Section Six: Undergraduate Programs

Overview

Ashford University offers online undergraduate programs which are administered by the academic colleges and the Forbes School of Business at Ashford University. These programs serve adult and distance learners seeking Associate’s and Bachelor’s degrees from Ashford University.

Grounded in the principles of adult learning and established to address the unique needs of mature and distance learners, Ashford University recognizes the aspirations and qualities of self-directedness and serious motivation that broadly characterize working adults who seek college degrees. Programs offered through the online modality, therefore, provide diverse and alternative ways for such individuals to earn and accumulate credits to be used in completing baccalaureate degrees.

Besides offering online courses that are accelerated and conveniently scheduled, Ashford University administers assessment activities to determine college-level credit that adult learners may have already achieved. Alternative sources of credit at the undergraduate level may include credit for experiential learning, military training, sponsored professional training, advanced placement, national testing programs, and national credit recommendations. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed each program shown below, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd.

Admission Policies and Procedures for Online Associate of Arts Degree Programs

Conditional Admission Requirements for Associate's Degree Programs

Applicants seeking admission to an Associate of Arts degree program must meet the following admission requirements prior to the start of the first course at Ashford University:

  • Have a regular high-school diploma earned through college preparatory or regular high school courses, a GED or state certificate awarded after passing an authorized test that the state recognizes as equivalent to a high school diploma, completed secondary school through home schooling as defined by state law, or earned an equivalent to a US high school diploma at an international high school according to approved Foreign Evaluation services.*
    • An earned IEP or Special Education Diploma or Certificate of Completion based upon IEP goals does not meet the regular high school diploma requirement for admission to Ashford University.
    • Qualified applicants will self-certify as to their high school education on the application for admission. Ashford University may also require, at its discretion, that an applicant or student provide a high school transcript, high school diploma, and/or evidence of passing the GED or state certificate awarded.
    • If no high school diploma was earned, applicants who have successfully completed at least a two-year program or have earned a minimum of 60 transferable credits that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies, may be admitted.
  • Have access to a computer with an Internet connection for the Web-based programs and meet the minimum technology and minimum computer skills, abilities, features, system configurations, hardware, and software outlined in this Catalog.
  • Have the ability to study in English indicated by one of the following**:
    • Achieved a recognized high school diploma or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English;***
    • Received a GED that was taken in English;***
    • A minimum of 30 transferable credits have been earned from regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/universities in the United States or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English; or
    • Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) examination taken within the past two (2) years. For the TOEFL, a minimum score of 500 paper-based or 61 Internet-based is required. For the IELTS, a minimum score of 6 is required. Copies of official scores must be submitted prior to provisional enrollment, and official scores must be submitted for full admission.
Due to the accelerated, adult-learner focus of the academic programs offered in the online modality, applicants under the age of 18 generally will not be admitted.

*Requirements for residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee are outlined separately; please refer to Additional Admission Requirements for Residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

**Satisfying the English Language Requirement does not exempt a student who earned his/her high school diploma outside of the United States from the additional admission requirements for international applicants.

***If satisfying the English Language Requirement through a high school diploma, GED, or equivalent not completed in the United States, additional documentation may be required. Please contact the Registrar’s Office for further information.

Conditionally admitted students who do not achieve provisional or full admission status after one attempt in the Ashford Promise, are allowed a second period of conditional admission in order to be provisionally or fully admitted.

Attendance in the first course is confirmation of a student’s intent to matriculate and, therefore, constitutes an attempt. Subsequent withdrawal from the course or institution, whether administrative or student-initiated, concludes an attempt.

Failing to meet Basic Academic Requirements (attaining a cumulative course grade of C- or better as of Day 6 of Week 3 in the first course) also concludes an attempt.

Students who fail to meet Basic Academic Requirements (BAR) are denied admission and are required to successfully complete the Student Success Orientation as a prerequisite to a subsequent attempt (if they have not already successfully completed it).

Students who are administratively withdrawn for failing to submit required Financial Aid documents during the conditional admission period are required to submit the required documents as a prerequisite to a subsequent attempt.

Ashford University reserves the right to deny admission or re-admission to any applicant. Ashford University does not admit students based on an "ability to benefit" test. Ashford University recognizes the importance of protecting student privacy and reserves the right to request documentation to establish or verify any student’s identity at any time, for administrative or compliance purposes. Students are expected to provide such documentation, and failure to do so may be considered a violation of the Student Community Standards. The University may deny or rescind admission to any student for failure to authenticate his or her identity.

Applicants are conditionally admitted to an Associate of Arts degree program when they submit a completed application indicating that they meet admission requirements outlined for that program and are approved by the Registrar’s Office. Applicants in a conditional admission status are not eligible for Title IV funds and are not considered regular students until granted provisional or full admission.

Appeal Procedure for a 3rd Consecutive Conditional Admission Period or Ashford Promise

Provisional admission status must be attained by the end of the 2nd attempt of the Ashford Promise, while a student is in conditional standing. Students who fail to attain provisional admission by the end of their second attempt of the Ashford Promise must wait six months from the date they were denied admission to re-apply, or they may appeal the University’s decision using the process outlined subsequently to request a 3rd consecutive attempt of conditional admission in the Ashford Promise.

Disagreements over academic quality will not be considered as an appropriate basis for such appeals. In cases of appropriate cause, the Ashford University Admission Appeals Committee reviews the appeals and renders a decision to the student. Appeals must include an explanation of the event that occurred, which caused the student to not attain provisional admission to the University after two attempts.

Students must appeal in writing to the University Registrar. The appeal must be submitted to academic.progress@ashford.edu or electronically via the online Conditional Admission Appeal form and approved prior to enrollment in any future courses. Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include:

  • A reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in the undue hardship to the student;
  • Compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of college level credits during their period of absence; and,
  • A plan for completion of the coursework required to meet basic academic requirements during their coursework at Ashford University.

Appeal decisions will be communicated from the Registrar’s office to the student via email.

Additional Conditional Admission Requirements for Applicants with International Academic Credentials for Associate's Degree Programs

The following requirements are applicable to applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States for admission. Please note that visa services are not provided and that the University will not vouch for a nonimmigrant alien student’s status or associated charges. In addition to the conditional admission requirements outlined in the admission policy for Associate of Arts degree programs, copies of documentation indicating that the student meets the following admission requirements are required for conditional admission:

  • Submit copies of an official evaluation from an approved evaluation service indicating that the student has met one of the following requirements:
    • Completion of a two-year program from an appropriately accredited post-secondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies; or,
    • A record of having achieved the equivalency of a United States high school diploma.
  • All academic records from countries other than the United States must have been evaluated by one of the following evaluation services:
    • Educational Credentials Evaluators, Inc. (ECE); OR
    • World Education Services (WES).

