 311 for campus students. (Cross-listed as SOC 340.) Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring & Accreditation         3 Credits
This course provides a foundational exploration of the concepts of health care accreditation and continuous quality monitoring. The concept of quality assurance is explored from a perspective of selected accreditation, regulatory, licensing and certification programs. The interface of accreditation and reimbursement is explored. Health information systems are used in the analysis of health care accreditation, government mandates, and regulatory activities as they impact consumer outcomes. Legal implications of quality monitoring are analyzed. Social, political, professional and organizational influences upon health services delivery are explored from a perspective of demand, special populations, financing and service delivery. On-campus students may take this course concurrently with HCA 305. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 401 Introduction to Health Care Informatics         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of health care informatics including basic vocabulary, concepts, technology, uses and practices. The history, background, and development of health care informatics are presented, as well as academic, private, and government influences. Offered online.

HCA 402 Health Care Internship         3-6 Credits
This course provides students with the opportunity to apply the skills and knowledge acquired from their study of health care administration to a client setting. Students may take the course for 3-6 hours of credit. Each credit hour of the Health Care Internship has a requirement of 50 applied hours. The internship requires supervised, unremunerated work in an approved institution or agency. The internship is individualized for each student based upon a self-assessment of their learning needs and consistent with the resources of the supervising agency/institution. A minimum GPA of 2.75 in the Health Care Core is required for registration in this course. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework. Offered on-campus.

HCA 415 Community & Public Health         3 Credits
This introductory course explores community and public health services in the well-being of a population. Regulatory mandates promoting public and community health are explored. The interface among community and public health services and the overall health care industry is explored. Legal and ethical imperatives emergent in public health services are discussed. Financing options are explored recognizing the role of categorical fiscal resources. Health care promotion and prevention strategies are explored in concert with the role of health care institutions and the public sector. Health information data is utilized in the planning of a community and/or public health project. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 417 Electronic Health Records         3 Credits
This course begins with an exploration of the evolution of electronic health records (EHRs,) and then delves into the current forces driving the adoption of electronic health records. The components of EHR’s are reviewed and the core functionalities of the EHR are examined. Major consideration is given to HIPPA and confidentiality regulatory requirements in terms of EHR management. In addition, the different methods of data capture and recording of data are reviewed, as well as a comparison of contents for an inpatient versus an outpatient EHR. Offered online.

HCA 419 Current Topics in Informatics         3 Credits
This course examines trends and emerging technologies involved in health care delivery and information systems/technology management within diverse health care settings. Content includes the following health care applications: process improvement and innovation for computerized provider order entry (CPOE,) telemedicine, imaging systems, bio-surveillance, genomics, bioinformatics (methods used to process data from biological experiments,) robotic surgery, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, ethical and legal considerations /aspects related to the use of computerized technology and information systems in the delivery of health care are reviewed. Offered online.

HCA 421 Health Care Planning & Evaluation        3 Credits
This course utilizes health care research data, research protocols, and information systems in the planning, implementation and evaluation of health care programs meeting the health care needs of a diverse population. Historical perspectives are discussed in tandem with current health programs and future challenges. The impact of public entities in controlling the demand aspects of health services is discussed in light of regulatory legislation. Planning strategies to meet the needs of a diverse population are explored from both the public and private sector. Discussion of the efficacy and efficiencies of past and current programs provide opportunities for analysis of past and on-going service demand and client outcomes. Development of a health care model applying the concepts of reimbursement, supply and demand, contractual adjustments and patient mix in to the planning and evaluation process. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 423 Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Long-Term Care Administration         1 Credit
Health Care Administration majors/concentrators enroll in the Long-Term Care Internship in anticipation of applying for the Long-Term Care Licensure Examination. The course is a Web-based, faculty-facilitated independent study. The learner may apply management and business principles in conducting a cost-benefit analysis for a self-selected long-term care service or quality topic. A GPA of 2.75 in the major is required for this course. This course will meet one hour of the ten credit hours required by the State of Iowa for Nursing Home Administration licensure preparation in the areas of business management, accounting, business law, or any combination thereof. Offered on-campus.

HCA 425 Long-Term Care Internship         12 Credits
This internship is designed to meet the requirements of the Iowa Board of Nursing Home administrators for eligibility for the licensing examination. Students must complete at least 720 hours in an approved nursing home working in specific areas. Prerequisites: Senior standing, a 2.5 GPA in health care courses, and permission of the instructor. F or S Offered on-campus.

HCA 430 Special Populations         3 Credits
This is a topics course that explores health care services for special populations. The populations include: mental health, substance addiction, rehabilitation, geriatrics and selected specialty services. The course is problem focused emphasizing access, cost-quality issues and financing considerations. Health information data is utilized as resources for the analysis of demand, quality and cost-efficiency. Historical perspectives are presented as shaping factors influencing the present models of health services for special populations. Government mandates, categorical services, legal, ethical, and reimbursement issues are presented as driving forces in the provision of special population health services. Multidisciplinary models of special population health service models are discussed. Learners will develop a model program for a self-selected special population. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 435 Informatics Applications         3 Credits
This course provides a broad overview of the various components of informatics and the practical usage focusing on administrative and clinical functions across diverse health care and health care delivery settings. Emphasis is given to process improvement, control, and management of health care data. Topics covered include the following: evidence-based medicine, information retrieval, decision support systems, security and confidentiality, bioinformatics, information system cycles, key health information systems and standards, and medical devices. Offered online.

HCA 442 Contemporary Issues in Aging         3 Credits
This course presents significant major interdisciplinary aging issues and controversies drawn from biological sciences, medicine, nursing, psychology, sociology, gerontology, public policy, and social work. With an emphasis on critical thinking, divergent views and perspectives of aging phenomenology are explored through the reading and research of selected articles and reports covering current topical content. Offered online.

HCA 444 Long-Term Care:The Consumer Perspective         3 Credits
This course examines the role and impact consumers have in long-term care decision making and provision of care. Factors and challenges influencing consumer choices are explored within the context of long-term care improvement in both institutional and community settings. Current topical issues such as customer/provider relationships and quality of care are overviewed in this course. Offered online.

HCA 459 Senior Project         3 Credits
This course provides the learner a format for the integration health care concepts, exploring a self-selected health care topic. The Senior Project may be: 1) problem focused in which the learner identifies a health care problem or issue and conducts research on the topic culminating in a proposed solution; or 2) an observational research project on a self-selected health care topic. Pre- or Co-requisites: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course and majority of major coursework. Offered online and on-campus.

HCA 496 Health Informatics Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health informatics. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HCA 497 Health Care Studies Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course students will demonstrate their mastery of program outcomes by reflecting on and synthesizing insights gained from their studies. This will take the form of a focused study of a significant trend or problem in contemporary health care. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HCS Health Care Studies

HCS 208 Introduction to Nutritional Concepts         3 Credits
This introductory course provides an overview of the basic principles of nutrition including the basic functions, needs, and sources of micro and macronutrients. Students apply nutrition principles to personal needs, as well as needs of individuals across the lifespan. Nutrition controversies are explored in addition to learning about the anatomical and physiological impacts of inadequate/improper nutrition practices and the risk for disease. Note: This course is designed for students with no previous and/or limited science background. Offered online.

HCS 226 Introduction to Health Care Policy         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of major US Health policies including the historical origins, and social, economic, and political forces impacting the creation and implementation of health policy. Various perspectives of health policy are explored including special populations, and political action groups within the context of legal and ethical rights. Offered on-campus.

HCS 311 Health & Wellness in Adulthood         3 Credits
This course provides students with a holistic overview of the multi-faceted dimensions of health and wellness in adulthood. Physical, social, intellectual, emotional occupational, spiritual, and environmental elements of health are explored within the context of a wellness lifestyle. Offered online.

HCS 316 Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness         3 Credits
This course explores the complexities and dimensions of health and illness through diverse cultural perspectives. Traditional health beliefs and practices among selected populations are presented along with the influences of social, political, and demographic changes impacting issues and perceptions of health and illness in a multi-cultural society. Offered online.

HCS 321 Foundations of Complementary & Alternative Health         3 Credits
This course introduces students to basic definitions and classifications of non-allopathic complementary and alternative health systems. Content includes the history and development of practices, practitioner nomenclature, and cultural influences of the major systems of Complementary and Alternative Medicine used today. Offered online.

HCS 323 Health & Wellness Promotion Throughout the Lifespan         3 Credits
This course provides students with a holistic overview of the multi-faceted dimensions of health and wellness across the lifespan. The seven dimensions of health: Physical, social, intellectual, emotional, occupational, spiritual, and environmental are explored within the context of a wellness lifestyle. Offered online.

HCS 326 Holistic Health         3 Credits
This course examines health in relation to living a balanced life and the synergism of mind, body, and spirit, rather than approaching its study solely from the conventional Western or allopathic perspective. Divided into three major themes, the course investigates the principles of strengthening your inner resources, developing healthy lifestyle practices, and taking charge of challenges to the body, mind, and spirit. Offered online.

HCS 334 Personal Fitness & Wellness for Optimal Living         3 Credits
Students will compare their own physical activity habits to national guidelines and explore the benefits of physical activity as well as the consequences of physical inactivity. Written assignments, case studies, and discussion forums provide students with an opportunity to design exercise and wellness plans for themselves and potential clients. Prerequisite: HCS 323. Offered online.

HCS 338 Integrative Health         3 Credits
This course explores the use, integration, and applications of holistic health practices in promoting wellness and managing health challenges. Elements of different health systems are presented with a person –centered approach to health care and wellness promotion. Clinically proven complementary and alternative practice modalities are studied that encompass the mind, body, and spiritual aspects of health and wellness. Offered online.

HCS 408 Methods of Community Health Promotion         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the professional scope of entry-level health educator responsibilities. Students gain knowledge of organizational concepts, processes, skills, attitudes, and personal characteristics comprising the field of health education. The course content explores the theoretical and practical issues of the field of community health that enable students to identify and apply health education principles to health challenges facing individuals, groups, and communities. Offered online.

HCS 412 Health Promotion Planning & Evaluation         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the practical and theoretical elements of health promotion program planning, implementation, and evaluation in a variety of settings. Students explore models and theories used in planning health and wellness promotion campaigns/interventions and how findings of program evaluation can be utilized and applied. Offered online.

HCS 435 Spirituality, Health, & Healing         3 Credits
This course explores the connections between spirituality, culture, health, and healing. Students examine spiritual rituals and practices from multi-cultural perspectives, in addition to examining elements of spiritual care in a variety of health settings and contexts. Offered online.

HCS 445 Statistics for Health Sciences         3 Credits
This course provides a practical introduction to statistical methods used in a variety of health research. Topics include descriptive statistics, the standard normal distribution, z-scores, t-tests, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and non-parametric tests. Students perform statistical analyses of health data and interpret results. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Educaion Mathematical competency. Offered online.

HCS 495 Complementary & Alternative Health Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of complementary and alternative health. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HCS 497 Health Education Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health education. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HCS 498 Health & Wellness Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health and wellness. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HHS Health and Human Services

HHS 201 Introduction to Human Services         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the profession of health and human services beginning with the historical evolution of the field and continuing up to modern day. A broad-based view of the purpose, preparation, and theoretical orientation of the profession is stressed including the many types and career settings of human service professions, scope of work, and duties and functions. Basic skills required by health and human service workers are reviewed, in addition to the roles of human service workers in both clinical and non-clinical settings. An introductory examination of orientations, ethics, and skills related to health and human service delivery in diverse practice settings is included. Offered online.

HHS 307 Communication Skills for Health & Human Service Personnel         3 Credits
This course emphasizes theories and practice of professional communication skills within the context of health and human services. Students will examine classical approaches and new theories and research in interpersonal, and group communication. Active listening, empathy interviewing, nonverbal communication, and presentation skills are stressed. The impact of family, culture, and gender on communication is integrated through communication exercises and class projects. In this class, students will also have an opportunity to examine the practical implications of these concepts in developing their own communication skills through application of selected communication techniques and strategies. Offered online.

HHS 310 Health & Human Services Culture:The Helping Relationship         3 Credits
This course examines the role and function of “helping,” and helping processes as applied within the context of the health and human service profession. Helper characteristics are considered, relative to optimizing service delivery in diverse health and human service settings serving a multitude of constituents/client groups. Helping strategies and interventions, with attention to principles, methodology, practitioner skills and knowledge are overviewed. Interpretive strategies such as case study analysis, and vignette analysis are used to simulate health and human service settings. Offered online.

HHS 320 Cultural Awareness in the Human Services         3 Credits
This course prepares students to understand cultural systems, and the nature of cultural identity defined by gender, ethnicity, race, national origin, sexual orientation, income, physical and mental ability, age, and religion. Emphasis is placed on defining and developing skills for the culturally competent delivery of health and human services. Offered online.

HHS 435 Contemporary Issues, Trends, Health Law Ethics in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
Health and human service delivery practices are discussed using contemporary issues, trends, legal aspects, and ethics in an integrated approach. Health laws, ethics, and professional conduct standards including boundary- setting and confidentiality requirements are covered. Professional roles, functions, and legal/ethical responsibilities of health and human service professionals are overviewed using standards published by selected professional organizations. Offered online.

HHS 440 Technology in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
This course is a survey of the application and integration of technology within the health and human services sector. Informatics issues such as privacy, access, and security are presented. Legal ramifications, professional ethics, and maintaining confidentiality of the client are explored within the emerging technological context. Offered online.

HHS 460 Research Methods in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
This course is a survey course encompassing the application of research methodology. It prepares students to critically evaluate published research. The nature and history of the scientific method, research tools, data collection and analysis will be reviewed. Although key statistical concepts are covered, the focus of the course is helping students gain a conceptual understanding of the components of sound research, and to understand the steps and procedures involved in ethical research of the content area. Offered online.

HHS 497 Health & Human Services Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course, students will reflect upon and synthesize the major insights gained in their study of Health and Human Services. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout their program. The focus is on a strategic health and human services topic that is directly related to access and delivery of services to a selected client group. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HIM Health Information Management

HIM 105 Medical Terminology       3 Credits
This course is the study of medical language and includes the building blocks of prefixes, suffixes and root words, definitions, pronunciations, basic medical terms, and common laboratory tests, diagnostic tests and procedures by body system. Offered online.

HIM 205 Anatomy and Physiology for HIM I        4 Credits
This course is part one of a two-part course that is the study of anatomy, the structure of the body and how the body is organized and physiology, the function and vital processes of the various structures making up the human body. This course includes an overview of the human body, basic chemistry of the body, cell and tissue structures, integumentary, skeletal, and muscular and nervous system. Offered online.

HIM 206 Anatomy & Physiology for HIM II        3 Credits
This course is part two of a two-part course that is the study of anatomy, the structure of the body and how the body is organized and physiology, the function and vital processes of the various structures making up the human body. This course includes an overview of the endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic & immune, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems. Prerequisite: HIM 205. Offered online.

HIM 210 Pathophysiology        3 Credits
This course is the study of common human diseases, disorders and conditions. In the course, students will learn the description, symptoms and signs, diagnostic tests, etiology, and treatment for common diseases, disorders and conditions. In addition, the students will learn about the associated drug class for specific diseases, disorders or conditions. Prerequisite: HIM 105, HIM 205, and HIM 206. Offered online.

HIM 217 Electronic Health Records        3 Credits
In this course, students will learn about the structure, capture, use, storage and retrieval of health information in paper, hybrid and electronic formats. Students will learn about Electronic Health Record (E H R) project management including scope, goals, strategic planning, workflow analysis, functional needs assessment and implementation. Students will learn about the financial aspects of the E H R as well as the E H R from a consumer and a nationwide health information network perspective. Offered online.

HIM 250 Clinical Classifications Systems I        3 Credits
This course is part I of a two-part course that introduces students to applications for clinical classification and coding. Students will learn about the development of classification systems, use of the health record for coding and the relationship between coding and reimbursement. In particular, the students will learn the guidelines for CPT and ICD-9-CM legacy system, and organizational structure for provider billing. Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, and HIM 217. Offered online.

HIM 251 Clinical Classification Systems II        3 Credits
This course is part II of a two-part course that introduces students to applications for clinical classification and coding. Students will demonstrate their understanding and application of ICD-10-CM/PCS and the ICD 9-CM legacy system. Students will compare and contrast various processes, policies and procedures to ensure the accuracy of coded data. Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, HIM 210, HIM 217, and HIM 250. Offered online.

HIM 252 Legal Aspects of Health Information        3 Credits
This course explores the major legal and ethical issues central to the implementation, application, and utilization of health information across the spectrum of health care settings. Key topics include liability, confidentiality, the legal and ethical ramifications of federal legislative mandates pertaining to health information management and informatics. Prerequisite: HIM 217. Offered online. 

HIM 301 Introduction to Health Informatics         3 Credits
This foundational course details the history and factors driving the emergence of health informatics.   In addition to emphasizing the concepts, terminologies and scope of health informatics, the course delves into health information exchanges, data standards, health informatics ethics, online resources and E-research. The course includes and overview of basic database architecture, design and file structure and data warehousing and data mining in healthcare. Offered online.

HIM 310 Healthcare Reimbursement         3 Credits
This course reviews healthcare reimbursement methodologies, government and voluntary healthcare insurance plans, and inpatient and outpatient reimbursement systems. Students will learn about the revenue cycle, audit processes and compliance strategies. Prerequisite: HCA 205. Offered online.

HIM 360 Healthcare Statistics      3 Credits
This course introduces the student to the generation and analysis of common healthcare statistics, state and national reporting of information and departmental performance standards. Students will learn how to construct and analyze various tables and charts related to healthcare. Prerequisites: HIM 217 and General Education Mathematical competency. Offered online.

HIM 370 Professional Practice Experience I        3 Credits
This course focuses on the technical application of concepts introduced in other program courses and explores similarities and differences with various healthcare providers. Students will demonstrate their ability to apply knowledge, analyze situations and create solutions in various healthcare scenarios. Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, HIM 250, HIM 251, HCA 205, HIM 310, HIM 217, HIM 252, HIM 210, and HIM 360. This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution. Offered online.

HIM 410 Health Informatics – A Systems Perspective      3 Credits
This course focuses on the behind the scenes components of exchange, standards and interoperability of information in healthcare. The course will evaluate informatics-based support resources to include evidence based practice, clinical decision support and transport protocols. Prerequisite: HIM 301. Offered online.

HIM 435 Analyzing Healthcare Data         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health informatics. Students will learn about how various healthcare data sets are constructed and utilized in healthcare; how computerized statistical packages are utilized; and the role of health informatics in financial and performance improvement goals. The student will apply common performance improvement models and tools to develop data-driven organizational reports. Prerequisite: HIM 301. Offered online.

HIM 440 Health Informatics Research Methods and Data Analysis        3 Credits
This course explores in depth the relationship of research and informatics, research methods, the research process and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of data, including descriptive and inferential statistics. Students will explore the role of epidemiology in research and policy development. Prerequisites: Successful completion of mathematical competency and HIM 360. Offered online.

HIM 445 Healthcare Project Management        3 Credits
This course explores principles of project management to improve quality and decrease cost in healthcare. While addressing the intersection of healthcare and information technology, students will learn about the project process and related tools and techniques to successfully plan, execute, control and assess a project. Prerequisite: HIM 301. Offered online.

HIM 450 Healthcare Management        3 Credits
This course focuses on key management principles in healthcare management and unique Health Information Management activities. Students will learn about organizational structure, the planning and decision making process, budgeting, committee and team dynamics, staff hiring and development and key indicators of department performance. Prerequisites: HCA 375 and HIM 360. This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution. Offered online.

HIM 495 Professional Practice Experience II        3 Credits
This course is a combination of virtual activities and a supervised management experience in a healthcare setting. Students complete 40 hours in a professional work environment demonstrating mastery in their knowledge, application, analysis and synthesis of key Health Informatics and Health Information Management concepts. Prerequisite: Completion of BSHIM program core courses. This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution. Offered online.

HIS History

HIS 103 World Civilizations I         3 Credits
This course is a study of the origins and development of the world’s major civilizations from their beginnings through the seventeenth century. Emphasis is placed on the salient socio-economic, political and religious characters of the civilization and the patterns of interaction among them. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 104 World Civilizations II         3 Credits
This course is a study of the development and interaction of the world’s major civilizations from the seventeenth century to the present. Emphasis is placed on the rise and decline of European global dominance. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 203 American History to 1865         3 Credits
American history from the beginnings of European settlement through the Civil War. Emphasis is placed on the colonial sources of American nationality, the development of American political institutions, the evolution of American society, and the sectional crisis of the mid-nineteenth century. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 204 American History Since 1865         3 Credits
HIS 204 surveys American history from Reconstruction to the present. Emphasis is placed on the growing pluralism of American society, the effects of industrialization, the evolution of American political institutions, and the increasing importance of the United States in world affairs. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 301 History of American Business         3 Credits
The development of business and its role in American life from the colonial period to the present. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the corporation, the relationships between business and government, and the impact of business on American culture. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 303 The American Constitution         3 Credits
This course is a study of the Constitution of the United States and its role in American history and government. The course covers the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, its subsequent amendment and interpretation, and its contemporary role in American politics and government. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. (Cross-listed as POL 303.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe         3 Credits
The history of Europe since 1900. Emphasis is placed on the changing nature of European society, the confrontation between totalitarianism and democracy, the origins and consequences of the two world wars, and Europe’s evolving role in world affairs. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor, successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 307 Early Modern Britain        3 Credits
The history of the British Isles from the later fifteenth century through the early eighteenth century. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales with England and on early modern developments that have shaped English-speaking civilization, especially in the areas of government, law, and overseas expansion. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 308 Modern Britain         3 Credits
The history of the British Isles since the early eighteenth century. Emphasis is placed on the development of parliamentary government, the growth and decline of the British Empire, and the evolution of British society and economic life. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 310 American Women’s History         3 Credits
By examining a wide range of sources, from first person accounts to interpretive essays, this course explores changes and continuities in women’s lives since the earliest days of the Republic. Students will work to understand the forces motivating change, including the various women’s movements that have arisen over the years. Underlying the course will be the question of how traditional interpretations of American history are altered by the incorporation of women’s history. (Offered every other year.) Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 312 The American West         3 Credits
The American West is a sub-field of United States history that was framed by Frederick Jackson Turner’s frontier thesis in 1893, which saw encounters among land, people, and history forming the basis for a “sectional” identity. This course examines these entities and further explores the complexities of U.S. western history, incorporating the different landscapes shaped by multiple geopolitical histories, the encounters between political and cultural struggles over meaning, and/or the contests between diverse groups of people over shared places, status, and/or meanings. Historians, journalists, politicians, filmmakers, and writers have all told stories about the American West. For this reason, this course examines a variety of stories from across the curriculum that present the twentieth-century-American West. (Cross-listed as POL 312.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 320 History Seminar         3 Credits
A program of coordinated class readings and discussions that focus on a historical topic selected by the instructor. Emphasis is placed on the analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of historical writing. May be retaken for credit with change of subject matter. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 321 History & Politics of the Vietnam War         3 Credits
This readings course examines selected perspectives by scholars and writers on the Vietnam War. The course focuses primarily on the political and historical context shaped by the years of U.S. involvement with Vietnam. The course attempts to come to grips with the different contexts of the wars by drawing on books that consider the actions of both the Vietnamese and American armies and the consequences of the war on the people and environment of each. The course places emphasis on understanding the war from both the Vietnamese and American perspectives and on the historical and cultural context of both nations. (Cross-listed as POL 321.) Offered on-campus.

HIS 324 History of American Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of sentinel events, theories, and important historical figures that have shaped the United States education system. (Cross-listed as EDU 324.) Offered online.

HIS 330 World War I         3 Credits
This course seeks to provide an understanding of the causes, course, and consequences of the First World War in its European and global settings and to develop an appreciation of its considerable influence on the contemporary world. Through readings in various primary and secondary sources, students will also develop a better understanding of how historians reconstruct and interpret the past. Offered on-campus.

HIS 331 World War II         3 Credits
A study of the causes, course, and consequences of World War II. Topics covered include the war’s major campaigns, its impact on the societies of the nations involved, the Holocaust, and the war’s influence in shaping the contemporary world. Through readings in various primary and secondary sources, students will also develop an understanding of how historians reconstruct and interpret the past. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 335 The American Revolution         3 Credits
This course seeks to provide an understanding of the era of the American Revolution (roughly 1763-1791) and an appreciation of its impact on the subsequent course of American history. It will stress the factors that led to the break with Great Britain, the War of Independence, and political experimentation that led to the adoption of the Constitution. Through readings in various primary and secondary sources, students will also develop an understanding of how historians reconstruct and interpret the past.  Offered on-campus.

HIS 340 Recent American History         3 Credits
This course chronicles and analyzes the profound changes in American life in the period since the Second World War, including changes in the country’s political structure, economy, and culture as well as the development of the U.S. role in the international arena. Among the important events and topics covered are the Korean and Vietnam wars, the Cuban Missile Crisis, space exploration, Watergate, the civil rights movement, and the feminist movement. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 342 The Middle East         3 Credits
This course is intended to introduce students to the complex history of the Middle East, focusing on the development of the core region in the 19th and 20th centuries. Among the most important topics covered are the origins and nature of Islam, the expansion of the Islamic world, the nature and impact of the region’s relationship with Western countries, the impact of the discovery of oil in the region, the causes and course of the Israeli-Arab struggle, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online and on-campus.

HIS 344 The Cold War World         3 Credits
The Cold War was a central fact of international life for decades. It also profoundly influenced domestic life in many countries, including the United States. Though the conflict formally ended in 1991, its effects are far reaching and long lasting. Using a variety of interpretive and documentary sources, we will work to define the Cold War, to understand its origins, to analyze its major turning points, and to outline its effects both on the primary participants and the rest of the world into the present day. Offered on-campus.

HIS 351 Asia in the Age of Decolonization & Globalization         3 Credits
Covering major developments in Asia since the early twentieth century, this course focuses on China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. The course traces the rise of Asian nationalism, the decline of western imperialism, and the region’s rise to economic prominence. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online.

HIS 378 Historiography & Historical Methodologies         3 Credits
This course provides students with an introduction to the practice of the discipline of history. It provides them with an overview of the ways historians have approached the study of the past since classical antiquity, acquaints them with the major approaches that characterize the discipline today, and equips them to use appropriate practices in historical research and writing. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online.

HIS 379 The Atlantic World         3 Credits
The history of the Atlantic basin from the late fifteenth century through the early nineteenth, including the interactions of Africans, Europeans, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the societies their interactions produced. Themes covered include the Columbian exchange, migrations (forced and voluntary), empire-building, strategies of resistance, identity formation, and the transatlantic dimensions of the American and French Revolutions. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online and on campus.

HIS 388 Destination Course: Literary & Historical Developments in 19th Century England         3 Credits
A course designed to include an extended travel component that provides an experiential encounter with historical or contemporary aspects of the course content. The “destination course methodology” may be applied to an existing course or to special courses. Destination courses may be offered in classroom or online modalities. Students may receive credit for General Education History requirement. (Equivalent to ENG 388. and TVL 311) Offered online.

HIS 497 History Capstone:Advanced Research Project         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate their mastery of the learning outcomes of the history major by demonstrating the ability to conduct historical research using primary and secondary sources and by producing an original research paper on an approved topic. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course and all History coursework. Offered online.

HMC Health Marketing and Communication

HMC 303 Health Communications         3 Credits
Utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach, this course provides an introduction to the field of health communications, and explores how communications are utilized to influence and motivate individuals, institutional, government, and public audiences about important health issues and interventions. Students examine processes for creating clear, accurate, and appropriate health communications for a variety of target audiences. Case studies of health campaigns are integrated into the course. Offered online.

HMC 312 Health Marketing & Advertising         3 Credits
Students are introduced to the essential concepts, methods, and models of marketing and advertising as applied to health care and health- related settings. Marketing concepts presented include the marketing mix, market segmentation, target marketing, strategic planning and forecasting methods, branding, and basic advertising strategy with an emphasis on prevention, education, and other social marketing contexts. Offered online.

HMC 314 Social Media & Health Promotion         3 Credits
This course explores how the Internet and Web 2.0 tools are utilized for health promotion campaigns. General web-based technologies for use in health promotion are introduced and formal and informal types of health promotion are examined. Students will analyze the benefits of various social media campaigns including the appropriate use of applications, such as Facebook and Twitter, in health promotion. Offered online.

HMC 334 Ethics in Health Marketing & Communication         3 Credits
This course explores contemporary ethical issues in health care marketing. Topics include consumer advertising of health products, goods, and services; physician marketing, advertising, and endorsements of elective procedures and health care products; physician relationships to hospitals and surgery centers in terms of ownership; and disclosure and confidentiality of collected health consumer data. Offered online.

HMC 462 Contemporary Issues & Trends in Health Marketing & Communication         3 Credits
This course provides an interdisciplinary exploration of contemporary issues and trends in health marketing and communication as well as emerging research areas. Case studies from diverse health related settings are integrated throughout the course to assist students in gaining real world perspectives and awareness. Offered online.

HMC 499 Health Marketing & Communication Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health marketing and communication. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program into a culminating project. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HPR Health Promotion

HPR 205 The Human Body, Health and Disease         4 Credits
This introductory course provides students the opportunity to develop a basic understanding of health and disease as it relates to basic human physiology for non-science majors. The functions of the skeletal, muscular, integumentary, nervous, special senses, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems are explored. The most common conditions and diseases associated with these systems are examined. Students are provided the opportunity to learn about the major contributing factors associated with these conditions and diseases. In addition to coursework, weekly laboratories provide students the opportunity to explore various aspects of human physiology while applying the scientific method. Offered online.

HPR 460 Analysis of Health Research         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to develop a basic understanding of health research. Students are given the opportunity to learn about the various types of health research and associated research designs and methodologies. This course provides the students with increased exposure to health research literature and teaches students strategies to critically analyze this literature. Students are provided the opportunity to learn about the ethical dimensions, physical limitations, and practical application of health research. The students are provided a supplemental booklet containing example literature and figures that highlight the major concepts covered in the course. Offered online.

HSM Homeland Security Management

HSM 305 Survey of Homeland Security & Emergency Management         3 Credits
This course is a broad overview of Homeland Security from its emergence in America’s first century to the 9/11 attacks. Areas of study include the rise of modern terrorism, domestic terrorism, cyberterrorism, Homeland Security organization, strategies, programs and principles, emergency management, the media, and the issues of civil liberties. Offered online.

HSM 311 Ethics & Homeland Security         3 Credits
This course provides a foundation of classical ethical theories and explores the ethical implications of war and terrorism in the 21st century. Students will be challenged to analyze the controversial issues of the practice of torture, bombing of civilians, assassination and targeted killing, and humanitarian intervention. Civil Liberties and the Patriot Act will be examined. Case studies will offer students the opportunity to examine their own moral stance on selected issues, and study the traditional ethical rules and practices in war, even when engaging with international terrorist groups. Offered online.

HSM 315 Emergency Planning         3 Credits
This course will provide students with the skills to develop a comprehensive plan for risk analysis, threat assessment, staffing an
emergency operations center, coordinating with supporting agencies, and the creation of a continuing testing program. Actual case studies are used to teach students how to plan for natural disasters as well as terrorism at the federal, state and local levels. Offered online.

HSM 320 Emergency Response to Terrorism         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with the ability to evaluate an emergency incident, determine its scope, understand the function of the first responders, learn the communication procedures necessary to alert the appropriate agencies, and understand how first responders are dispatched. Students will create a recovery plan for response to large scale terrorist incidents. Offered online.

HSM 421 Research & Analysis in Homeland Security         3 Credits
Students will develop the skills to conduct research into selected topics relating to homeland security, emergency management and disaster preparedness using government websites, Internet sources, library databases, and other pertinent repositories of information and data. Students will be required to formulate a research topic with supporting sources for the final report due in the Capstone course. Offered online.

HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis         3 Credits
Students in this course study and analyze counterterrorism including the evolution of counterterrorism, and the specifics of the typology and anatomy of terrorist operations. The course includes an overview of the intelligence community, collection, analysis, requirements and dissemination. Offered online.

HSM 435 Psychology of Disaster         3 Credits
Utilizing case studies and clinical research, the course will focus on the psychological and physiological response to natural disasters, terrorism, and other manmade disasters. Students will examine psychological reactions, the recovery process and mental health care for victims, disaster recovery teams, and first responders. Offered online.

HSM 438 Introduction to Cyber Crime         3 Credits
This course focuses on the technical aspects of digital crime as well as behavioral aspects of computer hackers, virus writers, terrorists and other offenders. Using real life examples and case studies, students will examine the history, development, extent and types of digital crime and digital terrorism as well as current legislation and law enforcement practices designed to prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes. Offered online.

HSM 497 Homeland Security & Emergency Management Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course students will demonstrate their mastery of program outcomes in Homeland Security & Emergency Management creating an original research and analysis report using the draft and research developed in the Research and Analysis Course. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

HWE Health and Wellness

HWE 230 Functional Anatomy         3 Credits
In this course, students study the structure and function of muscular and skeletal systems within the human body using a regional approach. Students are given the opportunity to learn about anatomical variation, the functional importance of this variation, and analysis of movement. This course expands upon the anatomical concepts provided in the prerequisite, The Human Body, Health and Disease. Prerequisite: HPR 205. Offered online.

HWE 340 Exercise & Physiology         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students an introduction to physiological responses to exercise in the human body. The students review the major physiological systems at rest (energy transfer, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neuromuscular, etc.) and learn the systemic adaptations that occur with acute and long-term exercise. This course provides the students an opportunity to gain an understanding of the skeletal muscle structure and function in various types of exercise. Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 230. Offered online.

INF Information Systems

INF 103 Computer Literacy         3 Credits
Students will use operating system software, the Internet, and productivity software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation graphics, etc.). Students will use the library and Web resources to research a topic, word process their findings, and create a visual presentation to communicate to the class. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 220 IS Principles         3 Credits
An introduction to the systems designed to support the information needs of the business functions of an organization. Topics include basic computer architecture, computer communications, models of information systems, information security, organizing and managing the information systems department, software and hardware acquisition, and the ethics involved in the management of information. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 231 Programming Concepts         3 Credits
An introduction to the methodology of programming and the construction of graphical user interfaces. Students are introduced to programming through the use of current programming languages(s). Emphasis is on structured design, coding, graphical user interfaces, event-driven programming, and documentation. A variety of programming problems develop skills in algorithm design, file processing data structures, and event handling. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 240 Visual & Verbal Presentations         3 Credits
This course integrates word processing and presentation graphics technology while exploring business communication. Students will work individually and in teams to plan, write, and present effective business communication utilizing appropriate software. Prerequisites: INF 103 and ENG 122. Offered on-campus.

INF 242 Spreadsheet & Database Analysis         3 Credits
Data is used to solve typical business problems, and that data must be managed efficiently. Students will integrate previous business, accounting, and information system coursework into solving problems using spreadsheet and database management software. Prerequisites: INF 103 and General Education Mathematical competency. Offered on-campus.

INF 245 Spreadsheet Analysis         3 Credits
Students will integrate comprehensive spreadsheet software skills with one or more of the following soft skills: decision making, problem solving, teamwork, verbal communication, and written communication. Prerequisites: INF 103 and General Education Mathematical competency. Offered on-campus.

INF 247 Database Analysis         3 Credits
Students will use comprehensive database software to apply their skills in real-world situations that integrate soft skills, such as decision making or problem solving, with application skills. Prerequisites: INF 103 and General Education Mathematical competency. Offered on-campus.

INF 317 Procedures for IS Support         3 Credits
Course emphasis deals with procedures to follow when working with end-user computing. The organization and management of a computer support system, customer service skills, training, evaluation, and needs assessment are topics covered. Students will work together to design a computer support system complete with procedures. Offered on-campus.

INF 322 Database Management Systems         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the concepts of database processing. An understanding of the physical and logical organization of data and the meaningful representation of data relationships are evaluated. Operational requirements of database management systems are also discussed. Prerequisites: INF 231 and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts         3 Credits
A study of real-time and distributed-processing computer networks including telecommunications, data transmission techniques (protocols), design, and implementation considerations. Prerequisite: INF 231 or permission of the instructor. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 331 IS Programming         3 Credits
This programming course solves problems using a current programming language. The emphasis is on techniques for efficient problem solving, good structured programming, and documentation. Both interactive and batch processing will be covered. Object-orientated programming techniques may be included. Prerequisites: INF 231 and MAT 225 or higher math course. Offered on-campus.

INF 335 Project Management Principles         3 Credits
This comprehensive course is designed to develop and strengthen the core knowledge base of those who have chosen project management as their career path. Focus is on basic principles across the breadth of The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) and on learning the essential elements for each phase of the project life cycle. Students will gain the knowledge, tools, and techniques to manage a project from initiation to final closeout, while balancing the competing demands of time, cost, and scope. This course can be used as a substitute for INF 410. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and ECO 203. Offered on-campus.

INF 336 Project Procurement Management         3 Credits
Designed to develop the basic knowledge base of project managers and project procurement managers, this course emphasizes partnering between buyers and sellers to create a single culture with one set of goals and objectives. Students will discover the key areas in procuring outside services and products—from the initial decision to buy through final contract closeout. They will recognize what must be done for success in the six key project procurement management processes: procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout. They will also formulate the make-or-buy decision, prepare an effective procurement management plan to guide the team, and use outsourcing for maximum benefit. Lessons and best practices from procurement theory and experience are also presented. This course can be used as a substitute for BUS 309. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control         3 Credits
Effective cost and schedule management are cornerstone activities of each project. Students will determine how best to plan the execution of a project scope, to consider stakeholder budget and schedule constraints, to use different methodologies, and to establish the performance measurement baseline. They will also discover keys to identify potential cost and schedule overruns and master the tools and techniques to compare actual work accomplished against established plans, as well as work accomplished against actual expenditures. By identifying early warning indicators, students will gain greater insight into potential risk areas and take the necessary corrective action to keep the project in control. Prerequisites: ACC 205, and MAT 332 or BUS 308. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 338 Leadership & Communication Skills for Project Managers         3 Credits
This course enables students to develop the necessary skills to elicit maximum performance from every member of a team. Students will uncover the styles of leadership that are most appropriate for achieving project success and discover which forms of leadership and communication styles are best suited to their personalities. They will also learn techniques for resolving conflict and managing personnel issues and gain hands-on experience in analyzing stages of team development and maximizing project team effectiveness. This course can be used as a substitute for BUS 303. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 340 Business Systems Analysis         3 Credits
This course studies the problems and needs of organizations and how business functions, staff, data, business processes, and technology can be used to achieve organizational goals and objectives. The focus is on assessment for improvement of the business and its functions. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 342 Project Quality Assurance         3 Credits
This course will address topics as defining, planning, executing and closing projects. We will introduce an overall framework for managing projects, describe how to set up a project, and provide a forum for sharing practical techniques for managing projects. Several topics are discussed, including how to build a project plan, risk management, issue management, project marketing, communications, quality assurance, project measurements and the psychology of project management. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 391 IS Seminar I         3 Credits
This course is a seminar in which students will conduct self-directed learning, give presentations, and complete a project in an approved topic. Approved topics may include Animation, Applied Mathematics, Computer Game Design, Computer Graphics, Computer Programming, Computer Support, Computer Repair, Computer Training, Graphic Design, Statistics or Web Programming. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

INF 392 IS Internship         3 Credits
Internships are designed to open new career paths, to foster personal growth, and to expose the student to practical computer projects or programs. Participants in the program are responsible for completing real projects typical of those assigned to computer technology graduates in entry-level positions. Every effort is made to place interns in positions that match their primary career interests, although this cannot be guaranteed. A minimum of 150 hours is devoted to the internship. Application must be made through an advisor eight weeks in advance of the regular fall or spring registration. Prerequisites: Senior status; completion of courses applicable to the internship work; 3.00 GPA overall; 3.00 GPA in computer graphics design, management information systems, or computer science/math; and permission of the Internship Committee. Offered on-campus.