Note: Applicants who have already had their international credentials evaluated prior to applying to Ashford University may petition the Office of the Registrar for acceptance of evaluations from other credible agencies.

Provisional Admission Requirements for Associate's Degree Programs

Students must meet the following requirements in order to be provisionally admitted to an Associate of Arts degree program at Ashford University:

  • Successfully complete Student Success Orientation;
  • Attain a cumulative course grade of C- or better by Day 6 of Week 3 in their first course; and,
  • Attend Week 4 of their first course.

Attendance in Week 4 constitutes a student’s confirmation of his or her intention to continue in the program as a regular student. Upon attendance in Week 4 of their first course, students are considered matriculated, regular students in their degree program. Students who meet the requirements for Full Admission will be fully admitted into the degree program.

Transfer Credit Evaluation for Associate's Degree Programs

Upon being granted provisional admission to an undergraduate degree program, the Ashford University Registrar’s Office staff will begin requesting transcripts of a student’s prior postsecondary education using the signed Transcript Request form.

The Registrar’s Office will request official transcripts of all prior postsecondary education, as provided by the student in the application for admission, as well as any school appearing in the student’s National Student Clearinghouse record. This includes:

  • College or university transcripts from any regionally or approved nationally accredited postsecondary educational institution attended.
  • Military credits evaluated for equivalency to college credits.

Students are responsible for submitting official documentation of any postsecondary credit previously earned through examination or credit earned through non-collegiate instruction to be evaluated for applicability to Ashford University program requirements.

Once transcripts of all prior postsecondary education have been received, the Registrar’s Office staff will complete the student’s transfer credit evaluation.

At the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course in a degree seeking program, if any transcripts of prior postsecondary education have not yet been received, the Registrar’s Office staff will proceed with the transfer credit evaluation of any transcripts of postsecondary education received to date. The student is then admitted on Academic Watch due to failure to provide confirmation of a combined cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher in all prior postsecondary education. Additional transcripts may be submitted for evaluation at a later date, should they become available.

If it is determined prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course that certain transcripts are unable to be provided, students may sign and submit an Authorization to Close File form thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools, in order to expedite the transfer credit evaluation process. Any student who signs an Authorization to Close File form, thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools, is admitted on Academic Watch due to failure to provide confirmation of a combined cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher in all prior postsecondary education. These transcripts may be submitted for evaluation at a later date, should they become available.

Students are responsible for reviewing their transfer credit evaluation as well as their scheduled courses with their Student Advisor and informing them of any courses that they feel are duplicative or equivalent in content to previously completed coursework or non-traditional learning.

Students may submit official transcripts to Ashford University for review of transfer credits at any time.

Full Admission Requirements for Associate's Degree Programs

The following requirements must be met prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course in a degree seeking program. To start the fifth (5th) course, students must complete all the requirements subsequently outlined.

  • Official TOEFL or IELTS scores, if required for admission.
    • Students who meet the English Language requirement with 30 transferable credits must submit the official transcript(s) where these credits were earned.
  • Students who were provisionally admitted with completion of a two-year program from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies must have official transcripts of those credits on file to meet full admissions requirements.

Note: Additional requirements for residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee and for students seeking admission based on credentials earned outside of the United States are outlined separately.

Students who do not meet all requirements will not be fully admitted and will be withdrawn from the program. Students may be readmitted to Ashford University at such time that all requirements for full admission have been met.

Students for whom the aforementioned required documentation does not apply, are fully admitted at the time of their transfer credit evaluation, in accordance with the Transfer Credit Evaluation policy. Students with no history of postsecondary education are fully admitted upon successful completion of the Conditional Admission Period.

The student is responsible for all eligibility-related assertions, attestations, and verifications relied upon by the institution during the admissions process. Should any of the student’s information be subsequently established as inaccurate, resulting in the student’s disqualification for full admission, the student will remain responsible for any and all financial obligations incurred while at the institution, including, but not limited to, financial aid funds which were consequently returned by the University.

If at any time it is determined that the student does not meet admission requirements outlined for the program as indicated on the application for admission, provisional and/or full admission will be rescinded and the student will be withdrawn from the University.

Undergraduate degree-seeking transfer students must provide official documentation of an undergraduate cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 2.0 in all combined undergraduate coursework attempted at regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/ universities since high school, or he or she is admitted on Academic Watch. Any student who signs an Authorization to Close File form, thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools and failing to provide confirmation of a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher, is admitted on Academic Watch. Students on Academic Watch are required to have achieved a cumulative Ashford University GPA of 2.00 and successfully complete 67% of credits attempted at the conclusion of the first Satisfactory Academic Progress increment. Students who have not met the requirements at the conclusion of the Academic Watch period will be dismissed from the University. Please refer to the Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) Requirements in this section to review all related satisfactory academic progress guidelines.

Graduates of an Ashford University undergraduate degree program who subsequently enroll in another undergraduate degree program will not be placed on Academic Watch. Students who change programs in the same degree level who have successfully completed one (1) SAP increment and are in good academic standing with the University will not be placed on Academic Watch.

Appeal of Dismissal Following Academic Watch

A student who has been dismissed for not meeting satisfactory academic progress requirements following Academic Watch may appeal to the University Registrar for re-admission. Appeals are evaluated by a committee comprised of the University Registrar or designee, and a representative from Academic Affairs. The decision of the Committee will be communicated in writing to the student by the Registrar’s Office.

Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include:

  • a reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in undue hardship to the student;
  • compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of graduate-level credits during the period of absence; and
  • a plan for completion of the coursework required to meet satisfactory academic progress during the following payment period.
The passage of time does not substantiate eligibility for readmission or appeal for readmission, however, students who have experienced mitigating circumstances and have been dismissed from the University for failure to meet satisfactory academic progress requirements and have been denied re-admission after an appeal, may submit another appeal to be readmitted after six months have elapsed since their last appeal was received by the University. The appeal must meet the criteria outlined above and the student must present compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of graduate level credits since the last appeal was submitted.

Note: See the Satisfactory Academic Progress Requirements in this section to review all related Satisfactory Academic Progress guidelines.

Additional Full Admission Requirements for Applicants with International Academic Credentials for Associate's Degree Programs

In addition to the requirements for full admission outlined in the admission policy for Associate of Arts programs, applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States must submit an official evaluation sent direct directly from an approved evaluation service indicating that the student meets full admission requirements (student copies are not accepted) prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course (equivalent to one academic term). To start the fifth (5th) course, applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States must complete this requirement or they will be withdrawn from the program.