INF 410 Project Management         3 Credits
This course provides the foundational principles and techniques to plan, execute, and manage complex projects. Topics include workflow analysis, quality control, and performance evaluation. Offered online and on-campus.

INF 420 Senior Portfolio         3 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of skills and knowledge in their areas of emphasis and previous coursework through the development of an approved project. Students will analyze, design, implement, and document an appropriate solution for the project. The project should exemplify the student’s ability to apply IS resources and skills in a well-designed project. Prerequisites: INF 410 and INF 240 or CGD 240; successful completion of the General Education Capstone course, and permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

INF 431 Advanced IS Programming         3 Credits
This programming course covers advanced programming techniques and implementation of information systems, especially using multiple programs to work together to implement an information system. Topics may include software design, file structures, sorting, data structures, and efficient algorithms. Students are expected to develop programs to support and use the topics covered in this course. Prerequisites: INF 331 and fufillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. Offered on-campus.

INF 620 Management of Information Systems        3 Credits
This course introduces the fundamentals of computer systems, the role of information processing in the business environment, and provides a basic overview of essential computer software. The course also provides an overview of systems development, operating systems and programming, database management, networking, and telecommunications all from a management perspective. Offered online.

INF 630 Systems Analysis         3 Credits
This course addresses the many business systems issues unique to the information services function within organizations. Coverage includes information systems planning, managing the information infrastructure, justifying information technology investments, the costing of services and networks, evaluating information system performance, alternative information service delivery modes, managing distributed and end-user computing, project and operations management, systems security, and the management of information technology professionals. Offered online.

INF 690 ISS Capstone Seminar         3 Credits
This course emphasizes the use of information technology to develop distinct competitive advantage in relations with competitors, customers, and suppliers, and with respect to products and services. Course participants examine strategies of actual companies and identify other strategies that can be deployed to gain competitive advantage in diverse settings. In addition, the course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MBA curriculum. The capstone project requires generation and presentation of an organizational information systems strategic plan.  Offered online.

JRN Journalism

JRN 210 Introduction to Reporting         2 Credits
An introduction to reporting, interviewing, and writing hard news. Students learn journalistic terminology, theory, and technique, to be applied in writing and editing. Specific units covered will be introduction to lead writing, story structure, accuracy, copy-editing, headline and cutline writing, advertising, and ethical and legal issues in journalism. May be taken concurrently with JRN 211. Offered on-campus.

JRN 211 News Reporting Lab         1-2 Credits
Includes news writing, feature writing, editing, advertising, layout, promotion, and all other practical aspects of newspaper production. This course may be repeated for a total of 12 credit hours. Pre- or Co-requisite: JRN 210. Offered on-campus.

JRN 217 Survey of Graphic Communications         3 Credits
This lecture course is a survey of design principles and practices used in computer animation, Web design, and print media. The course teaches students to understand the proper audience, marketing strategies, design criteria, and choices of graphic software to produce professional graphic art. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency. (Cross-listed as CGD 217.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 231 Survey of Journalism & Mass Communication         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide an overview of the history, professional traditions, and roles and practices of the news media in a democracy. Topics include journalistic reporting, how news is defined, ethics, emerging trends, online reporting and news writing basics. Offered online.

JRN 240 Media Writing & Editing         3 Credits
An introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication. Practical experience includes writing for campus media. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency. (Cross-listed as CGD 240). Offered on-campus.

JRN 253 Web Publishing         3 Credits
An introduction to the Internet as a medium for publishing. Included is an introduction to HTML and opportunities to work with current Web publishing software. This course covers navigational organization, selection, and linking of animations, illustrations, photos, and sound to Web pages. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency. (Cross-listed as CGD 253.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 303 Publication Design         3 Credits
In this course, students are introduced to graphic design with an emphasis on theory and practice in designing visually effective communication media. Emphasis is placed on understanding principles of visual literacy and design to communicate ideas in publications such as newspapers, brochures, newsletters, and magazines. The course also includes study and practice in visualizing communication problems in the layout and design of publications and an introduction to desktop publishing using Quark XPress and PageMaker. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as CGD 303.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 310 Editorial & Feature Writing         3 Credits
Students apply literary and journalistic techniques in editorial and feature writing, including examples of newspaper and magazine models. Offered on-campus.

JRN 318 Public Relations Practices & Professional Writing         3 Credits
An introduction to current procedures and duties of public relations personnel will be studied. Students will write news releases, brochures, speeches, reports, memos, scripts, and ad copy using workshop format. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency. (Cross-listed as CGD 318.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 328 Scientific & Technical Writing         3 Credits
Students will develop the skills necessary for writing about scientific, environmental, medical, and technological topics. Emphasis is placed on making complex and technical information understandable to a variety of audiences. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and fulfillment of the General Education Science requirement. (Cross-listed as ENG 328.) F or S. Offered on-campus.

JRN 331 Advanced Writing & Editing for the Media         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the principles and techniques of good writing for the mass media with an emphasis on accuracy of information, presentation, clarity, precision and efficiency in use of the language. Additionally, students will focus on the standards of writing for the Web which differ substantively from the traditional media. Prerequisite: ENG 325. Offered online.

JRN 333 Ethics in Journalism         3 Credits
Ethics in journalism begins with an overview of ethical foundations and philosophy with a focus on case studies in the media and the application of ethical standards and decision making to issues faced by journalists on a daily basis. Offered online.

JRN 335 Cyber-journalism         3 Credits
This course examines the ways in which technology has transformed the journalistic landscape to a 24-hour news cycle with digital content acquisition and distribution. Students will explore the professional and technical challenges of producing multimedia news in this environment. Offered online.

JRN 337 News Reporting & Writing         3 Credits
This course focuses on the gathering, evaluating and writing of the news in the print and electronic media. Students will hone basic skills and become aware of current trends including citizen journalism, convergence and the importance of fairness and objectivity. Offered online.

JRN 339 Global Journalism         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the student with an overview of the major issues facing global journalism. It focuses on the social, cultural, and governmental aspects of the international media and their relationship to journalism from the perspective of a democratic system. Offered online.

JRN 340 Print Production         3 Credits
This course covers the proper procedures for creating print-ready files in both native and prescript formats. Students will study the technological innovations in the printing procedures. Prerequisites: CGD 303 and CGD 330. (Cross-listed as CGD 340.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 410 Journalism Law         3 Credits
The study of the law of journalism and mass communication is a vast field. This course provides a broad overview of the rule of law, the First Amendment, disruptive speech, libel, protecting privacy, reporter’s privilege and electronic media Regulation. Offered online.

JRN 412 Advanced Editorial & Feature Writing         3 Credits
Students in this course will apply journalistic skills to opinion writing for editorial pages. It provides tools for evaluating critical thinking and argumentation for evaluating editorial writing. Additionally, students will learn the skills and requirements for feature writing. Prerequisite: ENG 325. Offered online.

JRN 415 Methods of Research & Analysis in Journalism         3 Credits
This course teaches students research methods of utility and analysis in journalism with a focus on survey research, electronic database searching, government sites, and the evaluation of data sets in journalism research studies. Offered online.

JRN 425 Journalism & Politics         3 Credits
This course is designed to aid students in determining how the media shape the context of American government and politics. Students will study American political journalism theory, current practice, convergence, and emerging technological change and their impact on public opinion and policy. Offered online.

JRN 480 Communications Portfolio         3 Credits
Students assemble a portfolio of representative work in consultation with a faculty member. Portfolios will include examples of different types of student work and will include work produced during the portfolio semester as well as in previous courses. Prerequisite: Senior standing (Cross-listed as ENG 480.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 490 Communications Internship         2-4 Credits
Students apply the skills, knowledge, and abilities developed in the major and concentration in an appropriate communication-focused work environment. Each credit hour has a requirement of 50 applied hours of normally non-remunerative work in an approved setting is required, under faculty supervision. (Cross-listed as ENG 490.) Offered on-campus.

JRN 497 Journalism & Mass Communication Capstone         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate mastery of the programmatic outcomes of the journalism major by creating an electronic portfolio of work completed during the program and by adding newly developed material that showcase professional journalistic skills. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

LEA Law Enforcement Administration

LEA 201 Introduction to Law Enforcement Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the elements of law enforcement administration and the factors influencing successful organizations through effective hiring, training, and support of employees. The course examines organizational theory, design and communication, along with the processes of planning and decision making. The effects of stress and adverse behavior are reviewed with relation to the organization and requirements of the administration. Politics, labor relations, and fiscal management are addressed in correlation with the effects on law enforcement administration process. Offered online.

LEA 312 Community Policing        3 Credits
This course outlines key roles and responsibilities in the management of community policing efforts from the law enforcement perspective. Relationships of police image, public expectations, and community leadership are examined. Communication and interaction within a community of diverse socioeconomic conditions, race, sex, and age are examined with respect to community-oriented policing and law enforcement leadership. Offered online.

LEA 316 Ethics in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on theories and methods to assist officials establishing and maintaining ethical behavior in law enforcement employees. The course analyzes misconduct in law enforcement through relevant literature and applicable scenarios in integrating theory and practice. Offered online.

LEA 328 Leadership & Supervision in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on the comparisons between leadership, management, and supervision and the traits and theories surrounding effective application. The course will analyze the impacts of crime on successful leadership and the ability to motivate in order to maximize work effort. Offered online.

LEA 339 Law Enforcement Personnel Management         3 Credits
This course examines the issues involved with maintaining qualified and capable officers available for deployment by a law enforcement administration. The course delves into employee assistance, medical issues and concerns that can significantly affect law enforcement organizations. Federal, state, and local certification and training requirements are discussed regarding continued employment and the impact on staffing. Applicable case law will be reviewed regarding Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA). Offered online.

LEA 408 Technological Management in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course will assess the implementation and application of modern technological hardware and software in assisting law enforcement administration in addressing crime concerns. The course will explore the use of facial-recognition software, closed circuit television, and automatic vehicle monitoring systems in influencing crime issues. Terminology and applications are explained to provide insight to students regarding available resources and usage. Offered online.

LEA 413 Investigations Management         3 Credits
This course addresses criminal investigations from the perspective of the police manager or administrator as well as developing practical skill sets in investigative technique. Legal, social, managerial, and community concerns regarding crime and investigations are evaluated. Relationships between investigators, prosecutors, and police managers are explored. Offered online.

LEA 432 Fiscal Administration in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on the principles of budgeting in the public sector and provides the student with an understanding of the methods used in making financial decisions. The course compares and contrasts the public and private sector and addresses the responsibility of efficient use of funds. Federal state, and local perspectives in finance and budgeting are evaluated. Responsible and ethical financial principles are reinforced. Offered online.

LEA 439 Politics & Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on the constitutional basis of law enforcement and on the political relationships and impact of political decisions on the day-to-day operations and focus of law enforcement. The course examines the influence of special interest groups, as well as police associations and unions, in the administration of law enforcement goals. The election of certain law enforcement officials is also addressed regarding perceived loyalty to voters or employees. Offered online.

LEA 444 Training Management         3 Credits
The focus of this course surrounds the necessity of training and the effectiveness of methods employed to reduce agency liability while promoting employee safety. The course will address the liability assumed by both employee and agency when training standards are not adhered to or supervision and leadership allows for deviation from set standards. Offered online.

LEA 497 Law Enforcement Administration Capstone         3 Credits
This course will focus on the integration of research skills, theory analysis, and application of leadership and management methodologies in law enforcement administration. Successful students will exercise critical thought along with clear and concise writing skills throughout the development of a final project/paper on a singular topic within the field of law enforcement administration. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

LIB Liberal Arts

LIB 106 Peer Mentor Seminar         1 Credit
This course assists the student in developing mentoring skills. The focus is on campus resources as they relate to Ashford students, interpersonal communication, and student development. Leadership, conflict resolution, diversity awareness, goal setting, and study skills will also be explored. Offered on-campus.

LIB 123 Leadership in Film         3 Credits
In-depth analysis of leadership dynamics revealed in popular film. Focus on cinematic depictions of theory and practical application of leadership. Offered on-campus.

LIB 125 Contemporary Issues in Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the multi-faceted concept of leadership studies by presenting the student with the vocabulary, concepts, theories, and applicable research that are fundamental to the basic understanding of leadership. The course will examine contemporary and historical leadership issues unique to women and minority leaders, the moral and ethical responsibility of leadership, and leadership in a variety of contexts. Leadership as a social and political influence process will be examined. Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 150H Scholars Institute         1-3 Credits
A seminar course for freshman and sophomore participants in the Scholars Institute. Topics will vary but will be interdisciplinary in nature and will encourage students to think and make connections across disciplinary lines. May be applied to General Education requirements with approval of Curriculum Committee. May be repeated with change of topic. Prerequisite: Admission to Scholars Institute. F and S Offered on-campus.

LIB 201 Liberal Arts Research Methods         1 Credit
A consideration of research methods, strategies, and source materials appropriate to the liberal arts. The course stresses practical application and will be tailored to emphasize research methods in students’ areas of concentration. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents. Offered on-campus.

LIB 203 General Internship         1-3 Credits
Students develop skills and knowledge appropriate to their academic interests in a supervised work environment. Internships requires 150 hours of normally non-remunerative work in a designated institution or agency under the supervision of a faculty member and a site manager. (Can be repeated for up to 6 hours of credit.) Prerequisites: Approval by a supervising faculty member, cumulative grade point average of 2.75, and sophomore status. F/S Offered on-campus.

LIB 206 Peer Leadership Seminar II     1 Credit
An extension of LIB 106, this course will assist students with the development of mentoring skills. Students will have the opportunity to serve as a mentor in an EXP 103 classroom and coach new mentors enrolled in LIB 106. Students will provide ideas for interaction within the classroom, offer support to new mentors, and organize group activities. Students will receive training focusing on effective leadership practices, group dynamics, and motivation. Prerequisite: LIB 106. Offered on-campus.

LIB 214 Intercollegiate Mock Trial         1 Credit
This course provides students with insight into the legal system through study of the trial process and participation in the annual intercollegiate mock trial competitions sponsored by the American Mock Trial Association (AMTA). Students may participate in intercollegiate competitions sponsored by AMTA held during the Spring Semester. Students will develop a familiarity with rules of civil and criminal procedure as well as trial procedure and the admission of evidence. This course may be repeated up to a maximum of 8 credit hours applied towards a bachelor’s degree. S Offered on-campus.

LIB 234 Resident Assistant Seminar         1 Credit
This course provides Resident Assistants with training in interpersonal skills and knowledge of relevant policies necessary to functioning effectively in the residence life environment. Prerequisite: Enrollment is limited to current Resident Assistants. F Offered on-campus.

LIB 301 Liberal Arts Seminar         3 Credits
Students examine a selected topic from the perspectives of the various disciplines within one of the broad fields of liberal arts: fine arts, humanities, science, or social science. Students develop a working knowledge of the methodologies, perspectives, and limitations of each discipline, as well as an appreciation of the insights that may be derived from interdisciplinary inquiry. May be repeated for additional credit only with change of field. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as BIO 301 and NAT 301.) Offered on-campus.

LIB 304 Fine Arts Seminar: Creativity & Culture         3 Credits
This course examines the creative process of artists who create significant works of art; our aesthetic responses to those works; and the tensions that can occur when an artistic creation violates “community standards,” resulting in attempts at suppression or censorship. Beginning with art movements of the twentieth century, students examine and discuss representative examples of music and art from the standpoints of creative process, aesthetic value, and possible reasons for strong public response. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

LIB 306 Peer Leadership Seminar III         1 Credit
Students will draw upon knowledge and experiences gained from LIB 106 and LIB 206 to strengthen the Peer Mentoring program. Students enrolled in this course will serve as a group coach to mentors enrolled in LIB 106 and LIB 206. Students will help deliver peer mentor training, lead group meetings, and create awareness of the Peer Mentoring Program. Prerequisite: LIB 206. Offered on-campus.

LIB 307 Social Science Seminar: Race Relations in America         3 Credits
This course has two primary goals: to develop a deeper understanding of the relationships that exist and have existed among major racial groups comprising American society, especially African Americans, Native Americans, and European Americans, and to familiarize students with methodologies characteristic of the social sciences, especially history and sociology. Offered on-campus.

LIB 311 The Human Quest for Personal Freedom: Art, Music & Literature of the Romantic Era (INTD)        3 Credits
Examination of the development of the arts of the Romantic Period in Western Civilization to discover what the arts can tell us about how people felt and thought during this significant period in history. The course explores the historical influence of political, cultural, and scientific values of the Romantic Period upon the arts. (Not offered every year) S (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 313 Moral Controversies in Technology (INTD)         3 Credits
This course surveys ongoing technological developments and the ethical questions involved. Among the discussions are specific controversies in health care, computer information, space technology, and materials technology as well as contemporary issues that present themselves. (Not offered every year) S (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 315 The Environment & the Human Spirit (INTD)         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary examination of humanity’s spiritual relationship with the natural world. The course will explore contemporary environmental issues in the context of theology, philosophy, literature, film, music, visual art, and other representations of the human imagination. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or equivalent (Offered every other year) F (Interdisciplinary) Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 316 Historical Contexts & Literature         3 Credits
In Historical Contexts in Literature, students will explore the ways in which literary works represent particular people, places, situations, and ideas through fiction. Further, by using a range of literary, political, and historical texts, the course will examine both the ways in which political and historical contexts shape literary production, and the ways in which fictional texts affect political, social, and moral discourse. Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution (INTD)         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary study of peacemaking with a focus on conflict resolution. Highlighting this course are guest presentations and discussions led by Ashford University faculty from diverse subject areas. Students examine thinking and behavior in response to social conflict such as aggression, threats, prejudice, avoidance, withdrawal, conformity, and obedience. Students study various strategies of peacemaking and negotiation and then apply these methods in class role-playing activities. F (Interdisciplinary) Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (INTD)         3 Credits
This course is an examination of major socioeconomic developments in different countries including Japan, Germany, Sweden, the United States, and the developing nations. Topics include population, natural resources, energy, sustainable growth, and policies such as privatization and free trade agreements. Social and economic justice in the global economy is considered. (Interdisciplinary) Offered online and on-campus. Offered on-campus.

LIB 322 Topics in American Studies (INTD)         3 Credits
Employing an interdisciplinary methodology, students will undertake an in-depth study of a key issue in American studies. The course emphasizes the formation of cultural identity and how notions of nation and region impact institutional and subjective ideology. (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 323 Revolution & Terrorism in the Modern World (INTD)         3 Credits
This course examines the ways revolution and terrorism has shaped the twenty-first century from an interdisciplinary perspective drawing on history, philosophy, and sociology. Emphasis is on the ideas and socio-historical forces that have produced revolutions. (Interdisciplinary) Offered online.

LIB 325 The Civil War in American Culture (INTD)         3 Credits
This course investigates the role the Civil War has played in American culture. Beginning with a study of the war itself, the course moves on to focus on the meanings subsequent generations of Americans have assigned to it. Emphasis is placed on the use of the Civil War as a vehicle for the expression of attitudes and values by various groups of Americans and on the ways in which the war has influenced regional and national identities. (Offered every other year) S (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 327 World Music (INTD)         3 Credits
This interdisciplinary course examines traditional and popular music from around the world. Emphasis will be given to the artistic, sociological, religious, and cultural aspects of each region examined. At least one music-culture from each of the following regions is presented: Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. No musical background is required. (Not offered every year) (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 328 Shakespeare & Music (INTD)         3 Credits
This course examines the influence of William Shakespeare on composers of music in the centuries since his plays and poetry were written. Students will closely examine the texts of four plays - two comedies and two tragedies - along with songs from the plays and the sonnets that Shakespeare wrote. One or more performances of each play will also be viewed and discussed since a play reveals its true value only in performance. Finally, students will examine how composers have used the text or story of Shakespeare’s works for their inspiration and how they have interpreted these works through their musical compositions. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 330 The Renaissance (INTD)         3 Credits
Students participate in an interdisciplinary course that explores the creative, spiritual, and intellectual revival of the Renaissance as it developed in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries in Italy and spread throughout Europe. The course draws from such disciplines as art, music, philosophy, theology, literature, history, and science. (Not offered every year.) (Interdisciplinary) Offered on-campus.

LIB 332 Science & Culture (INTD)         3 Credits
This course explores Western science as a cultural artifact and its impact on other aspects of culture: art, literature, film, music, philosophy, and theology. In addition, the affects of these “other aspects of culture” on the development of science will also be investigated with emphasis on the need to make connections. The course will examine the ways in which scientific developments are articulated in other cultural artifacts. (Interdisciplinary) Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 350H Scholars Institute         1-3 Credits
A seminar course for junior and senior participants in the Scholars Institute. Topics will vary but will be interdisciplinary in nature and will encourage students to think and make connections across disciplinary lines. May be applied to General Education requirements with approval of Curriculum Committee. May be repeated with change of topic. Prerequisite: Admission to Scholars Institute. or permission of instructor. F and S Offered on-campus.

LIB 356 Research Methods for the Humanities         3 Credits
Students in this course will develop a working knowledge of the major methodologies and perspectives of disciplines in the humanities. Topics include the role of theory, identification of appropriate sources, the influence of values, and the role of the humanities in interdisciplinary inquiry. Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 380 History & Culture of Mexico         3 Credits
This course explores the rich history and culture of Mexico. Students will study the major historical eras of Mexico and the corresponding cultural evolution. Course includes a one-week field experience in Cuernavaca, Mexico where students will study language and culture at the Universidad Internacional. Offered online.

LIB 382 London Studies         3 Credits
This is a five week, three credit course that offers you the opportunity to explore British Literature, History, and Architecture including a one week Study Abroad in London. This course allows you to choose from different areas of emphasis for the week in London. For each option, emphasis will be placed on the way in which environment/culture shapes literature and literature shapes environment/culture. You will study each author’s situation and look at how society and history shaped the author or perhaps the author had an impact on shaping society and history. Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 420 Applied Liberal Arts         3 Credits
Students apply the skills and knowledge developed from the liberal arts curriculum in a work environment. The course requires 150 hours of normally non-remunerative work in a designated institution or agency under faculty supervision. (Credit beyond 3 hours may be earned for more extensive work experience.) Approval by a supervising faculty member and a cumulative grade point average of 3.00 are required. Prerequisites: Senior standing and approval of Liberal Arts Committee. F/S Offered on-campus.

LIB 495 Capstone – Advanced Research Project         3 Credits
This course will culminate with a comprehensive and summative final project that demonstrates the student’s ability to conduct research into an approved topic and to develop an original research paper using an interdisciplinary approach. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

LIB 498 Senior Thesis/Project I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of concepts and methodology in the students’ area of concentration or concentrations by producing a thesis statement, an annotated bibliography, and a completed outline of the thesis/project. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the faculty member serving as thesis director. Guidelines for the thesis/project will be specified by the Liberal Arts Committee and the students’ area of concentration. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. F/S Offered on-campus.

LIB 499 Senior Thesis/Project II         2 Credits
This course is a continuation of LIB 498. During the semester, the student will complete the senior thesis or project following guidelines specified by the Liberal Arts Committee. The completed thesis or project is defended orally before and evaluated by the senior thesis committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisite: Successful completion of LIB 498 with a “C-” or better. F/S Offered on-campus.

LNG Linguistics

LNG 206 Language & Technology         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the various ways language and technology interact. Students will understand the importance of computers that can process spoken and written language, and be introduced to a variety of implementations of these emerging technologies. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 212 Second Language Acquisition         3 Credits
This course provides students an opportunity to investigate the process of acquiring a second language and to compare this process to learning in general. Students will also explore the basic theories of second language acquisition compared to first language acquisition and will discuss how these theories influence second language curriculum design and guide second language instructional methods. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 222 Survey of Communicative Disorders         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the field of speech and language pathology. Students will survey a variety of communicative disorders and their effect on language development as compared to clinically normal growth and development of speech and language. Students will also consider the effect of these disorders on various levels of society. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 310 Sounds of Language         3 Credits
In this course, students begin to answer the questions: how do we speak, why do different languages sound distinct, and how does sound encode and convey meaning? Students will examine sounds and sound systems of languages by exploring the phonetic properties of language as well as various phonological systems that languages employ to organize these speech sounds into meaningful utterances. Students will also study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 320 Structures of Language         3 Credits
This course provides students an opportunity to explore the linguistic theories of morphology and syntax. Students will examine structure within language by describing and investigating the underlying principles and processes of word formation as well as the rules which govern phrase and sentence structure. Basic concepts addressed include morpheme-based morphology and a generative grammar approach to syntax. Students will also study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 321 Foundations of Linguistics         3 Credits
Language is a central part of our daily lives. It is how we communicate our thoughts and desires to others. Yet, we usually take language for granted, using it effortlessly without stopping to think about how it works. So, what exactly is language, and how does it work? This course is an introduction to linguistics, the scientific study of language. In order to understand what language is, a number of topics are examined, including: the sound system of language (phonetics and phonology); the structure of words and sentences (morphology and syntax); the meaning of words and sentences (semantics); how language is represented in the brain (neurolinguistics); modern writing systems (writing); how children learn language (language acquisition); how language can differ across time, between speakers, regions, and situations. While language is highly complex, it is also systematic and rule-governed. At the end of this course, you should understand what linguists study and have a good understanding of the core concepts in each of the above topics. Offered online.

LNG 353 Evolution of the English Language         3 Credits
Where did English come from, how has it evolved into the language that is used today, and why does American English behave differently than, for example, the English spoken in Ireland? Also, in what ways are different languages distinct, and how are they similar? Students will explore these topics in this course via a consideration of the methods of historical linguistics with English as a case study. Topics in linguistic typology will also be addressed. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 360 Language & Society         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to language in its social context. In this course, students will explore how language embodies culture, and how society is impacted by language. Topics include linguistic variation in diverse social contexts; language and gender; language and ethnicity; language and socioeconomic class; and the language of law, politics, propaganda, and advertising. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 415 Meaning in Language         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the theory of meaning in language. Students will consider how language relates to the physical world, and how it contains and conveys truth, falsehood, and meaning. Students will also consider how various contexts factor into determining meaning, and will study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 450 Computational Linguistics         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of natural language processing and computational linguistics. Students will study basic elements of computer programming from a computational linguistics perspective and will apply these methods to solving selected problems representative of those encountered in the field. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 455 Language Development Disorders         3 Credits
This course encompasses a study of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of selected language development disorders from a clinical perspective. In an online classroom setting, students will investigate the causes and characteristics of specific language disorders, as well as the current methods of clinical assessment and treatments. Using transcribed and recorded speech samples, students will simulate the clinical processes of diagnosis and treatment by applying these methods. Throughout the course, students will consider the professional conduct and ethical guidelines set for by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Note: This course does not result in licensure or certification of any kind. Prerequisite: ENG 321. Offered online.

LNG 497 Applied Linguistics Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides students an opportunity to conduct research into a theoretical area of linguistics and its application to assist in creating a plan for future study and professional development. Students will select a topic of interest and research its current and potential applications to one or various areas of industry. Students will demonstrate an understanding of how key linguistic theories have allowed for progress within certain industries and identify opportunities that are still present in the field of applied linguistics. Prerequisites: ENG 321 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

MAT Mathematics

MAT 100 Fundamentals of College Math         3 Credits
An introduction to college mathematics to develop the proficiency of entering students. The course concentrates on computation and interpretation skills pertaining to the natural, whole, integer, real number system, exponents, and their properties. Some introductory algebra concepts and solving simple linear equations. Does not meet General Education or area of concentration requirements. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 117 Combined Algebra         3 Credits
A study of algebraic concepts, which may include algebraic expressions, polynomials, factoring, linear equations and inequalities, graphing, exponents, radicals, ratio, proportion and variation, operations with polynomials, factoring, curve sketching, radical equations, ratio proportions, and variation with applications. The course does not meet General Education or area of concentration requirements. Prerequisite: MAT 100 or minimum passing score on mathematics assessment. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 126 Survey of Mathematical Methods         3 Credits
The course is designed to explore a wide range of mathematical models as applied to the problems of a modern society. Topics are selected from a variety of disciplines using mathematical methods in the critical thinking and decision-making process. Mathematical methods covered include, but are not limited to, business math, introductory algebra, beginning geometry, and business statistics. Offered online.

MAT 204 Math Problems (Mu Sigma Eta)         1 Credit
For high-ability students. Individual research and readings in math culminating in a research paper that will be presented in written and oral form. By invitation only. (Offered at the discretion of the department.) F or S Offered on-campus.

MAT 219 Geometry & Measurements for Educators         3 credits
This course develops geometry and measurement topics for students pursuing careers in teaching. Geometry topics will include an intuitive exploration of points, lines, planes, and vectors in two and three dimensions. Additional topics will include congruence, symmetry, and similarity. Measurement topics will include one, two-, and three-dimension coordinate systems and properties of length, area, and volume for various one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures from a variety of perspectives. Prerequisite: MAT 117 or equivalent. (Not offered every year.) F Offered on-campus.

MAT 221 Introduction to Algebra         3 Credits
This course establishes a strong base for an Algebraic exploration of mathematical topics. Student understanding is built up through learning the basics of real numbers and Algebra terminology, writing, solving, and graphing equations, and manipulating polynomials through various operations. Students will develop a familiarity and ease of working with the language and notation of Algebra while learning to think logically through algorithms and solving methods. Emphasis will be placed on developing an awareness of the use of mathematics as it exists in the world today. Offered online.

MAT 222 Intermediate Algebra         3 Credits
In this course students will explore a wider range of Algebra topics beyond the introductory level. Topics will include polynomials, functions, rational expressions, systems of equations and inequalities, operations with radicals, and quadratic equations. Emphasis will be placed on developing an awareness of the use of mathematics as it exists in the world today. Prerequisite: MAT 221 or equivalent with a grade of "C-" or better. Offered online.

MAT 223 Math for Educators         3 Credits
Topics for investigation include problem solving, elementary set theory, logic and mathematical patterns, numeration systems, basic number theory, properties of number systems, integers, rational and irrational numbers, graphs, probability and statistics, measurement, and motions in geometry. Designed for prospective elementary teachers. Prerequisite: EDU 200. Offered on-campus.

MAT 225 College Algebra         3 Credits
A more advanced exploration of algebraic concepts and problem-solving techniques. Topics include solving linear, quadratic, and higher equations and inequalities; linear and nonlinear systems of equations; radical and rational equations; advanced graphing concepts; and matrix operations. Prerequisite: MAT 117 or equivalent. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 227 Pre-Calculus         3 Credits
Topics include solving equations and inequalities; quadratic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions; systems of equations; vectors; and complex numbers. Prerequisite: MAT 225 or MAT 228. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 228 Mathematical Modeling         3 Credits
This course develops an understanding of the techniques involved in the construction of mathematical models using problem-solving strategies from mathematics. Given a situation to be modeled with mathematics, presented in the form of a real-life problem, students will be able to evaluate the situation and propose a model describing the problem. Students should also have the ability, by the end of the course, to analyze possible solutions and discuss restrictions on their accuracy and applicability. Prerequisite: MAT 117 or permission of the instructor. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 270 Linear Algebra         3 Credits
A study of linear algebra with extensions to n-space including lines, planes, space, and subspace. Topics can include matrices, linear transformations, row echelon form, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Prerequisite: MAT 225 or MAT 228. F Offered on-campus.

MAT 300 History of Mathematics         3 Credits
This course discusses how mathematics, one of the oldest intellectual instruments, has developed over the preceding 5,000 years. The presentation will be primarily chronological in nature beginning with the origins of mathematical concepts in the great civilizations of antiquity and progressing toward the 21st century. Emphasis will be placed on how mathematics and its various branches (arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, calculus, etc.) developed and became interwoven. Special attention will be placed on the famous contributors to mathematics including Pythagoras, Euclid, Fibonacci, Descartes, Newton, Leibniz, Pascal, Gauss, and others. A research paper investigating one of the covered regions, mathematical topics, or individuals will be completed by the student. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and either MAT 225 or MAT 228. S Offered on-campus.

MAT 311 Managerial Calculus         3 Credits
A study of calculus as applied to real-life problems in the managerial, social, and life sciences. In-depth examination of graphing, limits, differentiation, extrema, marginal analysis, integrals, partial derivatives, Lagrange multipliers, and applications. Prerequisite: MAT 225 or MAT 228. (Not offered every year.) S Offered on-campus.

MAT 320 Discrete Mathematics         3 Credits
This course discusses concepts related to combinatorial problem solving with a focus on discrete models. Topics may include sets and set theory, functions and relations, logic and proofs, Boolean algebra, counting principles, graph theory, and networks. Prerequisite: MAT 225 or MAT 228. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 332 Applied Statistics         3 Credits
Course covers graphing techniques for presenting data, measures of central tendency and dispersion, correlation, regression and prediction, probability, distributions of random variables and statistics, large sample theory, central limit theorem, estimation and tests of significance, introduction to the analysis of variance, and an introduction to nonparametric statistics. Prerequisites: INF 103, ENG 122 and either MAT 225 or MAT 228. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 351 Calculus I with Analytic Geometry         4 Credits
Topics include the real number system, plane analytic geometry, limits, continuity, differentiation of algebraic and trigonometric functions, applications of derivatives, indefinite and definite integrals for polynomial, exponential, logarithmic trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, and hyperbolic functions. Prerequisite: MAT 227 or equivalent. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 352 Calculus II & Analytic Geometry         4 Credits
The course includes integration theory and techniques, transcendental functions, applications of integration and differentiation, inverse trigonometric functions, improper integrals, sequences, series, Taylor series, Maclaurin series, conics, parametric and polar coordinates. Prerequisite: MAT 351. F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 353 Calculus III         4 Credits
The course covers multivariate calculus including partial derivatives and extrema, vector functions, gradient, and coordinate systems; multiple integrals; and Stokes’ theorem. Prerequisite: MAT 352. (Not offered every year.) F/S Offered on-campus.

MAT 355 Differential Equations         3 Credits
This course explores the theory and methods for solving ordinary differential equations and systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, power series solutions, Laplace transforms, and applications. Prerequisite: MAT 352. (Not offered every year.) F Offered on-campus.

MAT 362 Modern Algebra         3 Credits
An introduction to the study of modern algebra. Topics may include groups, subgroups, isomorphisms, homomorphisms, rings, and fields. Prerequisite: MAT 351. S Offered on-campus.

MAT 364 Modern Geometries         3 Credits
An axiomatic approach to Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. Topics can include analytic Euclidean geometry, measure, congruence, similar shapes and transformations, and non-Euclidean geometries. Prerequisite: MAT 351. S Offered on-campus.

MAT 498 Senior Thesis/Project I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of concepts and methodology in mathematics by producing a thesis statement, annotated bibliography, and completed outline of the thesis/project. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the faculty member serving as the thesis director. Guidelines for the thesis/project will be specified by the Liberal Arts Committee and the Mathematics Department. Prerequisites: MAT 352, MAT 320, INF 331, SPE 103, ENG 122 and senior standing and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. F/S. Offered on-campus.

MAT 499 Senior Thesis/Project II         2 Credits
This course is a continuation of MAT 498. During the semester, the student will complete the senior thesis/project following the guidelines specified by the Liberal Arts Committee and the Mathematics Department. The complete thesis/project is defended orally before and evaluated by the Senior Thesis Committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisites: Completion of MAT 498 with a grade of “C-” or better. F/S. Offered on-campus.

MAT 540 Statistical Concepts for Research         3 Credits
This course demonstrates how to apply selected statistical techniques to a wide variety of problems and situations arising in the areas of business, economics, finance, management, social science, health, psychology, and education. Topics include graphical description of data; measures of location and dispersion; probability; discrete and continuous random variables; sampling distributions and estimation; confidence intervals and hypothesis tests; simple linear regression and correlation. Offered online.

MGT Management

MGT 321 Assessing Leadership Skills         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the concepts, skills, and strategies of personal/professional transformation that are the foundation of leading organizations in diverse communities. Topics include leadership assessment, developing personal vision, establishing a commitment to service, leading in complex communities, managing communication, and creating an environment of excellence. Offered online and on-campus.

MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management         3 Credits
This course introduces logistics/physical distribution and supply, and the related costs. It provides a systematic overview and analysis of the elements of logistics functions in widely varying types of industries and agencies, including handling, warehousing, inventory control, and financial controls. Prerequisite: MGT 330. Offered online.

MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on intermodal transportation as part of supply chain management. The course addresses the development of the global transportation system, transportation regulation, the modes of transportation and how they interface, shipper issues, intermodal transportation management, and the future in transportation. Prerequisite: MGT 330. Offered online.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations         3 Credits
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace. (Equivalent to BUS 201.) Offered online and on-campus.

MGT 370 International Supply Chain Management         3 Credits
Topics covered in this course include the government’s role in global logistics, the global logistics environment, ocean and air transportation, transportation to Canada, Mexico, and the European continent including intermediaries, documentation, insurance, exporting, and importing. Current trends in globalization will also be explored and evaluated. The role of logistics and transportation organizations in the global supply chain process will be discussed. Offered online.

MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations         3 Credits
Several leadership styles are examined in this course. Emphasis is placed on developing effective leadership in organizations and personal enterprises, and on developing ethical leadership perspectives in personal and professional decision-making. Offered online and on-campus.

MGT 401 Hazardous Materials Management         3 Credits
This course addresses the significant issues associated with handling hazardous materials in a logistical system. The course also provides a firm foundation on basic hazardous materials management principles. Topics include definitions of hazardous materials, regulatory overview, technology to treat different hazardous materials, and tracking and manifest rules. Prerequisite: MGT 330. Offered online.

MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations         3 Credits
Theory and research are applied to the study of group dynamics, processes encountered in the small-group setting, and how organizational effectiveness is impacted by small-group and team functioning. The course focuses on group productivity, decision-making, diversity, group communication, resolving group conflict and building effective teams. Offered online and on-campus.

MGT 425 Leadership & Motivation         3 Credits
This course examines various approaches to motivation and the design and implementation of motivational strategies for effective personal and organizational performance. Offered online.

MGT 435 Organizational Change         3 Credits
In this course, students will study and apply alternative theories, models and strategies for creating and managing organizational change. The effectiveness of management tools in initiating problem solving and decision making to bring about change within organizations is evaluated. Offered online and on-campus.

MGT 450 Strategic Planning for Organizations         3 Credits
Strategic Planning introduces students to various management planning models and techniques, and applies these to actual business cases. This course stresses the concepts of both strategic planning and strategic management. (Equivalent to MGT 451.)Prerequisite: MGT 330. Offered online.

MGT 451 Strategic Planning Capstone         3 Credits
Culminating the aggregate knowledge of a business program, the Strategic Planning Capstone introduces students to various management planning models and techniques. Application of strategic planning concepts is stressed throughout the curriculum. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. (Equivalent to MGT 450.) Offered online.