Additional Full Admission Requirements for Residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee for Associate's Degree Programs

California residents must submit proof of graduation from high school in one of the following forms:

  • Official or unofficial copy of high school transcripts indicating graduation;
  • Official or unofficial documentation of passing the GED or state certificate awarded;
  • Proof of at least a two-year program or a minimum of 60 transferrable credits that are acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies.

Mississippi and Tennessee residents must submit proof of graduation from high school in one of the following forms:

  • Official high school transcript indicating graduation;
  • Notation on transcript from another college indicating graduation from high school for transfer students; or,
  • Official documentation of earned GED.

Transfer students who successfully completed a two-year program that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as per Ashford University admission policy, are exempt from the requirement to provide proof of high school graduation, but must submit official transcripts of the two-year program.

Proof of graduation, or equivalent, is required prior to disbursement of any financial aid. See Financial/Financial Aid Implications for Residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee under Loan Disbursement Information in the Financial Information section of this Catalog for more information concerning financial aid and payment requirements for California, Mississippi, and Tennessee residents.

Admission Policies and Procedures for Online Bachelor's Degree Programs

Conditional Admission Requirements for Bachelor's Degree Programs

Applicants seeking admission to a Bachelor's degree program must meet the following admission requirements prior to the start of the first course at Ashford University:

  • Be 22 years of age or older or be exempt from this requirement by meeting one of the following criteria:
    • Has earned a minimum of 20 transferable credits* as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies;
    • Has 0-19 transferable credits and successfully completed the Student Success Orientation course;
    • Is seeking readmission to Ashford University after withdrawal from a degree program;
    • Is a current degree-seeking student at Ashford University requesting to change majors; or
    • Is a former Ashford University Clinton Campus student requesting to transfer to the online modality.

*If satisfying the Under 22 exemption with 20 transferable credits, unofficial transcripts must be submitted with the Application for Admission.

Due to the accelerated, adult-learner focus of the academic programs, applicants under the age of 18 generally will not be admitted.

  • Have a regular high-school diploma earned through college preparatory or regular high school courses, a GED or state certificate awarded after passing an authorized test that the state recognizes as equivalent to a high school diploma, completed secondary school through home schooling as defined by state law, or earned an equivalent to a US high school diploma at an international high school according to approved Foreign Evaluation services.**
    • An earned IEP or Special Education Diploma or Certificate of Completion based upon IEP goals does not meet the regular high school diploma requirement for admission to Ashford University.
    • Qualified applicants will self-certify as to their high school education on the application for admission. Ashford University may also require, at its discretion, that an applicant or student provide a high school transcript, high school diploma, and/or evidence of passing the GED or state certificate awarded.
    • If no high school diploma was earned, applicants who have successfully completed at least a two-year program or have earned a minimum of 60 transferable credits that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies, may be admitted.
  • Have access to a computer with an Internet connection for the Web-based programs and meet the minimum technology and minimum computer skills, abilities, features, system configurations, hardware, and software outlined in this Catalog.
  • Have the ability to study in English indicated by one of the following***:
    • Achieved a recognized high school diploma or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English^;
    • Received a GED that was taken in English^;
    • A minimum of 30 transferable credits have been earned from regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/universities in the United States or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English; or
    • Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) examination taken within the past two (2) years. For the TOEFL, a minimum score of 500 paper-based or 61 Internet-based is required. For the IELTS, a minimum score of 6 is required. Copies of official scores must be submitted prior to provisional enrollment, and official scores must be submitted for full admission.

**Requirements for residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee are outlined separately; please refer to Additional Admission Requirements for Residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

***Satisfying the English Language Requirement does not exempt a student who earned his/her high school diploma outside of the United States from the additional admission requirements for applicants with international academic credentials.

^If satisfying the English Language Requirement through a high school diploma, GED, or equivalent not completed in the United States, additional documentation may be required. Please contact the Registrar’s Office for further information.

Conditionally admitted students who do not achieve provisional or full admission status after one attempt in the Ashford Promise, are allowed a second period of conditional admission in order to be provisionally or fully admitted.

Attendance in the first course is confirmation of a student’s intent to matriculate and, therefore, constitutes an attempt. Subsequent withdrawal from the course or institution, whether administrative or student-initiated, concludes an attempt.

Failing to meet Basic Academic Requirements (attaining a cumulative course grade of C- or better as of Day 6 of Week 3 in the first course) also concludes an attempt.

Students who fail to meet Basic Academic Requirements (BAR) are denied admission and are required to successfully complete the Student Success Orientation as a prerequisite to a subsequent attempt (if they have not already successfully completed it).

Students who are administratively withdrawn for failing to submit required Financial Aid documents during the conditional admission period are required to submit the required documents as a prerequisite to a subsequent attempt.

Ashford University reserves the right to deny admission or re-admission to any applicant. Ashford University does not admit students based on an “ability-to-benefit” test. Ashford University recognizes the importance of protecting student privacy and reserves the right to request documentation to establish or verify any student’s identity at any time, for administrative or compliance purposes. Students are expected to provide such documentation, and failure to do so may be considered a violation of the Student Community Standards. The University may deny or rescind admission to any student for failure to authenticate his or her identity.

Applicants are conditionally admitted to a Bachelor's degree program when they submit a completed application indicating that they meet admission requirements outlined for that program and are approved by the Registrar’s Office. Applicants in a conditional admission status are not eligible for Title IV funds and are not considered regular students until granted provisional or full admission.

Appeal Procedure for a 3rd Consecutive Conditional Admission Period or Ashford Promise

Provisional admission status must be attained by the end of the 2nd attempt of the Ashford Promise, while a student is in conditional standing. Students who fail to attain provisional admission by the end of their second attempt of the Ashford Promise must wait six months from the date they were denied admission to re-apply, or they may appeal the University’s decision using the process outlined subsequently to request a 3rd consecutive attempt of conditional admission in the Ashford Promise.

Disagreements over academic quality will not be considered as an appropriate basis for such appeals. In cases of appropriate cause, the Ashford University Admission Appeals Committee reviews the appeals and renders a decision to the student. Appeals must include an explanation of the event that occurred, which caused the student to not attain provisional admission to the University after two attempts.

Students must appeal in writing to the University Registrar. The appeal must be submitted to academic.progress@ashford.edu or electronically via the online Conditional Admission Appeal form and approved prior to enrollment in any future courses. Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include:

  • A reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in the undue hardship to the student;
  • Compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of college level credits during their period of absence; and,
  • A plan for completion of the coursework required to meet basic academic requirements during their coursework at Ashford University.