MGT 460 Leadership Priorities & Practice         3 Credits
Leadership Priorities and Practice is a capstone course that requires students to reflect on and synthesize the major insights gained in their study of organizational management. A substantive paper is developed to illustrate how these insights can be applied effectively in the student’s work environment. Students choosing the personal program of study must show how their chosen concentration relates to organizational management and include insights from each academic area in their synthesis and application. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

MGT 490 Strategic Human Resources Planning         3 Credits
This course provides a link between the traditional human resources functions (recruiting, staffing, training, performance appraisals, labor relations, and compensation and benefits), strategic planning, and meeting long-range organizational goals and objectives. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

MGT 492 Strategic Management for the Multinational Enterprise Capstone         3 Credits
The final integrative course in the international business program integrates the basic business functions through strategic management principles. Comprehensive cases deal with global competition in complex changing environments within which the organization seeks to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Issues of strategy formulation and implementation are addressed. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

MGT 496 Strategic Warehouse Management        3 Credits
This course is an overview of the strategic role that the warehousing function plays in the modern logistics environment. Subjects include warehouse strategies, difference in government and non-government systems, layout and design, location, customer service, bar coding, material handling, and measuring warehouse productivity. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

MGT 497 Strategic Technology Planning for Organizations         3 Credits
This course examines the role of information technology as a strategic component of modern business. While focusing on the implementation of computer-based information systems, it will also consider broader issues of communication and culture in organizations, as well as institutional change related to new technologies. It will use literature reviews, case studies, and an assessment exercise to address several issues related to new means and strategies in information and communication technologies. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and INF 340 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

MGT 601 The Functions of Modern Management         3 Credits
This course serves to advance the knowledge of the functions of management, the underlying theories and literature associated with the management discipline, and build students’ understanding of the relationships across organizational and business functions. Students grapple with current management problems and emerging solutions applied in the context of the organization. Offered online.

MHA Master Health Care Administration

MHA 601 Principles of Health Care Administration         3 Credits
The focus of this course is on the application of advanced organizational principles in complex health care environments. Organizational issues, administrative processes and applications are explored. The managerial perspectives of a mid-to senior healthcare administrator are emphasized. Offered online.

MHA 610 Introduction to BioStatistics        3 Credits
This course explores the application of fundamental statistical methods to the health care environment. Course content includes both descriptive and inferential methods including: data analysis, statistical estimation, regression analysis, analysis of variance, hypothesis testing and analysis of longitudinal data. NOTE: This course uses software that is not Mac OS compatible. Access to a Windows PC or a Windows-based platform is required. Offered online.

MHA 612 Financial & Managerial Accounting         3 Credits
This course provides the foundation for integrating health care finance and managerial accounting. Opportunities for analyzing current and emerging health care financing trends are provided. Practical cost-benefit strategies used in planning, controlling and preparing internal and external reports are emphasized. Offered online.

MHA 614 Policy Formation & Leadership in Health Organizations         3 Credits
This course focuses on the administrator’s perspective and leadership role in formation of health care personnel policy and program recruitment, compensation, performance evaluation and labor relations. Evaluation of policy compliance with accreditation, regulatory and legal requirements, professional standards and ethical considerations, and medical staff and board communication are stressed. Offered online.

MHA 616 Health Care Management Information Systems         3 Credits
This course applies health care data in real-world contexts. Factors such as service line identification, program planning, implementation models and outcome monitoring are covered. Offered online.

MHA 618 Health Economics         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the analysis of health care operations and planning decisions derived from the theoretical concepts of demand, cost production, profit and competition. External and internal forces challenging health care services are analyzed. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency within the complex health care environment are emphasized. Offered online.

MHA 620 Health Policy Analyses         3 Credits
This course focuses on the analysis and evaluation of health care policy. Policy implications in organizational decision making, strategic planning and market positions are examined. Offered online.

MHA 622 Health Care Ethics & Law         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the legal and ethical issues arising in the health care environment. Case study analysis is used to illustrate the ethical and legal implications commonly addressed in health care. Offered online.

MHA 624 Continuous Quality Improvements & Risk Management         3 Credits
This course examines a systemic approach to health care outcomes and risk management practices. Assurance of quality health services and organizational risk control is discussed using industry benchmark and accreditation standards and processes. Offered online.

MHA 626 Strategic Planning & Marketing in Health Care         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the visioning and modeling of services and programs, both anticipatory and responsive, utilizing market-driven information. Students integrate theories from economics, information management, finance and leadership, culminating in the generation of a comprehensive business plan. Offered online.

MHA 628 Managed Care & Contractual Services         3 Credits
This course examines the concepts of supply, demand, profits, cost and quality control in a managed care environment. Stakeholder dynamics are explored. Factors such as population, health status, market forces, contractual adjustments, third-party payers, cost allocation, government policies, and legal and ethical implications are explored. Offered online.

MHA 690 Health Care Capstone         3 Credits
This course offers an opportunity for the integration of knowledge and skills developed within a culminating student project. The focus is on strategic and organizational issues unique to the health care environment. The student will present a comprehensive report at the end of the Capstone experience. Offered online.

MIL Military Studies

MIL 204 Introduction to Sources of Conflict in the Middle East         3 Credits
This course will examine the political, religious, social, and economic complexities and ramifications of the conflict in the Middle East from Afghanistan to Northern Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students will study the complex topics of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism as components of conflict in selected nation states. This course will evaluate the effects that conflict has on the region and the world as a whole and the impact of selected military interventions. Offered online.

MIL 208 Survey of the American Military since WWI         3 Credits
Since World War I, the American Military has expanded and transformed into a modern military machine. This course will focus on the reasons and ways in which the versatile American Military has been utilized throughout the world, at different times. This course will focus on a selection of significant battles fought by air, land and sea, during World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Persian Gulf War. Offered online.

MIL 212 The Military as a Peace Keeping Force         3 Credits
This course will examine ways in which militaries are utilized during peace times and in times of conflict. It will focus on NATO, the United Nations, Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Recovery. It will investigate the role external factors such as, international and local politics, geography, media, terrorism, and economics have on a military’s ability to be a peace keeping force. Offered online.

MIL 275 Military Ethics         3 Credits
Ethical issues faced in the modern world will be examined including the ethics of leadership, just war theory, and the moral status of the rules of war. Students will use critical thinking to determine the ethical implications and solutions for complex issues that are relevant to the current day military. The course will make use of case studies to illustrate moral and ethical dilemmas. Offered online.

MIL 310 American Military History I         3 Credits
United States military operations from colonial times through World War I. The course draws material from selected disciplines of the humanities, exploring how and why America has gone to war beginning with the American Revolution to the post-World War I period. This course examines how war has shaped national strategy and how conflict affected peacetime society. Offered online.

MIL 311 American Military History II         3 Credits
United States military operations from the end of World War I to The Gulf Wars. The course draws material from selected disciplines of the humanities, exploring how and why America has gone to war beginning with World War II, through the Cold War period, and, finally, the Gulf Wars. This course examines how war has shaped national strategy and how conflict affected peacetime society. Offered online.

MIL 322 The Literature of War         3 Credits
The course will provide an overview of the literary content, social values and military significance found in selected works of military literature. Students will gain a contextual, cultural, and humanitarian understanding of the historical influences in military literature. Offered online.

MIL 350 Studies in Military Leadership         3 Credits
A close examination of how and what made specific American military leaders successful by studying their leadership techniques and military careers. The American Revolution to present day leaders will be examined. This course is designed to inspire an interest in the principles and practices of military leadership and to explore how these high-impact principles and practices may be professionally applied in the workplace. Offered online.

MIL 497 Military Studies Capstone         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate their mastery of the learning outcomes of the Military Studies major by demonstrating the ability to conduct historical research using primary and secondary sources and by creating a final research paper requiring comprehensive critical analysis of an approved topic in the areas of military leadership, conflicts, peace-making, peace-keeping, and humanitarian efforts. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

MKT Marketing

MKT 625 Consumer Behavior         3 Credits
This course presents and analyzes the most critical issues of buyer behavior both for individual consumers and within the organizational environment. Priority is placed on the economic, psychometric, and sociometric factors that influence buyer behavior and the buyer decision process. Through analyzing and understanding buyer behavior, marketing managers can ultimately understand this process and actively influence strategic business decisions. Offered online.

MKT 635 Market Research         3 Credits
This course is designed to integrate theory and practice and develop students’ analytical skills in marketing research methodology. Students apply methods and techniques for the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of primary and secondary data toward the solution of current marketing problems. Offered online.

MUS Music

MUS 101 Masterpieces of Music         3 Credits
This survey course exposes students to significant works, composers, and styles from the Renaissance to the present. Through required readings, lectures, and selective listening, students will cultivate not only a greater understanding of, but also the ability to listen to and appreciate a broad range of music. F/S Offered on-campus.

MUS 103 AU Concert Choir         1 Credit
The Concert Choir performs a broad and demanding array of music from the full range of historical and stylistic periods. Concerts are held both on and off C. Members attend three weekly rehearsals plus all scheduled performances and dress rehearsals. Incoming students wishing to join the group are expected to have some music background and are admitted to the group only with the instructor’s consent. Active student leadership is strongly encouraged within the group. A maximum of 8 credit hours may be applied toward a bachelor’s degree. F/S Offered on-campus.

MUS 105 Music Theory I         3 Credits
This course is designed for those students with significant interest in, and commitment to, the study of music. Course content focuses on a study of the theoretical and compositional practices of the Common Practice Period (c. 1700-1850). Attention is given to the basic elements of music: melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, timbre, and form. Regular assignments, readings, and compositions are expected of students. While there is no prerequisite, musical proficiency or some prior experience is an asset. Concurrent enrollment in MUS 107 is required. F Offered on-campus.

MUS 106 Music Theory II         3 Credits
An extension of MUS 105 with emphasis on part-writing, analysis, and the study of form. Students continue to write their own compositions, complete regular assignments, and make class presentations. Concurrent enrollment in MUS 108 is required. Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of MUS 105. S Offered on-campus.

MUS 107-108 Ear Training & Sight Singing I and II         1 Credit
Development of skills in sight singing (performing notated music) and listening (notating performed music). Students practice intervallic, melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic dictation; basic keyboard harmony; and individual and part singing. While there is no course prerequisite, prior musical experience is an asset. F/S Offered on-campus.

MUS 125 AU Wind Ensemble         1 Credit
The Wind Ensemble performs music in a broad range of styles. Members attend weekly rehearsals plus scheduled performances. Student leadership is strongly encouraged within the ensemble. The course may be repeated up to a maximum of 8 credit hours toward a bachelor’s degree. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. F/S Offered on-campus.

MUS 205 Music Theory III         3 Credits
Continuation of MUS 105 and MUS 106. Study of 19th-century chromatic materials such as diatonic sevenths, ninth-eleventh-thirteenth chords, embellishment, and Neapolitan and augmented sixth chords. Concurrent enrollment in MUS 207 is required. Prerequisite: MUS 106. F Offered on-campus.

MUS 206 Music Theory IV         3 Credits
Further study, writing, and analysis of the more contemporary forms of music structure including the introduction of melody, harmony, and rhythm in twentieth-century music. Concurrent enrollment in MUS 208 is required. Prerequisite: MUS 205. S Offered on-campus.

MUS 207 Ear Training & Sight Singing III         1 Credit|
Development of advanced skills in keyboard, sight singing, and aural dictation including modal, tonal, modulating, chromatic, contemporary, and atonal melodies. Concurrent enrollment in MUS 205-206 is required. Prerequisite: MUS 107-108. Offered on-campus.

MUS 208 Ear Training & Sight Singing IV         1 Credit
See description for MUS 207. Concurrent enrollment in MUS 205-206 is required. Prerequisite: MUS 107-108. Offered on-campus.

MUS 225 Musical Skills for the Classroom Teacher         2 Credits
Early childhood and elementary pre-service teachers learn to design and implement musical experiences through developmental theories, practical skills, and teacher resources. Student will spend 8 clock hours in elementary music classrooms. No music background required. Prerequisites: EDU 200 and either PSY 104 or PSY 201.S Offered on-campus.

MUS 250 Conducting I         2 Credits
An introduction to the basic techniques of choral conducting. Topics covered include conducting, rehearsal, and audition techniques for the choral ensemble and an introduction to choral styles and repertoire. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. F Offered on-campus.

MUS 255 Music in the United States         3 Credits
A survey of the many and varied styles of music - popular, classical, folk, sacred and secular - of the United States from its beginnings to the present day. Music of the following groups and times are examined: Native American, Revolutionary War, imported folk song styles, Civil War, African American, Tin Pan Alley, musical theater, jazz, country-western, and rock-and-roll. F or S Offered on-campus.

MUS 257 The American Musical Theater         3 Credits
A study of the evolution of the American musical theater from the mid-nineteenth century (minstrel show, melodrama, pantomime, and ethnic shows) through the twentieth century (operetta, follies, musical comedy, and the “Golden Age”) to the present day (rock musical and concept musical). Videos of selected musicals will be shown that enable students to trace the development of musical theater as a theatrical, musical, and visual art form. (Not offered every year) S or Summer Offered on-campus.

MUS 350 Music in Western Civilization I         3 Credits
A detailed chronologically organized study of the development of Western art music from the Medieval era to the eighteenth century. Students will be introduced to research materials, repertoire, composers, and styles representative of each genre. Attention will be given to concurrent philosophical, religious, historical, and artistic events. An emphasis will be placed upon listening and the development of listening skills. Prerequisite: Successful completion of MUS 101 or permission of the instructor. Course alternates with MUS 351. (Not offered every year) S Offered on-campus.

MUS 351 Music in Western Civilization II        3 Credits
A detailed chronologically organized study of the development of Western music from the eighteenth century to the present. Students will be introduced to the research materials, repertoire, composers, and styles representative of each genre. Attention will be given to concurrent philosophical, religious, historical, and artistic events. An emphasis will be placed upon listening to music and the development of listening skills. Prerequisite: Successful completion of MUS 101 or permission of the instructor. Course alternates with MUS 350. (Not offered every year) S Offered on-campus.

MUS 355 Music in the United States         3 Credits
Same course description as MUS 255. Extra requirements apply to students registering at the 300 level. F or S Offered on-campus.

MUS XXX Applied Music

Note: Applied instruction is available to all University students and may be studied with or without credit. No more than two credit hours of applied music lessons may be taken in one semester. A maximum of 8 credit hours of applied lessons in a particular instrument may be applied toward a Bachelor’s degree. (For cost of lessons, please see Tuition and Fees in the Financial Information section of this Catalog.) Music concentrators who take a second applied lesson on an instrument other than their primary instrument do not have to pay for the second lesson. Applied music instruction at the 100-level is for students who are beginning University lessons. 200-level, 300-level, and 400-level instruction is for students who are in their second, third, or fourth years, respectively, of University instruction. See instructor for course numbers specific to each instrument. The applied courses listed are designed for those students with some background on their chosen instrument. Individualized instruction focuses on and accommodates each student’s ability, experience, and needs. Offered on-campus.

MUS X17-X18 Applied Piano         1 Credit

MUS X21-X22 Applied Voice         1 Credit

MUS X27 Applied Strings         1 Credit

MUS X29 Applied Brass             1 Credit

MUS X33-X34 Applied Percussion         1 Credit

MUS XXX Applied Organ         1 Credit

MUS XXX Applied Woodwind         1 Credit

NAT Natural Science

NAT 301 Science Seminar         3 Credits
Students examine a topic from within sciences and develop a working knowledge of the methodologies, perspectives, and limitations of the sciences as well as an appreciation of the insights that may be derived from scientific inquiry. Student research and presentations are required. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as BIO 301 and LIB 301.) Offered on-campus.

NAT 498 Senior Thesis I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of the methodology of science by producing a thesis statement and bibliography, writing a proposal to include the design of an appropriate project/experiment, and starting the approved project, if warranted by the design. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the faculty member serving as thesis director and from the chairperson of the Biology Department. The choice of scientific format for the written thesis and the design of the experiment must be approved by the student’s committee. Prerequisites: Successful completion of MAT 332, fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. (Cross-listed as BIO 498.) Offered on-campus.

NAT 499 Senior Thesis II         2 Credits
A continuation of the senior thesis project started in BIO 498. Students demonstrate their mastery of the methodology of science by completing the research project using appropriate analytical skills and producing a written thesis document in an appropriate scientific format. The completed thesis project is defended orally before and evaluated by a faculty committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet degree requirements. Prerequisite: BIO 498 with a minimum grade of “C-”. (Cross-listed as BIO 499.) Offered on-campus.

OMM Organizational Management

OMM 612 Managing in Social Change         3 Credits
This course considers key aspects of social change in today’s complex and interdependent business world, analyzes their effect on how managers position their business enterprises, and identifies decision-making strategies that allow mission-driven organizations to contribute to social transformation. Offered online.

OMM 614 Innovation & Entrepreneurship         3 Credits
This course explores innovation as it relates to organizational leadership and purposeful entrepreneurship. It analyzes the perspective and values of an entrepreneurial mind and the developmental cycle of an entrepreneurial organization or organizational unit, including the stages of resource development, launching, managing growth and evaluating progress. Approaches to problem- solving are developed with applications made to organizational responsibilities and personal growth. Offered online.

OMM 615 Strategies: Marketing/Advertising/Public Relations         3 Credits
This course explores practical ways to develop organizational communication plans that integrate marketing, advertising and public relations strategies. Emphasis is given to the dynamic process of managerial decision-making required to implement an integrated communication plan effectively in order to achieve organizational goals. Offered online.

OMM 618 Human Resources Management         3 Credits
This course is a study on managing people in the workplace, focusing on the important policies and processes associated with recruiting, hiring, training and evaluating personnel in order to achieve strategic organizational goals. Offered online.

OMM 622 Financial Decision-making         3 Credits
The course is designed to allow individuals who do not prepare accounting and financial documents to understand and use these documents as tools in effective managerial decision-making, control and planning. Topics include purposes of financial statements, analysis of financial statements using basic accounting concepts, budgeting, and financial accountability in an organization. Offered online.

OMM 625 Learning Organizations & Effectiveness         3 Credits
This course presents the principles and elements of the learning organization and uses key principles as a framework for defining the organization’s management practices and measuring its effectiveness. Offered online.

OMM 640 Business Ethics & Social Responsibility         3 Credits
This course analyzes organizational, professional and personal ethics and creates a framework for exploring the social responsibilities of managers and organizational leaders. Various methodologies will be used to explore ways to encourage ethical development and moral behavior within organizational culture and to resolve business ethical issues and dilemmas. Offered online.

OMM 692 Organizational Management Strategy         3 Credits
This capstone course explores the formulation, implementation and maintenance of organizational strategic management. In the context of a globally competitive market, students will explore methods of directing an entire organization. Topics include: analysis of competitive position, value creation, developing systems-wide goals and objectives, and the creation of a strategic plan. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire program curriculum. Offered online.

PED Physical Education and Health

Note: Student athletes who meet the Ashford University and NAIA eligibility requirements for the designated intercollegiate athletic team may earn one credit for participation. A maximum of 4 PED credit hours may be earned. Grades are Pass/Fail.

PED 100 Intercollegiate Athletics         1 Credit
Members of the University intercollegiate programs may earn one credit hour per semester, up to a maximum of 4 credit hours toward a degree. Successful completion of the season and satisfaction of intercollegiate rules and regulations is required. This course is offered Pass/Fail. F/S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-01 Men’s Intercollegiate Basketball         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-02 Women’s Intercollegiate Basketball         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-03 Men’s Cross Country         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-04 Women’s Cross Country         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-05 Men’s Intercollegiate Golf         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-06 Women’s Intercollegiate Golf         1 Credit
Offered F Offered on-campus.

PED 100-07 Men’s Intercollegiate Soccer         1 Credit
Offered F Offered on-campus.

PED 100-08 Women’s Intercollegiate Soccer         1 Credit
Offered F Offered on-campus.

PED 100-09 Men’s Intercollegiate Baseball         1 Credit
Offered S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-10 Women’s Intercollegiate Softball         1 Credit
Offered S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-11 Men’s Track & Field         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-12 Women’s Track & Field         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-13 Women’s Intercollegiate Volleyball         1 Credit
Offered F Offered on-campus.

PED 100-14 Men’s Intercollegiate Tennis         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-15 Women’s Intercollegiate Tennis        1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-16 Men’s Intercollegiate Bowling         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 100-17 Women’s Intercollegiate Bowling         1 Credit
Offered F, S Offered on-campus.

PED 103 First Aid/Emergency Healthcare        2 Credits
Designed to give students knowledge and skill in implementing immediate, temporary treatment in case of injury or sudden illness before the services of a physician. Upon successful completion of the course, a student will receive a standard first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation certificate. Offered on-campus.

PED 104 Personal Health & Wellness         2 Credits
This interactive course provides information, strategies, and guidance in developing a lifestyle that will enhance overall well being and prevent health problems. Students develop a personal health plan based on the research-based content of current health topics. F Offered on-campus.

PED 125 Pilates         1 Credit
This PED activity course in Pilates enhances flexibility and develops core strength to enhance overall physical health and well being. There are no prerequisites for this class. Offered on-campus.

PED 128 Strength Training for Women         1 Credit
This PED activity course in strength training is designed to increase upper and lower body strength while improving overall health and well being. There are no prerequisites for this class. Offered on-campus.

PED 129 Strength Training for Men         1 Credit
This PED activity course in strength training is designed to increase upper and lower body strength while improving overall health and well being. There are no prerequisites for this class. Offered on-campus.

PED 170 Teaching Baseball Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 171 Teaching Basketball Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 172 Teaching Football Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 173 Teaching Golf Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 174 Teaching Wrestling Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 175 Teaching Soccer Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 176 Teaching Cheerleading Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 177 Teaching Softball Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 178 Teaching Volleyball Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 179 Teaching Track & Field Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 180 Teaching Swimming Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 181 Teaching Tennis Strategies         1 Credit
The focus of the course is teaching motor skills, knowledge of rules and playing strategies. Offered on-campus.

PED 203 Exercise Physiology         1 Credit
A study of the major physiological systems of the human body and their acute and chronic responses to exercise. Includes application of physiological concepts to physical training and conditioning. Students will develop an understanding of how the body moves and how the laws of force affect that movement. S Offered on-campus.

PED 205 Physical Education for the Elementary Teacher         2 Credits
This course prepares elementary teachers to design and implement elementary physical education instruction into grades K-8. Emphasis is placed on the important impact physical education has on the academic success and total development of the child. Students develop strategies to incorporate physical education into the classroom curriculum. Students log 8 clock hours of observation of elementary physical education classes. Prerequisites: EDU 200 and PSY 104, or permission of the instructor. F Offered on-campus.

PED 211 Theories & Techniques of Coaching         1 Credit
This course addresses the principles of coaching, behavior, teaching, physical training, and management. Includes the ethical considerations and legal responsibilities at all levels. S Offered on-campus.

PED 212 Foundation of Movement & Motor Activities         3 Credits
Students will examine integrated movement curriculum and the relationship between knowledge, motor skills, and movement activities. Activities will lead to understanding of how the body is used during fundamental motor skills and the progression to more advanced movement. Emphasis is on the study of human movement and the development of motor skills which enhance health related physical fitness. Movement concepts of body awareness, space, and quality of movement are defined. Fundamental movement skills are analyzed and used as a basis for planning physical education coursework. Offered online and on-campus.

PED 217 Individual & Team Sports Skills         3 Credits
Students will develop understanding of the difference between team and individual sports and gain practical knowledge of most sports incorporated into a high school or physical education setting. History, rules, court dimensions, fundamentals, strategies, equipment, and safety will be included in the content. Offered on-campus.

PED 230 Health Education for the Elementary Teacher         2 Credits
This course prepares elementary teachers to design and implement health education instruction into grades K-8. Emphasis is placed on the important impact health education has on the academic success and total development of the child. Students develop strategies to incorporate health instruction into the classroom curriculum based on the National Health Education Standards. Prerequisites: EDU 200 and PSY 104 or permission of the instructor. S Offered on-campus.

PED 240 Applied Kinesiology & Biomechanics        3 Credits
A study of muscle function, biomechanics, and analysis of human movement without complex calculations requiring mathematics and laws of physics. The purpose of this course is to examine the physical and physiological principles upon which it depends; students are shown practical applications of mechanics and applied quantitative analysis to improve understanding of technique, training, and injury development. F Offered on-campus.

PED 242 Prevention & Care of Athletic Injuries         2 Credits
Students will acquire knowledge and develop skill in implementing immediate, temporary treatment in case of injury or sudden illness. Upon successful completion of the first-aid component, a student will receive a standard first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation certificate. Emphasis will be on sports first aid including fundamental taping, wrapping, and treatment modalities. S Offered on-campus.

PED 325 Pilates         1 Credit
This PED activity course in Pilates enhances flexibility and develops core strength to enhance overall physical health and well being. There are no prerequisites for this class. Offered on-campus.

PED 335 Curriculum & Administration of Physical Education         3 Credits
The course will be a study for a teacher and coach in organizing the physical education and athletic departments to include: budgeting, purchasing equipment, curriculum improvement, supervision of personnel, legal aspects and intramural programs. Offered on-campus.

PED 340 Adapted Physical Education         3 Credits
This course provides understanding of the various physical and emotional needs of the special education student and how to adapt curriculum. Students will have a required amount of hours of field experience. (Cross-listed as ESE 340.) Offered on-campus.

PED 431 K-12 Health Education Methods         3 credits
This course prepares elementary or secondary students/teachers to design and implement health education instruction in grades K-12. Students develop and teach strategies to incorporate health instruction into classroom curriculum based on the National Health Education Standards. Topics include nutrition, substance abuse, alcohol, tobacco, HIV and AIDS, injury, sexuality, and emotional health. A 20-hour clinical experience in a health classroom is required. Prerequisites: EDU 200 and PSY 104 or permission of the instructor Offered on-campus.

PED 472 Student Teaching K-12 in Health        4 Credits
Students observe and teach full days under the guidance of a University supervisor and a cooperating practitioner. They will spend 4 weeks in a health education classroom. This course is combined with other student teaching course(s) to meet licensure requirements for the student’s specific endorsement(s). Prerequisite: Admission into the Student Teaching Semester. F/S Offered on-campus.

PHI Philosophy

PHI 100 Human Person & Values         3 Credits
This course deals with the nature of human beings, their values, and the world they live in as theory and as exemplified by the lives of St. Francis and St. Clare. Units focus on values of life and human origin, knowledge and language, emotions and choice, and death and immortality, among others. Course satisfies General Education requirement to complete a three-credit course with significant Franciscan content. F Offered on-campus.

PHI 101 Introduction to Philosophy         3 Credits
A general introduction to acquaint the student with the meaning and goals of philosophy and to introduce some major personalities, problems, and methods in philosophy. S Offered on-campus.

PHI 103 Informal Logic         3 Credits
This course is a study of correct and incorrect reasoning involved in everyday activities. The fundamentals of language and argument, deductive and inductive reasoning and other aspects of practical reasoning are examined. Offered online and on-campus.

PHI 104 Fundamentals of Critical Reasoning         3 Credits
This course offers a comprehensive guide to critical reasoning. It will focus on thought and language, patterns of argumentation including fallacies and deductive and inductive reasoning, argument analysis, and modes of proof including arguments in the disciplines. This course satisfies the Critical Thinking competency. F/S Offered on-campus.

PHI 107 Philosophy of Human Conduct         3 Credits
This course focuses on clarifying and illuminating the great social and personal issues confronting people today. Topics include standards of moral judgment, the meaning and justification of moral judgments, and questions of moral responsibility and justice. This course satisfies the Applied Ethics competency. Offered online and on-campus.

PHI 200 Mind & Machine         3 Credits
This course explores fundamental issues of the mind, thought, and reality. Exploration of trends and future developments in artificial intelligence and the possible effects these developments will have on human life are investigated. The following questions are analyzed: What is the material nature of the human mind/brain? How does the human mind construct and understand reality? What is the relationship of the human mind to the world it perceives and the world it creates? What are the differences/similarities between human and artificial intelligence? Offered on-campus.

PHI 205 Philosophy & Children         3 Credits
This course incorporates theoretical and practical challenges concerning growing up with philosophy, the child as thinker and natural philosopher, philosophy in the early years, philosophy confronting psychological theories of development, and philosophical activities that are in line with the child’s intellectual readiness. (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

PHI 208 Ethics & Moral Reasoning         3 Credits
This course explores key philosophical concepts from an ethical perspective. Students will analyze selected assertions of knowledge and the methods of reasoning humans use to justify these claims. Through research into theories of science and religion, as well as the theoretical and empirical challenges these institutions of thought face, students will also investigate how the mind constructs and understands reality. This will provide a foundation for an exploration into questions of morality, in which students will look at traditional and contemporary ethical theories, and apply these theories to contemporary moral issues. Offered online.

PHI 210 Franciscanism Yesterday & Today         3 Credits
This course focuses on the life, spirit, and ideals of St. Francis and St. Clare. Students will evaluate the importance of the Franciscan tradition of our University and articulate how it influences their present lives. S Offered on-campus.

PHI 302 Formal Logic         3 Credits
This course focuses on formulating and analyzing arguments critically. This survey includes methods of deduction and induction, uses of languages, categorical syllogisms, and propositional and predicate logic. (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

PHI 307 Philosophy of Human Conduct         3 Credits
Same course description as PHI 107. Students enrolled at the 300 level will be required to complete an approved independent research project. This course satisfies the Applied Ethics competency. F/S Offered on-campus.

PHI 310 Franciscanism Yesterday & Today         3 Credits
Same course description as PHI 210. Students enrolled at the 300 level will be required to complete an approved independent project in addition to scheduled class assignments. S Offered on-campus.

PHI 312 Philosophy of Being         3 Credits
Students learn the structure, dynamics, and implications of one’s relationship with being. Discussion includes representation questions about idealism, material minds, substance, change, personal identity, responsibility, causal determinism, and some proposed resolutions of these questions. (Not offered every year) Offered on-campus.

PHI 402 Business Ethics         3 Credits
Students study Christian principles and their practical implications for contemporary business interests. Topics including economic justice, basic issues of the work place, employee responsibilities, organizational influences in private lives, professional ethics, business, and the environment are emphasized. Prerequisite: Senior standing or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics         3 Credits
This course studies the theories and paradigms underlying personal and organizational values and ethical principles; how personal values and ethical principles relate to the organizations in which people function; and the effects of the organization’s ethics on its reputation, functioning and performance. Offered online and on-campus.

PHY Physical Science

PHY 101 Astronomy         4 Credits
An overview of astronomy including structure and motion of the planets, the solar system, the Milky Way and other galaxies, and the Universe. (Not offered every year.) S Offered on-campus.

PHY 103 Weather & Climate         4 Credits
This course explores the fundamental causes for weather and climate. Topics examined will include energy, clouds, wind, storms, climate classification, and change. Previous science and math backgrounds will be helpful but are not required. (Not offered every year.) S Offered on-campus.

PHY 105 Introduction to Physical Science         4 Credits
A survey of selected topics in physical science offered from a non-mathematical approach. This course is designed to help the student understand fields such as physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology. Prerequisite: One year of high school algebra or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) F Offered on-campus.

PHY 201 College Physics I         4 Credits
An introduction to college physics designed to develop the student’s understanding and appreciation of the physical world. The course examines, through lecture and lab, the physical characteristics of mechanics, wave motion, and heat. In addition, the course also introduces the scientific method and some of the skills necessary for the investigation of physical phenomena. These skills include the taking and analyzing of data, the identification and reduction of human error, and the merging of theory and practical experience. PHY 201 is suitable for science and non-science majors alike and is presented without calculus topics. Prerequisite: MAT 227 or equivalent. F Offered on-campus.

PHY 202 College Physics II         4 Credits
An introduction to college physics designed to develop the student’s understanding and appreciation of the physical world. Through lecture and lab, the course examines the physical characteristics of light, electricity, and quantum physics. In addition, the course also introduces the scientific method and some of the skills necessary for the investigation of physical phenomena. These skills include the taking and analyzing of data, the identification and reduction of human error, and the merging of theory and practical experience. PHY 202 is suitable for science and non-science majors alike and is presented without calculus topics. Prerequisite: MAT 227 or equivalent. S Offered on-campus.

POL Political Science

POL 201 American National Government         3 Credits
A survey of government at the national level. Emphasis is placed on the constitutional basis of American government, federalism, the sources and forms of political behavior, the operation of the three branches of government, and the making of national policy. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 211 Introduction to Politics         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to selected institutions, processes, and political behaviors associated with the study of politics in the United States and globally. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 303 The American Constitution         3 Credits
This course is a study of the Constitution of the United States and its role in American history and government. The study covers the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, its subsequent amendment and interpretation, and its contemporary role in American politics and government. (Cross-listed as HIS 303.) Offered online and on-campus.

POL 310 Environmental Policies        3 Credits
Examines political, social, and economic policies and their impact on the global environment. Also explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment. (Cross-listed as ENV 310.) Offered online and on-campus.

POL 312 The American West         3 Credits
The American West is a subfield of United States history that was framed by Frederick Jackson Turner’s frontier thesis in 1893, which saw encounters among land, people, and history forming the basis for a “sectional” identity. This course examines these entities and further explores the complexities of U.S. western history, incorporating the different landscapes shaped by multiple geopolitical histories; the encounters between political and cultural struggles over meaning; and/or the contests between diverse groups of people over shared places, status, and/or meanings. Historians, journalists, politicians, filmmakers, and writers have all told stories about the American West. For this reason, this course examines a variety of stories from across the curriculum that present the twentieth-century-American West. (Cross-listed as HIS 312.) Offered on-campus.

POL 319 State & Local Government         3 Credits
This course examines the structure and processes of state and local governments and their related current problems and issues. There is a focus on the effect of Federalism and its effect on States. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 321 History & Politics of the Vietnam War         3 Credits
This readings course examines selected perspectives by scholars and writers on the Vietnam War. The course focuses primarily on the political and historical context shaped by the years of U.S. involvement with Vietnam. The course attempts to come to grips with the different contexts of the wars by drawing on books that consider the actions of both the Vietnamese and American armies and consequences of the war on the people and environment of each. The course places emphasis on understanding the war from both the Vietnamese and American perspectives and on the historical and cultural context of both nations. (Cross-listed as HIS 321.) Offered on-campus.

POL 325 Congress & the Presidency         3 Credits
This course examines the notion of shared governance as it applies to two central institutions of the American national government, Congress and the Presidency. Students have an opportunity to learn more about the history, structure, and functions of each institution but there is much emphasis placed on the relationship between Congress and the Presidency. Topics include leadership, policymaking, tensions within each institution and between the different institutions, and a focus on a variety of public policy areas. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 353 Comparative Politics         3 Credits
This course introduces the basic concepts and theories of comparative politics through an analysis of selected political systems and governments from various regions and societies across the world. Topical analysis in the course includes an emphasis on key political institutions, political culture, ideology, globalization, conflict and stability, various state and non-state actors, and on issues associated with economic development and underdevelopment. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 355 International Relations         3 Credits
The course in international relations is the study of relations between different nations of the world with an emphasis on understanding the political implications of international security matters and the international political economy. The topical emphasis on nationalism, diplomacy, conflict, international organizations and actors, human rights, political economy, and key global issues offers insights into the principles of identity, cooperation, and the use of power in an international context. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 357 Political Communication         3 Credits
This course guides students through an academic exploration of the role of communication in politics. Areas of study may include examinations of political rhetoric, public speech, legislation, media, ideologies, lobbying, policy decision-making, campaigns, and social movement. Theories about political communication are balanced with historical cases and contemporary communicative practices. (Equivalent to COM 357.) Prerequisite: SPE 103 or equivalent. Offered on-campus.

POL 411 Political Behavior         3 Credits
Students will study political behavior as it relates to campaigns and elections in the United States. Selected course themes include political communication, participation, voting, and elections. Offered online and on-campus.

POL 497 Political Science Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course students will demonstrate their mastery of program outcomes in Political Science and Government by creating an original research report on a current, relevant, and specifically defined subject area. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

PPA Public Administration

PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration         3 Credits
An introductory examination of the characteristics of the public organization and its impact on society including analysis of the principles of public administration, personnel issues, budgetary activities, legal dynamics, as well as historical development of the field are included. Offered online.

PPA 303 Finance for Public Administrators         3 Credits
This course addresses the principles of state and local financing of government, sources of public revenue, objects of public expenditures, problems of fiscal administration, emerging policy issues involving land use and taxation, spending and budgeting, intergovernmental cooperation, debt financing, financing for economic development, and privatization. Prerequisite: ECO 203. Offered online.

PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators         3 Credits
This is an introductory course in government budgeting dealing with public revenue, expenditure policies, and politics of the budgetary process while addressing current issues and challenges in this field. Offered online.

PPA 307 Intergovernmental Relations & Issues         3 Credits
The theory and practice of intergovernmental relations and the various issues that accompany the daily operations and affect the overall efficiency of our system. This course will address both the legal and political perspectives of the interactions, relationships and public policy considerations throughout the various components and levels of government. Prerequisite: PPA 301. Offered online.

PPA 401 Urban Management         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to formal and informal elements of urban management systems addressing the exploration of alternative approaches to dealing with problems arising from rapid urban growth. Prerequisite: PPA 301. Offered online.

PPA 403 Administrative Law         3 Credits
A study of the nature and the law of the administrative procedure, of separation and delegation of powers, and of the scope of judicial review and other remedies against administrative actions. Offered online.

PPA 405 Personnel Management         3 Credits
An examination of the essential processes, policies, and laws pertaining to public personnel including an analysis of issues concerning public personnel administrators, employee protection, motivation, and effectiveness. Offered online.

PPA 497 Public Policy Formation         3 Credits
A study of how the dynamics of governmental decision making influence the content of public policy; course focuses upon how legislators, interest groups, chief executives, and the bureaucracy function to define alternatives and to shape policy agenda and content. Prerequisites: PPA 301 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

PPA 601 Foundations of Public Administration         3 Credits
This course examines the theory and practice of public administration, its legal and constitutional foundation and the role of the public administrator in public policy. The context of the course discussions are based on the current issues facing public agency administrators. Offered online.

PPA 602 Public Financial Management         3 Credits
This course is an exploration of current governmental fiscal management techniques and issues. Other course topics include various types of financial and technical assistance as well as quasi-governmental and non-profit management organizations. Offered online.

PPA 603 Government Budgeting         3 Credits
This is a comprehensive, straightforward examination of government budgeting. Topics deal with include the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to revenue projection, the collection and review of departmental proposals, the development of capital budgeting policy and other budgeting tasks. Also addressed are budget implementation, accounting and financial reporting. A variety of methods for maintaining budgetary balance, preventing overspending and dealing with contingencies are presented and discussed. Offered online.

PPA 604 Urban Planning/Redevelopment         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the visioning and modeling of services and programs, both anticipatory and responsive, utilizing market-driven information. Students integrate theories from economics, information management, finance and leadership, culminating in the generation of a comprehensive business plan. Offered online.

PPA 605 Negotiation, Bargaining & Conflict Management         3 Credits
This course analyzes bargaining and negotiation principles and practices in the public sector. The course focuses on the financial issues of contract negotiations and labor relations and building negotiation skills of the administrator. Offered online.