Appeal decisions will be communicated from the Registrar’s office to the student via email.

Additional Conditional Admission Requirements for Applicants to the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN to BSN) Program

Applicants seeking admission to the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN to BSN) program must meet the following admission requirements prior to the start of the first course at Ashford University:

  • Possess a current, active, unrestricted license to practice as a Registered Nurse or its equivalent in at least one U.S. state. Students must maintain an active unrestricted license throughout the program.
  • Have earned a nursing (hospital) diploma or Associate’s degree in Nursing from a regionally accredited or approved nationally accredited college or university**.
  • Have earned a grade of C- or higher in Microbiology (with lab), or equivalent, from a regionally accredited or approved nationally accredited institution**.

**Unofficial or official transcripts showing an earned nursing (hospital) diploma or Associate’s degree in Nursing and Microbiology (with lab) coursework must be submitted with the Application for Admission. In order to determine a student’s initial course schedule, students should submit unofficial or official transcripts demonstrating successful completion of coursework in: Introduction to Sociology, Introduction to Psychology, Introduction to Statistics, Human Anatomy (with lab), Human Physiology (with lab), if available.

Additional Conditional Admission Requirements for Applicants with International Academic Credentials for Bachelor's Degree Programs

The following requirements are applicable to applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States for admission. Please note that visa services are not provided and that the University will not vouch for a nonimmigrant alien student’s status or associated charges. In addition to the conditional admission requirements outlined in the admission policy for Bachelor's degree programs, copies of documentation indicating that the student meets the following admission requirements are required for conditional admission:

  • Submit copies of an official evaluation from an approved evaluation service indicating that the student has met one of the following requirements:
    • Completion of a two-year program from an appropriately accredited post-secondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies
    • A record of having achieved the equivalency of a United States high school diploma.
  • All academic records from countries other than the United States must have been evaluated by one of the following evaluation services:
    • Educational Credentials Evaluators, Inc. (ECE); OR
    • World Education Services (WES).

Note: Applicants who have already had their international credentials evaluated prior to applying to Ashford University may petition the Office of the Registrar for acceptance of evaluations from other credible agencies.

Provisional Admission Requirements for Bachelor's Degree Programs

Students must meet the following requirements in order to be provisionally admitted to a Bachelor's degree program at Ashford University:

  • Successful completion of Student Success Orientation, if required*;
  • Attain a cumulative course grade of C- or better by Day 6 of Week 3 in their first course; and,
  • Attend Week 4 of their first course.

*Students are required to successfully complete Student Success Orientation if they:

  • Have zero (0) traditional college-level transferable credits at the time of application, or
  • Are under age 22 and have 0-19 transferable credits.
Attendance in Week 4 constitutes a student’s confirmation of their intention to continue the program as a regular student. Upon attendance in Week 4 of their first course, students are considered matriculated, regular students in their degree program. Students who meet the requirements for Full Admission will be fully admitted into the degree program.

Transfer Credit Evaluation for Bachelor's Degree Programs

Upon being granted provisional admission to an undergraduate degree program, the Ashford University Registrar’s Office staff will begin requesting transcripts of a student’s prior postsecondary education using the signed Transcript Request form.

The Registrar’s Office will request official transcripts of all prior postsecondary education, as provided by the student in the application for admission, as well as any school appearing in the student’s National Student Clearinghouse record. This includes:

  • College or university transcripts from any regionally or approved nationally accredited postsecondary educational institution attended
  • Military credits evaluated for equivalency to college credits

Students are responsible for submitting official documentation of any postsecondary credit previously earned through examination or credit earned through non-collegiate instruction to be evaluated for applicability to Ashford University program requirements.

Once transcripts of all prior postsecondary education have been received, the Registrar’s Office staff will complete the student’s transfer credit evaluation.

At the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course in a degree seeking program, if any transcripts of prior postsecondary education have not yet been received, the Registrar’s Office staff will proceed with the transfer credit evaluation of any transcripts of postsecondary education received to date. The student is then admitted on Academic Watch due to failure to provide confirmation of a combined cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher in all prior postsecondary education. Additional transcripts may be submitted for evaluation at a later date, should they become available.

If it is determined prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course that certain transcripts are unable to be provided, students may sign and submit an Authorization to Close File form thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools, in order to expedite the transfer credit evaluation process. Any student who signs an Authorization to Close File form, thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools, is admitted on Academic Watch due to failure to provide confirmation of a combined cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher in all prior postsecondary education. These transcripts may be submitted for evaluation at a later date, should they become available.

Students are responsible for reviewing their transfer credit evaluation as well as their scheduled courses with their Student Advisor and informing them of any courses that they feel are duplicative or equivalent in content to previously completed coursework or non-traditional learning.

Students may submit official transcripts to Ashford University for review of transfer credits at any time.

Full Admission Requirements for Bachelor's Degree Programs

The following requirements must be met prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course in a degree seeking program. To start the fifth (5th) course, students must complete all the requirements subsequently outlined.

  • Official TOEFL or IELTS scores, if required for admission.
    • Students that meet the English Language requirement with 30 transferable credits must submit the official transcript(s) where these credits were earned.
  • Students who were provisionally admitted with completion of a two-year program from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies must have official transcripts of those credits on file to meet full admissions requirements.

Note: Additional requirements for residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee and for students seeking admission based on credentials earned outside of the United States are outlined separately.

Students who do not meet all requirements will not be fully admitted and will be withdrawn from the program. Students may be readmitted to Ashford University at such time that all requirements for full admission have been met.

Students for whom the aforementioned required documentation does not apply, are fully admitted at the time of their transfer credit evaluation, in accordance with the Transfer Credit Evaluation policy. Students with no history of postsecondary education are fully admitted upon successful completion of the Conditional Admission Period.

The student is responsible for all eligibility-related assertions, attestations, and verifications relied upon by the institution during the admissions process. Should any of the student’s information be subsequently established as inaccurate, resulting in the student’s disqualification for full admission, the student will remain responsible for any and all financial obligations incurred while at the institution, including, but not limited to, financial aid funds which were consequently returned by the University.

If at any time it is determined that the student does not meet admission requirements outlined for the program as indicated on the application for admission, provisional and/or full admission will be rescinded and the student will be withdrawn from the University.