PPA 699 Public Policy Development         3 Credits
This capstone course is an examination of influences affecting policy development and decision making in the urban political arena. It also covers policy management, policy execution, establishing and measuring criteria for policy success, and effective communication throughout the public policy process. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MPA curriculum. In addition, this course requires the generation and presentation of an analysis of a community development project. Offered online.

PSY Psychology

PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology         3 Credits
This course is a survey of selected topics in psychology, including research methods, physiological psychology, sensation, perception, consciousness, learning, memory, motivation, gender roles, abnormal behavior, psychotherapy, and social psychology. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development         3 Credits
This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through adolescence. Students are provided the opportunity to explore the “what,” “how,” and “when” of physical motor, cognitive, socio-emotional, moral aesthetic, and language development. Exploration is emphasized through activities that allow students to understand and appreciate both typical and atypical development within the context of the family and society and to recognize the impact of individual, cultural and linguistic differences on development. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 202 Adult Development & Life Assessment         3 Credits
This course presents adult development theory and links theoretical concepts of life and learning through a process of psychometric assessment and reflection. Both classical and contemporary adult development theories are examined. These theories then provide the paradigm for self-analysis and life learning, including a plan for personal, professional and academic learning. Successful completion with a “C-” or better or equivalent is required. Offered online.

PSY 301 Social Psychology         3 Credits
Students explore how the thoughts, feelings and behavior of individuals are influenced by other human beings in a variety of social situations. This course also entails a survey and critical analysis of the various methods used by researchers in social psychology. Topics include: social cognition, aggression, prejudice, interpersonal attraction, altruistic behavior, conformity, group influences, and conflict resolution. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 302 Industrial/Organizational Psychology         3 Credits
This course examines the influence of an organization upon the individual, as well as ways an individual can influence an organization. Topics include recruiting, personnel selection, organizational climate, group problem solving, and conflict resolution. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology         3 Credits
The course entails a study of the diagnosis, causes, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders. Problems with the reliability and validity of the American Psychiatric Association system for diagnosing psychological disorders will be discussed, and various alternative systems will be introduced. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 304 Lifespan Development         3 Credits
This course consists of the application of the methods and principles of several fields of psychology to an extensive study of human growth development in the child, adolescent, and adult. Prerequisite: PSY 101. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 305 Sports Psychology         3 Credits
This course provides an understanding of psychological dimensions of behavior of the participant in sport. It involves analyzing and observing the effect of internal and external stimuli on participants, individuals and group/team relationships, leadership, goal setting, anxiety, performance enhancement, and mental imagery. Psychological aspects of athletic injuries and healing and strategies for dealing with physical or emotional losses in sport are addressed. Prerequisites: PSY 101 and junior standing, or permission of the instructor. (Not offered every year.) Offered on-campus.

PSY 307 The Journey of Adulthood         3 Credits
This course presents process-oriented, multi-disciplinary views, principles, research findings, and perspectives across the adulthood continuum: early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Students gain an understanding of developmental changes occurring in the realms of biology, anatomy, and social and cultural contexts in which aging occurs. Offered online.

PSY 311 Counseling Psychology: Methods of Applied Psychology         3 Credits
An introduction to methods of applied psychology with an emphasis upon theories and skills in counseling. Topics include effective listening skills, ethics of applied psychology, crisis intervention techniques, a survey of psychotherapy systems, drug therapy, residential treatment, a review of research on the effectiveness of counseling and psychotherapy, and the interpretation of psychological tests that are frequently used to facilitate counseling and psychotherapy. Prerequisites: PSY 101, and, if a lower-division student, completion of at least 24 hours of course credit with a 2.50 GPA or higher. F or S Offered on-campus.

PSY 315 Survey of Exceptional Students         3 Credits
An investigation into the theories, skills, and attitudes needed to identify and instruct students with disabilities in varied school settings. Attention will be given to the variety of categories of disabilities that special educators are likely to come into contact with. Students will examine the issues of providing services to identified individuals within and outside school settings. (Cross-listed as ESE 315.) Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly         3 Credits
This course explores cognitive functioning in later life including biological, socioeconomic, environmental, cognitive adaptation, and life history factors influencing cognitive function as an individual progresses along a developmental continuum. The major psychological constructs of self concept, socialization, and thinking processes are presented. Etiology, interventions, education, and support systems are discussed. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. F Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 323 Perception, Learning, & Cognition         3 Credits
Students will study research and theory about mental processes that go between experience and the human mind. Students will gather and interpret data for several simple experiments that demonstrate classic research findings in perception, learning, and cognition. Perception entails the mental processes involved in the organization and interpretation of sensory experience. Learning entails relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from experience. Cognition explains how the mind processes information, how we encode, store, and retrieve memories, and how we use information to form beliefs, make decisions, and solve problems. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 325 Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences         3 Credits
Descriptive and inferential statistics are investigated and multiple techniques for statistical analysis are introduced in this course. Formulas for presenting and evaluating data are explored in accordance with generally accepted protocol for statistical analysis. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency (online) or MAT 117 (on-campus). Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 326 Research Methods         3 Credits
Research Methods is an introduction to the foundations of research methodology, design and analysis. Basic principles of qualitative and quantitative research are explored and evaluated. Understanding the results of statistical analysis as it applies to research is a focus of this curriculum. On-campus prerequisite: PSY 325. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 330 Theories of Personality         3 Credits
This course reviews the basic concepts and principles of the major theories of personality. It also assesses the scientific worth and validity of these theories and includes case studies that show how these theories are applied to the treatment of psychological disorders. Detailed descriptions of healthy and unhealthy personality types will be stressed. Students will be challenged to evaluate their personality, as it relates to the theory being presented. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 331 Psychology of Learning         3 Credits
Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes resulting from experience. This course consists of the application of learning theory and research in a wide range of settings where learning takes place. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 332 Sensation & Perception        3 Credits
Sensation and Perception uses the sensory and perceptual systems to explore the basics of neural physiology and anatomy. The course covers all of the sensory systems, as well as how the brain perceives objects, motion, color, and depth, and also addresses visual and other attention systems. Prerequisite: PSY 101. Offered on-campus.

PSY 333 Psychology of Diversity        3 Credits
Psychology of Diversity examines the roles of language, culture, social psychology, personality, and cognitive processes to determine how these work together to create the magnification and maintenance of stereotypic differences between and among groups. The course will give students an opportunity to explore human diversity from a wide range of theoretical and methodological perspectives that are causative and reflective of culture. Students should emerge from the course with a more profound understanding of groups other than their own. Misconceptions, and even prejudice where it exists, should be replaced by knowledge. Offered on-campus.

PSY 335 Tests & Measurements         3 Credits
This course will survey instruments of psychometric assessment that are frequently used in education and human services. Fundamental theory and research pertaining to the quantitative measurement of human traits will be reviewed. Psychometric instruments will include standardized intelligence, standardized tests of educational achievement and aptitude, objective personality tests, self-report inventories frequently used by mental health professionals, and standardized measures using behavioral observations of children by teachers and parents. Strengths and limitations of these instruments will be carefully examined to enable students to use critical thinking and good judgment as consumers of these projects and services. Prerequisites: PSY 101, PSY 325, and junior standing. Offered on-campus.

PSY 340 Research & Presentation         3 Credits
The student designs and conducts a research project with supervision from a faculty sponsor. The student then accompanies his or her sponsor to one of several regional conferences that invite undergraduates to present their research in a poster or oral presentation format. The principal course requirement is the poster or presentation at the conference. Prerequisites: MAT 332, PSY 101, minimum grade of "C-" in PSY 325 and PSY 326 and permission of faculty sponsor. Offered on-campus.

PSY 344 Issues & Trends in Adult Development         3 Credits
This course provides an interdisciplinary exploration of contemporary issues and trends in adult development as well as emerging research areas. Topics include intergenerational conflicts, changing role dynamics, volunteerism, self-esteem in adulthood, resilience and vulnerability, maintaining and enhancing cognitive vitality in adulthood, adult employment trends including multiple career changes, coping with “boomerang children,” grandparents raising grandchildren, and the growth of lifelong learning. Offered online.

PSY 350 Physiological Psychology         3 Credits
Students study the anatomy and physiology of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and endocrine system. Study of the biological systems promotes better understanding of mind-body relationships important to hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, emotion, learning, and memory. Students also examine medical theories, assessment, and treatments of psychological disorders including new imaging technologies and drug therapy. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 352 Cognitive Psychology         3 Credits
Cognitive psychology takes a scientific approach to understanding the fundamental mental processes involved in everyday cognition. This course covers the topics of perception, attention, memory, and language by examining both classic and contemporary cognitive psychology methods and experimental results. Prerequisites: PSY 101 and PSY 326 (may be taken concurrently with PSY 326). Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 357 Brain & Behavior         3 Credits
Brain and Behavior is an in depth examination of the nervous system foundations of normal behavior. Students are expected to have a working knowledge of the human nervous system, neural functioning, and physiological research methods prior to entering this course. Prerequisites: PSY 350 or BIO 205. Offered on-campus.

PSY 358 Psychopharmacology         3 Credits
Psychopharmacology examines the mental and physical effects of drugs and behavioral addictions such as compulsive eating and gambling. This class identifies the difference between problem usage, dependence, dysfunction, and finally addiction. Pharmacological, biological, physiological, and psychological aspects of these obsessional problems are explored. Prerequisites: PSY 101, PSY 350 or BIO 205. Offered on-campus.

PSY 360 Survey of Mental Health         3 Credits
This course examines various mental health services including assessment, counseling, psychotherapy, drug therapy, residential treatment, prevention, and community support. This survey course introduces major perspectives in the delivery of counseling and psychotherapy. Students evaluate the effectiveness of these various treatments based upon results of current outcome research. Prerequisites: PSY 325 and PSY 326. Offered on-campus.

PSY 361 Health Psychology         3 Credits
Students explore the mind/body relationship as it pertains to health, stress, and the person’s response to medical treatment. This course includes a review of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, the endocrine system, the immune system, and other organ systems. Students explore new strategies of applied psychology for sustaining health, managing stress, and recovering successfully from disease, injury, and medical treatment. Offered on-campus.

PSY 386 Issues & Ethics in Counseling         3 Credits
This course covers the professional issues and ethical standards in the practice of counselor. Subjects include licensure, multiple relationships, client rights, counselor responsibilities, multicultural perspectives and diversity, decision making, confidentiality and informed consent, legal perspectives, assessment and testing, research, and professional training and competence. Prerequisites: PSY 101 and PSY 322 (may be taken concurrently). Offered on-campus.

PSY 399 Selected Readings         3 Credits
Each student collaborates with the professor to select three readings in an interest area of the student's choosing. Selected readings must be relevant to the Applied Project (PSY 496) course. This course is designed to provide an opportunity to use the critical thinking skills developed through the discussion of selected readings in psychology. Prerequisites: PSY 101, PSY 325, and PSY 326 Offered on-campus.

PSY 421 Human Services Practicum         3 Credits
Prospective students in the allied health areas, such as Nuclear Medicine Technology and Physical Therapy, gain experience in patient care under the supervision of appropriately licensed professionals. Students complete 50 contact hours for each credit hour given and must provide evidence of learning through a written journal and keep an up-to-date time sheet. May be taken more than once to gain experience at different locations for a maximum of 4 credit hours. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or higher and minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Offered on-campus.

PSY 433 Basic Counseling Skills         3 Credits
This course provides the opportunity for students to develop foundational communication skills necessary for promoting therapeutic relationships with clients. Topics include: (1) basic counseling (communication) skills; (2) historical and theoretical perspectives of counseling; and (3) the influence of personal values, culture, and gender on the practice of counseling. Prerequisite: PSY 311. Offered on-campus.

PSY 495 Adult Development Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of adult development A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

PSY 496 Applied Project         3 Credits
This course provides a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, theories, and concepts gained from the study of psychology. A substantive simulated research project is created, providing students the opportunity to integrate key learning and knowledge gained from throughout the degree program. Prerequisites: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course and the majority of the major coursework. Offered online and on-campus.

PSY 497 Psychology Capstone         3 Credits
This course assists psychology majors with the transition into psychology-related jobs or graduate study. Students will explore graduate study and psychology job opportunities, and prepare portfolios of typical job and graduate school application materials. The course also serves as a summative experience to the psychology degree by reviewing major theories and classic research in psychology. Prerequisite: PSY 326 (may be taken concurrently with PSY 326). F Offered on-campus.

PSY 498 Senior Thesis I         2 Credits
Students demonstrate their mastery of research methods by writing a proposal that includes their research design and a list of references, submitting this proposal to the Vice President of Academic Affair’s Council for Internal Review of research with Human Participants, and gathering data for the approved project. Approval of the topic must be secured in advance from the psychology faculty member serving as thesis director. The research proposal must be approved by the student’s thesis committee and the Vice President of Academic Affair’s Council before data gathering begins. Prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency, MAT 332, PSY 325, PSY 326, minimum cumulative GPA 2.75, senior standing, and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. F/S Offered on-campus.

PSY 499 Senior Thesis II         2 Credits
Students complete the senior thesis research as proposed in PSY 498. The completed senior thesis takes the form of a written research report in American Psychological Association publication format. The student then gives an oral defense of the thesis before his or her thesis committee. A minimum grade of “C-” is required to meet psychology major requirements. Prerequisite: PSY 498 with a minimum grade of “C-”. F/S Offered on-campus.

REL Religious Studies

REL 100 Introduction to Theology         3 Credits
This course is divided into two parts. The first part explores the fundamental issues in Christian theology: tradition, story/myth, revelation and faith, and the role of Sacred Scripture in the formation of community and doctrine. The second part explores how Christians ought to respond in the moral-spiritual life because of their faith in Jesus Christ. F Offered on-campus.

REL 101/301 Person & Faith         3 Credits
This course explores the individual and social aspects of the religious experience. Various approaches to individual and social life and cultural analysis, including the concept of worldview, will be discussed. Important aspects of distinct approaches, religious and non-religious, will be considered. Students will also investigate how religious viewpoints and experiences may be expressed in contemporary society. F/S Offered on-campus

REL 107 Introduction to Sacred Scripture         3 Credits
This course introduces Hebrew and Christian Scripture and explores their historical, literary, and theological aspects. Incorporated into the course is some modern critical analysis, surfacing biblical themes and tracing the faith development of the Israelites and the followers of Christ. F or S Offered on-campus.

REL 113 Comparative Religions         3 Credits
Comparative Religions is an introduction to five of the world’s major religious movements. This course deals substantially with the cultural, social, religious, and spiritual foundations of each religion as well as contemporary ritual celebration. The focus of study is Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Early Christianity, Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, and Buddhism. Offered on-campus.

REL 114 Comparative Religions II         3 Credits
This course will survey a number of religious traditions of the world beyond those covered in REL 113 Comparative Religions. These would include indigenous religions, Jainism and Sikhism from India, Taoism and Confucianism from China, Shinto, Zoroastrianism, Baha’i, and newer religious movements. Course discussion will also include the effects of globalization on these religious groups. Offered on-campus.

REL 125/325 Christianity         3 Credits
This course is intended to provide the student with an overview of Christianity. Students will discuss the importance of the beliefs and ethics common to most Christians and also the distinctive beliefs and history of some of the major Christian groups. The place of Christianity in the development and life of contemporary society will be analyzed. Offered on-campus.

REL 130 Quest for Judaic-Christian Values         3 Credits
This course investigates values offered to the world from the writings, history, major ideas, and practices of Judaism and Christianity. Although there are no absolute answers to moral problems, there are absolute values. A value is not an answer, but it is that which can lead to an answer. Examples of absolute values are life, intelligence, dignity, freedom, courage, sociality, love, hope, justice, and peace. Satisfies General Education requirement to complete a three-credit course with significant Franciscan content. F or S Offered on-campus.

REL 203/303 Contemporary Human Problems         3 Credits
The course is an exploration and comparison of the ethical approaches of religions. It aims at expanding awareness of the causes of current problems and conflicts that challenge individuals and society today, and the response of different religions to these issues. Students will have the opportunity to develop their ability to make creative and responsible moral decisions. Consideration of solutions is based on choices that will promote greater life, fuller growth of persons, and deeper personal relationships and show concern for the future human community. F/S Offered on-campus.

REL 250 Judeo-Christian Thought         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the literary, historical, and religious dimensions of the Old and New Testaments and their dominant themes, including redemption, justice, righteousness, reconciliation, and hope. An examination of Judeo-Christian thought in relation to contemporary life issues and individual purpose identified in related readings. Offered on-campus.

RES Real Estate Studies

RES 301 Principles of Real Estate         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the general principles of real estate, to include industry terminology, ethics, deeds, listing and purchase agreements, agency, contracts, and property valuation decisions. Emphasis will also be on factors impacting local and national real estate markets. Offered online.

RES 325 Real Estate Practice         3 Credits
This course examines the basic job functions of real estate salespersons and brokers. Property listing, advertising, escrow, sales, and establishing a client base will be covered with practical applications for completing successful transactions. Offered online.

RES 327 Real Estate Economics         3 Credits
This course is a study of the foundational economic principles of real estate with an overview of the U.S. capitalist system. Focus will be on land use, markets, cycles and growth patterns, as well as property and income taxation. Offered online.

RES 334 Real Estate Finance         3 Credits
This course primarily examines the residential real estate finance markets and their impacts on consumers, but will also cover facets of commercial real estate. Mortgage options and purchase costs will be highlighted with attention to theories of real estate investment. Offered online.

RES 345 Legal Aspects of Real Estate         3 Credits
This course is a study of the legal system and its impact on purchase, ownership, sale, and leasing of real estate. Topics to be covered include contracts, wills, zoning, and environmental law, as well as Constitutional issues in real estate. Offered online.

RES 429 Property Management         3 Credits
This course provides the framework for the management and development of inventory of private and commercial real estate properties on a large scale. Included emphases are the roles of the property manager, landlord duties and policies, leases, maintenance, reports, and insurance. Offered online.

RES 431 Commercial Real Estate Investment         3 Credits
This course examines investment transactions, asset management, and enterprise management as the core components of commercial real estate investment. Methods for determining the value of commercial properties and the sources of real estate capital are also discussed. Offered online.

RES 450 Real Estate Appraisal         3 Credits
A study of the functions and approaches to appraisal, which include cost, income, and the direct sale comparison approach. The social and economic factors that impact determination of value will be discussed with emphasis on analyzing market data. Offered online.

RES 497 Strategic Management of the Real Estate Enterprise         3 Credits
This capstone course discusses the managerial decision-making and problem-solving processes that determine the failure or success of a real estate enterprise. Strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation and control are key points of comprehensive focus. The course also incorporates program comprehensive demonstrations of knowledge. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online.

SCI Science

SCI 201 Physical Geology         4 Credits
Current scientific understanding of how the earth functions is the focus of SCI 201. Various patterns from the earth’s history are analyzed in order to develop an understanding of geological terms, concepts and processes. Offered on-campus.

SCI 207 Dependence of Man on the Environment         4 Credits
In this course, learners deepen their understanding of the importance of natural resources to mankind. Students explore physical, biological, and ecological principles, examine how human alterations affect the environment, and reflect on the controversies surrounding various approaches to addressing environmental problems and the steps some communities have taken to address these challenges. Offered online.

SCI 208 Humans and the Environment         4 credits
In this course, learners deepen their understanding of the importance of natural resources to humans. Students explore physical, biological, and ecological principles, through traditional and laboratory investigation to examine how human alterations affect the environment, and reflect on the controversies surrounding various approaches to addressing environmental problems and the steps some communities have taken to address these challenges. (Equivalent to SCI 207). Offered online.