Undergraduate degree-seeking transfer students must provide official documentation of an undergraduate cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 2.0 in all combined undergraduate coursework attempted at regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/ universities since high school, or he or she is admitted on Academic Watch. Any student who signs an Authorization to Close File form, thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools and failing to provide confirmation of a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher, is admitted on Academic Watch. Students on Academic Watch are required to have achieved a cumulative Ashford University GPA of 2.00 and successfully complete 67% of credits attempted at the conclusion of the first Satisfactory Academic Progress increment. Students who have not met the requirements at the conclusion of the Academic Watch period will be dismissed from the University. Please refer to the Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) Requirements in this section to review all related satisfactory academic progress guidelines.

Graduates of an Ashford University undergraduate degree program who subsequently enroll in another undergraduate degree program will not be placed on Academic Watch. Students who change programs in the same degree level who have successfully completed one (1) SAP increment and are in good academic standing with the University will not be placed on Academic Watch.

Appeal of Dismissal Following Academic Watch

A student who has been dismissed for not meeting satisfactory academic progress requirements following Academic Watch may appeal to the University Registrar for re-admission. Appeals are evaluated by a committee comprised of the University Registrar or designee, and a representative from Academic Affairs. The decision of the Committee will be communicated in writing to the student by the Registrar’s Office.
Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include:

  • a reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in undue hardship to the student;
  • compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of graduate-level credits during the period of absence; and
  • a plan for completion of the coursework required to meet satisfactory academic progress during the following payment period.

The passage of time does not substantiate eligibility for readmission or appeal for readmission, however, students who have experienced mitigating circumstances and have been dismissed from the University for failure to meet satisfactory academic progress requirements and have been denied re-admission after an appeal, may submit another appeal to be readmitted after six months have elapsed since their last appeal was received by the University. The appeal must meet the criteria outlined above and the student must present compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of graduate level credits since the last appeal was submitted.

Note: See the Satisfactory Academic Progress Requirements in this section to review all related Satisfactory Academic Progress guidelines.

Additional Full Admission Requirements for Applicants to the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN to BSN) Program

The following requirements must be met prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course in a degree seeking program. To start the fifth (5th) course, students must complete all the requirements subsequently outlined.

  • Submission of official transcript(s) from the regionally accredited or approved nationally accredited institution that awarded the nursing (hospital) diploma or Associate’s degree in Nursing.
  • Submission of official transcript(s) from the regionally accredited or approved nationally accredited institution demonstrating completion of Microbiology (with lab), or equivalent, with a grade of C- or higher.

Additional Full Admission Requirements for Applicants with International Academic Credentials for Bachelor's Degree Programs

In addition to the requirements for full admission outlined in the admission policy for Bachelor's degree programs, applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States must submit an official evaluation sent direct directly from an approved evaluation service indicating that the student meets full admission requirements (student copies are not accepted) prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course (equivalent to one academic term). To start the fifth (5th) course, applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States must complete this requirement or they will be withdrawn from the program.

Additional Full Admission Requirements for Residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee for Bachelor's Degree Programs

California residents must submit proof of graduation from high school in one of the following forms:

  • Official or unofficial copy of high school transcripts indicating graduation;
  • Official or unofficial documentation of passing the GED or state certificate awarded;
  • Proof of at least a two-year program or a minimum of 60 transferrable credits that are acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies.

Mississippi and Tennessee residents must submit proof of graduation from high school in one of the following forms:

  • Official high school transcript indicating graduation;
  • Notation on transcript from another college indicating graduation from high school for transfer students; or
  • Official documentation of earned GED.

Transfer students who successfully completed a two-year program that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as per Ashford University admission policy, are exempt from the requirement to provide proof of high school graduation, but must submit official transcripts of the two-year program.

Proof of graduation, or equivalent, is required prior to disbursement of any financial aid. See Financial/Financial Aid Implications for Residents of California, Mississippi, and Tennessee under Loan Disbursement Information in the Financial Information section of this Catalog for more information concerning financial aid and payment requirements for California, Mississippi, and Tennessee residents.

Student Success Orientation

The orientation is designed to provide students with a complete overview of the Ashford University experience, prepare them for success in their courses, and help them to self evaluate their readiness to succeed in an online classroom setting.

Students will be instructed on Ashford University policies and the learner resources that are available to them through interactive videos and assessments. Students enrolled in orientation must successfully complete all assigned activities. Students must successfully complete orientation prior to commencing any credit-bearing coursework at Ashford University, if required. Students who have successfully completed online coursework at Ashford University are exempt from the orientation requirement.

Non-Degree Seeking Student General Admission Requirements

It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide Ashford University with all materials required for admission prior to enrolling in coursework as a non-degree seeking student. Please see additional policies for non-degree seeking students under Classification of Students in the General Academic Information and Policies section of this Catalog.

Students seeking to enroll in undergraduate coursework as a non-degree seeking student must meet the following requirements prior to the start of the first course at Ashford University:

  • Have a regular high-school diploma earned through college preparatory or regular high school courses, a GED, or state certificate awarded after passing an authorized test that the state recognizes as equivalent to a high school diploma, completed secondary school through home schooling as defined by state law, or earned an equivalent to a US high school diploma at an international high school.
    • An earned IEP or Special Education Diploma or Certificate of Completion based upon IEP goals does not meet the regular high school diploma requirement for admission to Ashford University.
    • Qualified applicants will self-certify as to their high school education on the application for admission. Ashford University may also require, at its discretion, that an applicant or student provide a high school transcript, high school diploma, and/or evidence of passing the GED or state certificate awarded.
    • If no high school diploma was earned, applicants who have successfully completed at least a two-year program or have earned a minimum of 60 transferable credits that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies, may be admitted.
  • Due to the accelerated, adult-learner focus of the academic programs, applicants under the age of 18 generally will not be admitted.
  • Submit an official or unofficial transcript from the regionally accredited or approved nationally accredited institution showing proof of credit awarded for any required prerequisite coursework.
  • Have access to a computer with an Internet connection for the Web-based programs and meet the minimum technology and minimum computer skills, abilities, features, system configurations, hardware, and software outlined in this Catalog; and,
  • Have the ability to study in English indicated by one of the following:
    • Achieved a recognized high school diploma or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English;
    • Received a GED that was taken in English;
    • A minimum of 30 credits have been earned from regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/universities in the United States or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English; or,
    • Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) examination taken within the past two (2) years. For the TOEFL, a minimum score of 500 paper-based or 61 Internet-based is required. For the IELTS, a minimum score of 6 is required. Copies of official or unofficial scores must be submitted prior to enrolling in coursework as a non-degree seeking student.

Additional Non-Degree Seeking Student General Admission Requirements for Residents of California and Tennessee

 California residents must submit proof of graduation from high school in one of the following forms:

  • Official or unofficial copy of high school transcripts indicating graduation;
  • Official or unofficial documentation of passing the GED or state certificate awarded;
  • Proof of at least a two-year program or a minimum of 60 transferrable credits that are acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies.

Tennessee residents must submit proof of graduation from high school in one of the following forms:

  • Official high school transcript indicating graduation;
  • Notation on transcript from another college indicating graduation from high school for transfer students; or,
  • Official documentation of earned GED.

Transfer students who successfully completed a two-year program that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor’s degree from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution, as per Ashford University admission policy, are exempt from the requirement to provide proof of high school graduation, but must submit official transcripts of the two-year program.

Academic Policies and Procedures

Academic Calendar

The academic calendar is continuous (also known as non-term), rather than defined by semesters. In continuously enrolled programs, students typically take one course at a time and move to the next course in the program sequence without a break. Opportunities to enroll in programs and begin courses in an undergraduate degree program are available most every week. Most courses are offered in an accelerated, five-week format.

There is an annual two-week Winter Break when courses are not scheduled. The Winter Break for 2016-2017 occurs from December 20, 2016 to January 2, 2017.

Technology Requirements

It is our intent to assist students and to prepare them for their coursework at Ashford University. Therefore, technology competencies and requirements have been established. These requirements are in effect for all Ashford University applicants and existing students and may be updated at any time.

Competencies

Students must meet the following competencies:

  • Ability to access course and program material on the Internet;
  • Ability to correspond with University staff, students, and faculty using email and the Internet; and
  • Ability to use appropriate antivirus utilities so that files transmitted and received are virus free.

System Requirements

The following minimum system configuration and software are required:

    Platforms: Mac OS X 10.2 or higher or Windows XP or higher;

    Hardware: 256 Mb RAM, CD-ROM, and 1 Gb free disk space;

    Productivity Software: Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel (provided); Adobe Reader 8.0 or higher; 
    Adobe Flash 10 or higher (Constellation users);

    Web Browser: Firefox 3.0 or higher, Internet Explorer 9.0 or higher, Safari 3.0 or higher, or Chrome;

    Networking: 56k dialup modem, DSL, or Cable modem;

    Email: Outlook, Outlook Express, Mac Mail, Eudora, Entourage, or Yahoo/Hotmail/Gmail.

The following are recommended for optimal performance:

    Networking: Broadband internet connection (DSL, Cable, or other).

    Constellation users: Windows Media Player 7.0 or higher, sound card and speakers.

Additional System Requirements for Use of Ebooks

The following additional platform and hardware requirement apply when using ebooks:

    Platforms: Mac OS X 10.4 or higher, Windows XP with service pack 2 or higher, or Vista;

    Hardware: 512 Mb RAM, CD-ROM, 1 gHz processor, and 1 Gb free disk space; 1024x768 screen resolution or larger.

Please note certain courses may require the use of additional internet connectivity requirements, software, and/or hardware, such as a microphone and/or webcam to record sound or video files. Additionally certain courses may require use of third party websites. The University is not responsible for the practices of any third party websites. If a student has serious objections to using a third party website, he or she can request an alternative method of completing an assignment from the instructor of the course. If a student chooses to withhold the disclosure of Directory Information, no Directory Information will be released by Ashford University to non-university personnel, unless the disclosure meets exception criteria as outlined in the Student Rights and Responsibilities section of this Catalog. However, a student may still be required to make certain disclosures as part of coursework.

English Proficiency

All students enrolled in an undergraduate degree program must satisfy English Proficiency within the first 15 successfully completed credits through one of the following options:

  • A passing score on the Ashford University English Proficiency exam (credit not awarded). Students are allowed two attempts and are only allotted one week (a total of 7 days) to submit both attempts from the time the exam is first made available to the student. Students who make no attempts in the initial allotted 7 day period must satisfy the proficiency through an alternative option; 
  • A grade of “C-” or better in a designated Ashford University English course (ENG 121 or ENG 122);
  • A passing score on a designated National Testing Program exam completed within five (5) years from date of application; or
  • A grade of “C-” or better in a comparable course from a regionally accredited or approved nationally accredited institution completed within five (5) years prior to the date of application.

Note: Due to the nature of the Ashford University curriculum, ENG 121 and ENG 122 are not considered duplicative of transfer courses. Students who have completed comparable or more advanced English courses but who have not satisfied English Proficiency through one of the previous options will have the credits applied toward Communication I, II, or Electives credit deficiencies. Students who have successfully completed an Ashford upper division course in their major that demonstrates advanced writing skills (as determined by the Academic Program Chair) may request that the course satisfy their English Proficiency requirement.

Program Enrollment and Cancellation

Initial enrollment in courses offered is arranged through a University Enrollment Services Advisor. New students should contact an Enrollment Services Advisor or University Advisor to register. It is the student’s responsibility to officially register for the program course of study. To ensure that students are successful at navigating inside of the classroom and to become familiar with all of the resources available to them at Ashford University, newly enrolled students may participate in a live webinar of a guided tour of the online classroom. After initial enrollment, students will work with their Student Advisor to register, add courses, or change their course schedule. Any change in the original registration must be communicated to the student’s Student Advisor. Major changes in a student’s schedule may necessitate completion of a new Admissions Application and Enrollment Agreement.

Applicants who want to cancel an enrollment agreement must contact their Enrollment Services Advisor or University Advisor prior to attending in Week 4 of their first course. Applicants who cancel enrollment will be allowed one more period of conditional admission at Ashford University. Individuals who cancel their enrollment two times while in conditional standing may re-apply to Ashford University no earlier than one year from their last date of attendance.

Ashford University reserves the right to cancel or terminate the agreement if the applicant fails to meet basic academic requirements during conditional admission, violate the Student Community Standards, fail to make satisfactory academic progress, fail to make payment in accordance with the terms of his or her student finance agreement, and/or fail to meet attendance requirements as outlined in this Catalog. Applicants who are denied admission may be allowed one more period of conditional admission at Ashford University. Individuals who are denied admission two times while in conditional standing may re-apply to Ashford University no earlier than one year from their last date of attendance.

Students who receive federal student financial aid funds are entitled to a refund of moneys not paid from federal student financial aid program funds.

Students who obtain loan(s) to pay for an educational program will have the responsibility to repay the full amount of the loan plus interest, less the amount of any refund.

Registration and Academic Placement

Initial registration and student scheduling is a one-time process based upon the information provided to Ashford University in the Admission Application. The student’s initial schedule is based upon the student’s desired start date and program of study, in conjunction with previous education. Initial registration occurs in consultation with an Enrollment Services Advisor/University Advisor. Upon completion of initial registration, students have access, via the Student Portal, to their individual course schedules and the dates of each course for which they are registered.