SOC Sociology

SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology         3 Credits
This introductory course presents basic concepts, theories, and research in sociology. Group organization, sex and gender, marriage and the family, sports as a social institution, and collective behavior are among the topics considered. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility         3 Credits
This course introduces the basic ethical concepts and explores philosophic perspectives for understanding the meaning of social responsibility. Topics include ethical theories, the role of government, the role of corporations, environmental issues, and ethical integrity. Offered online.

SOC 203 Social Problems         3 Credits
Drugs, poverty, illiteracy, homelessness, AIDS, undocumented aliens, single-parent families, urban and farm crises, and racial and environmental issues are examined. Possible causes and remedies are scrutinized. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 304 Social Gerontology         3 Credits
The course focuses on social stereotypes and prejudice against the aged, discrimination, friends and family, care giving, living environments, demography, senior political power, legislation, elder abuse, and death and dying. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 305 Crime & Society         3 Credits
The course considers the basic sociological theories and research findings concerning crime. The punishment and corrections process, organized crime, corporate crime, the police, the courts and the impact of crime on the victim are examined. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups         3 Credits
The course considers major racial and ethnic groups, especially African Americans, Asian Americans, ethnic Whites, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The focus is on the traits of each group and its pattern of adaptation to the larger society. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 312 Child, Family & Society         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the child (infant through elementary) and the reciprocal relationships children develop with their family, their school, and the world in which they live. Theories pertaining to the roles and relationships within and between families, schools, and communities are introduced with an emphasis on enabling students to identify family needs and concerns and to use a variety of collaborative communication and problem-solving skills to assist families in finding the best available community resources to meet these needs. Students themselves explore various community resources that further the development of the child’s potential. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 313 Social Implications of Medical Issues         3 Credits
An introductory course that provides learners with a basic foundation of human biology applicable to human service and health and human services providers. The course explores basic human biology and its relationship to selected socio-cultural domains that are grounded in Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model of Human Development. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives         3 Credits
Culture and politics in Europe, Latin America, the Arab world, India, East Asia, and other areas are examined. Emphasis is on viewing the world from the diverse perspectives of other cultures and political systems. Topics and regions vary. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 318 Sociology of Sport         3 Credits
The social institution of sport is examined as a microcosm of society. Consideration is given to the different levels of sport and sports in relation to social stratification and mobility, big business, mass media, religion, race, gender, and social discrimination. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. F or S Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 320 Public Policy & Social Services         3 Credits
An examination of public policies and the social services they mandate. The major focus is on American government policy at all levels and the detailed content of social services. Some consideration of other nations and international agencies is offered. Policies and services pertaining to a variety of areas including urban life, poverty, health care, substance abuse, children, the aged, unemployment, and mental health are studied. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 322 Sociological Aspects of Adulthood         3 Credits
Utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach, this course provides an introduction to the field of gerontology and its social implications. Social, psychological, and physical aspects of aging are overviewed as well as an exploration of the demographic shift taking place and the meaning and impact of the shift in terms of issues and policies arising from the graying of America. Other course topics include common aging changes/conditions, myths and stereotypes, the effects of health and illness on the individual, family, and society, and the impact of media, culture, and gender influences on aging. Offered online.

SOC 326 Diversity & Aging         3 Credits
This course explores the diversity perspectives of culture, ethnicity, economic status, national origin, disability, gender, and sexual identity as related to aging. Emphasis is placed on the ethnic perspectives of aging across cultures. Offered online.

SOC 330 Social Justice & Society         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary investigation of the concept of social justice. The course will incorporate major themes of social teachings such as life and dignity of the human person, call to family, community and participation, rights and responsibilities, options for the poor and vulnerable, the dignity and right of workers, solidarity, and care for the environment. Offered on-campus.

SOC 331 Social Justice & Ethics         3 Credits
This course examines the foundations of social justice theory and their application to criminal justice theories and practice. Issues such as poverty, social policy, diversity, welfare, and alternative social programs provide students with a working understanding of the interrelation and copasetic relationship between social and criminal justice issues. Students will also understand ethical applications for both social justice initiatives as well as the ethics of criminal justice policies and initiatives. Offered online and on-campus.

SOC 340 Managing in Health & Human Services:An Interdisciplinary Approach         3 Credits
An upper-level management course providing basic management theory for the beginning manager. Management challenges, human service environments, management theories, organizational design, program planning and implementing, supervisory relationships, managing finances, program evaluation, leadership theories, and team organization are discussed. Assessment of course objectives will be conducted through paper/pencil tests, small-group activities, class participation, and a comprehensive management project. Prerequisite: SOC 101. (Cross-listed as HCA 340.) F or S Offered on-campus.

SOC 402 Contemporary Social Problems & the Workplace         3 Credits
This course presents an analysis of major contemporary social problems, especially in the United States. Attention is given to the problems of poverty, racism, sexism, drug and alcohol abuse, and illiteracy, and their impact on the contemporary workplace. Consideration is given to diverse sociological perspectives regarding the causes, consequences, and solutions to these problems. Offered online.

SOC 421 Human Services Practicum         3 Credits
Students apply the skills and knowledge developed from their study of human services in a work environment. Course requires 150 hours of supervised, unremunerated work in an approved institution or agency. Prerequisites: Approval of a faculty supervisor, cumulative grade point average of 2.75 in courses required for the Human Services concentration, and senior standing. F/S Offered on-campus.

SOC 490 Social Science Capstone         3 Credits
This course requires students to reflect upon and synthesize the major insights gained in their study of the Social Sciences. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and knowledge in order to build leaders in the interdisciplinary field of Social Science. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

SPA Spanish

SPA 103 Beginning Spanish I         3 Credits
This course is designed for beginning Spanish speakers with no previous college course work in Spanish. The goal of this course is to enable students to acquire a basic mastery of the following four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course will emphasize practice of grammar and communication skills. Offered online and on-campus.

SPA 104 Beginning Spanish II         3 Credits
Continued study of grammar and vocabulary of the Spanish language and study of the Spanish-speaking cultures. Emphasis on speaking, reading, and writing skills. Prerequisite: SPA 103 or departmental approval. Offered online and on-campus.

SPE Speech

SPE 103 Oral Communication         3 Credits
Students learn basic theory and practice of oral communication. Topics include language, listening, causes of communication breakdown, feedback, nonverbal communication, audience analysis, reasoning, organization and development of messages, and delivery strategies. Oral assignments may range from informative, persuasive, and ceremonial speaking to small group discussion and oral interpretation. F/S Offered on-campus.

SPE 107 Introduction to Speech & Hearing Disorders         3 Credits
This course is designed to acquaint the student with the nature, symptoms, causes, effects, and treatment of speech and hearing problems. Students observe speech and hearing pathologists in a clinical setting. (Not offered every year.) S Offered on-campus.

SPE 301 Oral Interpretation         3 Credits
A study of the theory and performance of the art of oral interpretation as well as a unique approach to analyzing literature of all types (prose, poetry, and drama). After securing an understanding of the basic elements of theory, the student applies this knowledge to communicate effectively a writer’s thoughts, emotions, and manner of expression to an audience. Experiences range from the presentation of children’s literature to drama and include solo, duet, and group performances. Prerequisite: SPE 103 or permission of the instructor. S Offered on-campus.

SPE 315 Business & Professional Speaking         3 Credits
An analysis of communication theory applied to the organizational setting with practical experience in several forms of oral communication found in the business and professional worlds: interviewing, group discussions, conflict resolution, informative and persuasive speaking, impromptu speaking, and special occasion speeches. Prerequisite: SPE 103 or permission of the instructor. S Offered on-campus.

SPE 328 Speech & Civic Leadership         3 Credits
This course introduces students to advanced study of speech in the public sphere. Students will read about, examine, discuss and use rhetorical theories and practices that address civic life in history and from the present. During the class, students will compose rhetorical criticism of public speech, as well as prepare and present speeches designed for different publics. Prerequisite: SPE 103 or permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

SRM Sports and Recreation Management

SRM 210 Introduction to History of Recreation & Sport         3 Credits
This course examines the history, philosophy, and principles of recreation and sport. Themes will include the relationship of recreation and sport to society, orientation of the student to the profession, and trends within the field. Students will examine specific problems in recreation and sport as related to professional improvement and growth. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing. S Offered on-campus.

SRM 244 Sport & Recreation Management Practicum         1 Credit
Prospective Sports and Recreation Management majors function under the tutelage of professionals in sports and recreation management and other related entities. Students complete 50 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisite: Sophomore or Junior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

SRM 320 Organization and Administration of Sports & Recreation Management         3 Credits
Reviews the principles of organizational structure and behavior within sport organizations. Topics include organizational policies and procedures, organizational effectiveness, communication networks, and leadership values. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered online and on-campus.

SRM 325 Case Research in Sports & Recreation Management         3 Credits
Sports as a subject matter is very ancient and its marketing can be traced to even its earliest days. However, as an integral portion of contemporary society, successful sporting events or seasons generally require professional marketing efforts. Utilizing the principles of management, marketing and other relevant disciplines this course will use case studies, class discussions, and projects to enhance the student’s collective expertise in this area of Sports and Recreation Management. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. Offered online and on-campus.

SRM 344 Sport & Recreation Management Practicum         2 Credits
Prospective Sports and Recreation Management majors function under the tutelage of professionals in sports and recreation management and other related entities. Students complete 100 hours in a professional work environment, provide evidence of learning through a written journal, and keep an up-to-date time sheet. Prerequisite: Sophomore or junior standing with cumulative GPA of 2.7 and permission of the supervising faculty member. Offered on-campus.

SRM 350 Organization & Administration of Sport and Athletics         3 Credits
A study of administrative duties, leadership responsibilities, and issues facing sport and athletic administrators. Students will take an in-depth look at organizing and planning in sport organizations. An emphasis will be placed on understanding the various agencies that govern sport. The qualifications of staff positions will be addressed; other issues include policy development, budgeting, finance, liability, ethics, and office management. Prerequisite: Junior standing. F Offered on-campus.

SRM 352 Administration of Athletic & Recreation Facilities         3 Credits
A look at various methods of administration of athletic and recreational facilities. The legal issues will be addressed, and students will examine the concepts of marketing, public relations, communication, and the economics of sport. A practical look at the purchase, care, and maintenance of equipment is included. Prerequisite: Junior standing. S Offered on-campus.

SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management         3 Credits
Sport has become a major business enterprise in the United States and in much of the world. This course helps students understand the scope of the sport industry, to include identifying career opportunities in various segments of the sport industry. The course also examines the managerial process to include the functions of management, as well as the roles, skills, and attributes required of sport managers. Special attention is given to examining the unique characteristics of sport and the resulting social and ethical responsibilities of sport managers. Offered online and on-campus.

SRM 420 Internship in Sport & Recreation Management         3 Credits
Students complete a minimum of 150 hours of internship activity; responsibilities will include the development of a portfolio reflective of management and administrative skills in a professional setting. In addition to the portfolio, students complete an approved project that benefits the internship site. Prerequisites: Senior standing, PED 350 or PED352, approval of the University Supervisor, 2.7 Cumulative GPA. Offered on-campus.

SRM 450 Sport & Recreation Management Seminar         15 Credits
Students will complete 450 hours during the internship semester. A portfolio with artifacts depicting knowledge and application of skills in: Management, Organizational Behavior, Marketing, Media Presentation, Fiscal Operation, and Facility Administration will be the primary assessment of outcome for students. Prerequisites: Senior standing, PED 350 or 352, approval of University Supervisor, and 2.7 Cumulative GPA. Offered on-campus.

SRV Service Management

SRV 201-208 Service Learning         1 Credit
This course allows the student to develop and organize a service-learning project with a community service agency, providing an opportunity during the collegiate experience to learn about and address community needs. This course helps the student develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and reflective skills, and strives to increase the student’s understanding of community and societal needs. The student completes 50 hours of volunteer service during the semester and participates in meetings with instructor for reflection of experiences. Prerequisite: 12 semester hours on Ashford Campus unless otherwise approved by Office of Service and Leadership. Offered on-campus.

SRV 220 Service Learning: Values & Actions         3 Credits
This is a course that, by building on learning through service to an area of community need, will offer an opportunity to explore our own assumptions, values, questions, and beliefs. As the service component we will each find community projects where we can serve–and learn–within our local community (40 hours). At class meetings we will share our experiences and any questions or insights they are raising for us. These discussions will be enhanced by course readings, films, and class projects. Prerequisite: 12 semester hours on Ashford Campus unless otherwise approved by Office of Service and Leadership. Offered on-campus.

SRV 301 Introduction to Service Management         3 Credits
This course introduces management in the ‘intangible industries’ organization and addresses the central challenges presented by services organizations. The course also addresses the need for value creation through customers, the role of organizational leadership, and the role of services in modern society. Offered online.

SRV 312 Service Operations Management         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to service-related operations in a variety of business sectors and is studied through the shared aspect of their service elements, drawing upon service management theory to provide the academic framework. Students are introduced to operations management principles, and study the role of the operations manager within service organizations. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 332 Fundamentals of Hospitality         3 Credits
This course is a survey of the interrelated industries that comprise the hospitality and tourism industry. The course also introduces the student to the major concepts and components that representing the hotel, food and beverage, restaurant, recreation, theme parks, gaming, club management, convention and event planning, cruises, and tourism services industries. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 333 Resort Management         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of resort management and operations in the context of ski, golf, gaming, and other types of resorts. The basic principles of marketing, management, and development of a resort will be covered. The course includes a review of the history of the growth of resorts in the United States, expansion of resorts worldwide, and their operations and characteristics. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 340 Marketing in a Services Environment         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide an introduction to the general principles of marketing and an in-depth study of services marketing theory. The concepts the student learns will enable students to develop the skills appropriate in an emerging service economy. The student will be exposed to the relationship between services marketing and the consumer experience. There will be opportunities for the student to apply services marketing theory in non-profit, mass-market retail, hospitality, and restaurant enterprise environments. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 346 Introduction to Restaurant Management         3 Credits
Identifies the crucial elements involved in the successful operation of a restaurant and how they interrelate. Students are taken through the process of creating a concept, developing a menu, budgeting and controlling costs, staffing the restaurant, purchasing food and equipment, bar and beverage management, daily operations, and developing a restaurant marketing plan. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 347 Sanitation & Safety         3 Credits
This course introduces the student to public health problems that relate to the hospitality industry. Topics include disease transmission through improper food handling and cooking, major types of micro-organisms, environmental conditions which encourage bacterial growth, fire prevention methods and safety, and sanitation rules and practices. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 423 Food & Beverage Control        3 Credits
This course is a study of the systems and techniques appropriate to manage food, beverage, and labor costs in restaurant and catering operations. Topics addressed include management, marketing, menu development, costs and pricing, quality assurance, production, and operational analysis. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 425 Event, Meeting, & Conference Management         3 Credits
In this course, students learn strategies to develop meaningful, well-organized conferences, meetings, and special events. The course addresses event logistics, facilities management, event compliance with ADA and other laws/regulations, contract negotiation, labor planning, and issues with food and beverage management. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 428 Non-Profit Agency Management         3 Credits
This course serves as an introduction to the non-profit organization and management. Discussions will focus on mission, leadership, marketing, community relations, fund development, staff supervision and professional development. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 429 Fiscal Management of Nonprofit Organizations         3 Credits
This course examines the principles and practices of financial management in nonprofit organizations. It is designed to teach students how to use financial information in the management of nonprofit organizations. The use of case studies and applied examples intends to make the course especially practical to those working in the nonprofit environment. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SRV 438 Menu Planning & Design         3 Credits
This course includes food service design concept including the menu, the location, and the type of clientele expected. Students will also demonstrate an understanding of menu layout, including selection, development, price structure, and restaurant style. Prerequisite: SRV 301. Offered online.

SVC Service

SVC 205 Leadership Practicum         2 Credits
Leadership SVC 205 is an innovative service learning experience that incorporates Franciscan values and leadership skills in theory and practice. Course content includes topics such as accountability, character building, diversity and inclusivity, effective communication, empowerment, healthy choices, response-ability, teamwork, and time management. Prerequisites: Must be/becoming an active member in a club, organization, or recognized sport at the University and must be at least a sophomore. Offered on-campus.

SVC 305 Leadership Practicum         2 Credits
Leadership SVC 305 is a two-part practicum that provides not only hands-on experience in chairing sub-committees, conducting meetings, planning and facilitating small- and large-group activities and coordinating service projects but also the practice of critiquing/evaluating the experience. Course content includes topics such as conflict resolution, personal and professional integrity, positive role modeling, and team dynamics. Prerequisites: Must successfully complete SVC 205 level course and continue active participation in a club, organization, or recognized sport. Students must have a minimum of a 2.5 cumulative GPA. Offered on-campus.

TVL Travel Studies

TVL 311 Literary & Historical Developments in 19th Century England         3 Credits
This Destination course explores 19th century British fiction and poetry and important historic developments that contributed to shaping these literary works. In addition to various historical readings and discussion of two novels, Brontë’s Jane Eyre and Hardy’s The Return of the Native, particular attention will be given to selected works of the Romantic poet William Wordsworth and the Victorian poet Robert Browning, as well as selected reading from Jane Austen and analysis of the movie based on her novel, Pride and Prejudice. An 11- day England Study Tour, which is part of the course, includes several days in London and visits to Grasmere, where Wordsworth wrote; Haworth, home of the Brontë sisters; Dorset, the setting of Hardy’s novels and Bath, a city associated with Jane Austen and her works. (Equivalent to ENG 388 and HIS 388.) Offered online.

TVL 312 Mark Twain: Writer & Observer of American Culture         3 Credits
An analysis of essential works of Mark Twain, the great humorist and observer of people and issues in his time, with emphasis on his biographic experiences, his literary techniques, and his predominant societal themes. Offered online.

TVL 313 Literary & Historical Explorations of Classical Greco-Roman Culture         3 Credits
This Destination Course explores significant historical developments and selected literary works in the classical Greco-Roman era to identify essential thought that shaped these cultures, and to assess its influence on social, religious, economic, and aesthetic trends in contemporary culture. A seven-day Study Tour, visiting sites in Athens and Rome, is part of the course. Offered online.

TVL 314 Literary & Historical Developments in 19th Century America         3 Credits
This Destination course explores works of 19th century American writers, primarily from the Northeast, and discusses major 19th century historic developments. It includes a five-day study tour of the greater Boston area, with visits to historic and memorial sites. Offered online.

TVL 315 Historical & Literary Explorations of Post-Colonial South Africa         3 Credits
This Destination Course explores significant historical developments, social issues, and selected literary works which have been influential in initiating change and shaping the culture of post-colonial South Africa. An eleven-day study tour of two cities in South Africa is a required course component. This course is designed to meet general education requirements in History, Literature or Diversity Awareness. Various readings and assignments in the course are common for all students. The Summary Paper assignment is particularized, with separate requirements related to each of the above areas. Offered online.

XXX Special Topics

Subject code of course will vary based on department offering the special topic course.

XXX 209 Special Topics         1-3 Credits
A course built around a topic not covered by existing course offerings. The nature of the course will be determined in advance by the faculty member and student. Normally restricted to sophomores or higher. May be repeated to a maximum of six credit hours if the subject matter is not duplicated. Prerequisite: Written permission of the instructor. Offered on-campus.

XXX 309 Special Topics         1-3 Credits
Course description is the same as for 209. If the course is taken as 309, upper-division course guidelines will be followed. Prerequisites: Written permission of the instructor and the University Provost. Offered on-campus.

XXX 409 Special Topics         1-3 Credits
Course description is the same as for 209. If the course is taken as 409, upper-division course guidelines will be followed. Prerequisites: Written permission of the instructor and the University Provost. Offered on-campus.

XXX 509 Special Topics         1-3 Credits
A graduate level course on a topic selected by a Ashford University faculty member and approved by the University Provost. May be repeated with a change of subject matter. Prerequisite: Graduate standing (i.e., possession of a bachelor’s degree). Offered on-campus.