Once the admission file is completed and the student receives full admission to the University, student schedules are adjusted by the student’s Student Advisor, in consultation with the student, to accommodate courses applied in transfer. It is the student’s responsibility to review his or her schedule regularly through the Student Portal and to notify the Student Advisor to initiate any schedule changes.

Employment Services

Ashford University does not guarantee employment to any applicant as a condition of his or her application, acceptance, or attendance in any program. Ashford University does not provide employment services or make student referrals to prospective employers based on direct contact with the employer regarding current job openings to any student attending Ashford University.

Degree-Seeking Student Classifications

Class Level:

 

Freshman:

0–24 credits earned

Sophomore:

25–48 credits earned

Junior:

49–72 credits earned

Senior:

73+ credits earned

Once a student has earned 24 credits and registers for his or her 25th credit, he or she will be classified as a Sophomore.

Once a student has earned 48 credits and registers for his or her 49th credit, he or she will be classified as a Junior.

Once a student has earned 72 credits and registers for his or her 73rd credit, he or she will be classified as a Senior.

Enrollment Status:

Students who remain continuously enrolled in non-term-based programs are classified as full-time. Students who are on a break of up to 14 consecutive days or on an approved Academic Leave are still classified as full-time. Students who fail to return from a break or approved Academic Leave as scheduled should refer to the Withdrawal from the University policies for information regarding determination of withdrawal date. The University may schedule breaks during which no courses are scheduled. When this occurs, such as during the annual winter break, the student's break will extend the 14 day limit to include the scheduled break. The annual winter break does not extend the 45 day limit for approved Academic Leaves that are greater than 14 days.

Auditing of Courses

The online modality does not allow for course auditing due to the accelerated nature of course offerings and the unique nature of the online classroom environment.

Credit Maximum Policy

A maximum of 36 credits may be attempted per academic year. Students may appeal in writing to the Registrar’s Office for an increase to a maximum of 48 credits attempted per academic year.

Concurrent Course (Double Up) Registration Policy

  • Concurrent course registration may occur when the student is fully admitted and has completed his or her first two courses.*
  • Student must be meeting Satisfactory Academic Progress requirements.*
  • Payment for concurrent courses can be paid in full prior to the course start date.
  • Concurrent course registration cannot violate progression or prerequisite requirements.
  • At no time may a student attend more than two Ashford University courses concurrently.
  • If using Financial Aid, student should discuss financial implications of concurrent course registration with his/her Student Account Advisor. Students utilizing financial aid may be eligible to apply available funding towards their concurrent course.

*Non-degree seeking students are exempt from this requirement to register for concurrent courses.

Attendance Policy for Undergraduate Courses

Students are expected to attend each week of the course. Attendance is defined as participating in an academic activity within the online classroom which includes posting in a graded discussion forum, submitting a written assignment or journal entry or submitting a quiz or exam. Postings not related to graded discussion forums or written assignments or journal entries not related to the actual assignment may be reviewed and disqualified for attendance purposes. Attendance on the basis of submitting a quiz or exam is determined by submission status at the conclusion of the calendar day (11:59 pm Mountain Time).

Each instructional week begins on a Tuesday and concludes on the following Monday. A student is recorded either absent or present each day based on participation in an academic activity. All recorded time stamps for assignment submissions, discussion board posts, and attendance records will reflect Mountain Time Zone.

Students enrolled in introductory courses, such as EXP 105, are required to attend at least once in any seven consecutive day period for the duration of the course. Students who do not attend once in any seven consecutive days in an introductory course will be administratively dropped retroactive to the last date of recorded attendance. The course must then be repeated. Limited exceptions to introductory course attendance requirements based on exceptional circumstances, such as an emergency personal or family reason, may be made. Please refer to the Attendance Appeal policy in the Student Rights and Responsibilities section in this Catalog.

Students enrolled in non-introductory courses who do not attend at least once in any seven consecutive day period will be issued an attendance warning. Students who do not attend at least once in any 14 consecutive day period will be dropped from the course and administratively withdrawn from the University retroactive to the last date of recorded attendance. Students who attend on the first day following 14 consecutive days of non-attendance will not be dropped from their course or administratively withdrawn.

Students who participate in an academic activity in a course prior to its official start date will not be dropped from their course during Week 1 for non-attendance as long as they subsequently attend at least once during Week 1 of the course.

Please refer to drop policies for grade implications when not meeting attendance requirements. Students who drop a course or are dropped for not meeting attendance requirements and do not attend within 14 days of their last date of attendance will be administratively withdrawn from the University. A student’s last date of attendance following successful completion of a course is the end date of that course. The University may schedule periods of non-enrollment during which no courses are scheduled. When this occurs, such as during the annual winter break, the non-enrollment period may extend the 14 day limit to include the break. No approved Academic Leave can exceed 45 days including University scheduled periods of non-enrollment.

For information regarding the determination of withdrawal date, please see the Withdrawal from the University policy in the General Academic Information and Policies section in this Catalog.

Note: New students who do not meet attendance requirements for, or do not complete, their first course will be administratively withdrawn from the University and must work with their Enrollment Services Advisor/University Advisor to reschedule their enrollment in the program.

Academic Participation

In addition to meeting attendance requirements, students are expected to participate in their courses by actively engaging in weekly discussion forums with substantial posts and completing the required assignments for each week. A list of all assignments can be found within the course calendar in each class and also by week in the weekly instructional units.

Failure to meet academic participation requirements may negatively impact an assignment and/or course grade. All recorded time stamps for assignment submissions, discussion board posts, and attendance records will reflect Mountain Time Zone.

Students who anticipate being absent for an entire week of a course should contact the instructor in advance and make arrangements to complete the required assignments. While students cannot be tardy in an asynchronous learning environment, nor can they cut class in a traditional sense, acceptance of late or make-up work is at the discretion of the instructor and does not waive attendance requirements.

Academic Leave

Students who plan to take a break in attendance of greater than 14 days but no more than 30 days from their last date of attendance, who provide a written confirmation of their intent to return, will not be administratively withdrawn, provided they return as scheduled.

Written confirmations must be provided via the Academic Leave Request form in the Student Portal, and should be submitted within 14 days of the last date of attendance. Academic Leave Requests allow students to postpone the start date of their next scheduled course and maintain an active status with the University. To gain access to the Academic Leave Request form, students must speak with a Student Advisor. New students must complete their first course in order to be eligible for an Academic Leave.

Students who do not return on their scheduled return date or do not attend within the first seven days of the course they are scheduled for when returning from an approved Academic Leave will be administratively withdrawn. Please note that administrative withdrawal may occur at any point in a student’s enrollment when 14 consecutive days of non-attendance occur, whether within an active course or between the last date of attendance in a prior course and the first date of attendance in a subsequent course. Students who attend on the first day following 14 consecutive days of non-attendance will not be dropped from their course or administratively withdrawn.

Exceptions to submitting an Academic Leave Request through the Student Portal may be made in instances where extreme extenuating circumstances exist for students unable to access the Student Portal. Students must contact a Student Advisor for assistance with this exception.

If a student requires a break in attendance of greater than 30 days, the Student Advisor may escalate an exception approval to a Director or designee for an Academic Leave with a maximum allotment of 45 days out of attendance. Exceptions will be made on a case-by-case basis.

Course Drop

To drop from a course(s), a student must contact his or her assigned Enrollment Services Advisor, University Advisor, Student Advisor, or other advisor within the Enrollment Services or Student Services Departments. Students who officially drop from a course or courses during the add/drop period, which is before the conclusion of the first instructional week, will have that course removed from their academic transcripts.

Drop Deadlines:

  • 5-week course = Week 1

Students who officially drop or are administratively dropped from a course after Week 1 and have a Last Date of Attendance (LDA) in Weeks 2 through 4 will receive a grade of “W” in the course. Students who officially drop or are administratively dropped from a course prior to the course end date and have an LDA in Week 5 will receive a grade of “WF” in the course.

Note: For undergraduate students enrolled in graduate-level coursework, please refer to the Course Drop policy in the Graduate Programs section of this Catalog.

Withdrawal from the University

Students wishing to officially withdraw from Ashford University must notify their assigned Enrollment Services Advisor, University Advisor, Student Advisor, or other advisor within the Enrollment Services or Student Services Departments. Students choosing to notify their Student Advisors verbally of their intent to withdraw may be asked to fill out a written request to withdraw.

Please refer to drop policies for grade implications when not meeting attendance requirements. Students who drop a course or are dropped for not meeting attendance requirements and do not attend within 14 days of their last date of attendance will be administratively withdrawn. Students who attend on the first day following 14 consecutive days of non-attendance will not be dropped from their course or administratively withdrawn. The University may schedule periods of non-enrollment during which no courses are scheduled. When this occurs, such as during the annual winter break, the break may extend the 14 day limit to include the break. No approved Academic Leave can exceed 45 days including University scheduled periods of non-enrollment.

The student must resolve any financial obligations to Ashford University before receiving an official transcript from the Office of the Registrar.

For information regarding the determination of withdrawal date, please see the Withdrawal from the University policy in the General Academic Information and Policies section in this Catalog.

Consecutive Course Drops

Degree-seeking students only meeting attendance requirements in the first week of a course for four consecutively enrolled courses at Ashford University without earning credit will be administratively withdrawn for a period of no less than six months from the student’s last date of attendance. Students who have been withdrawn may appeal this policy by contacting their Student Advisor. Students who have an approved appeal and do not successfully complete their next scheduled course will be withdrawn for a period of no less than six months.

Consecutive Unsuccessful Grades

Students who earn three consecutive unsuccessful grades at Ashford University will be academically dismissed. Unsuccessful final grades include the following:

  • F, W, WF, or
  • In an Introductory, General Education Competency, or General Education Capstone course, D+, D, or D-.

Dismissed students should refer to the Appeal of Academic Dismissal policy outlined in this Catalog. Appeals are evaluated by an Appeals Committee made up of the University Registrar or designee, and representative from Academic Affairs. Students who are denied re-admission after an appeal will not be eligible to submit another appeal for a period of less than six months since their last appeal was received by the University. Students who have an approved appeal and do not successfully complete their next scheduled course will be dismissed and may not submit another appeal for a period of less than six months.

Satisfactory Academic Progress Policy (SAP)

We are dedicated to the academic success of our students. As such, the following policies outline the academic requirements for Ashford University’s undergraduate programs and describe how they are measured to ensure that students are making satisfactory academic progress toward successful degree completion. This policy applies to all undergraduate-level coursework attempted at Ashford University, regardless of date attempted.

Academic and Financial Aid Warning, and Academic and Financial Aid Probation statuses provide an opportunity for students to improve academic performance and meet overall requirements for degree completion. Students placed on one of these statuses should meet with their Student Advisor to discuss course scheduling and to plan for remediation.

Please contact the Ashford University Registrar or Associate University Registrar with any questions concerning the requirements outlined in this policy. This policy applies to all coursework accepted and applied in transfer as well as attempted at Ashford University, as outlined in this policy, regardless of date attempted.

Undergraduate Non-Term Based Program Measures

  • Week = 7 calendar days
  • Full Academic Year Definition = a minimum of 40 weeks of instructional time and 24 successfully earned credits that apply toward the student’s program of study. Please note: courses are offered 50 weeks in each calendar year. Therefore, students can complete five academic years in four calendar years.
  • A full Academic Year consists of 2 increments also referred to in this Catalog as payment periods, financial aid payment periods and Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) increments.
    • The first payment period in the Academic Year ends when half of the credits and weeks required for a completed Academic Year have been successfully met.
    • The second payment period in the Academic Year ends when the requirements for a completed Academic Year have been successfully met.

Final Academic Year Exceptions:

  • For any remaining portion of a program that is half of an Academic Year or less, the remaining portion is treated as a single payment period.
  • For any remaining portion of a program that is more than half of an Academic Year but less than a full Academic Year, the remaining portion is divided into two payment periods and the first payment period is the period in which the student successfully completes half of the credits and half of the weeks of instructional time in the remaining portion.

Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) is evaluated at the end of each payment period.

Full-Time Enrollment = Students who remain continuously enrolled, including breaks of 14 days or less, in non-term-based programs are classified as full-time. The University may schedule periods of non-enrollment during which no courses are scheduled. When this occurs, such as during the annual winter break, the non-enrollment period may extend the 14 day limit to include the break.

Satisfactory Academic Progress Standards

Undergraduate students must meet the following minimum qualitative and quantitative standards to make satisfactory academic progress:

  • Minimum cumulative GPA in Ashford University coursework for all undergraduate students = 2.00.
  • The Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management and the Bachelor of Science in Nursing majors require a 2.50 minimum GPA standard for all major coursework attempted at the University.
  • Cumulative GPA includes all undergraduate-level coursework attempted at Ashford University, excluding grades of Pass, I, or W. Only the later grade is counted in the cumulative GPA when a course is repeated.
  • Grade points earned at another college are not used in the computation of the grade point average at Ashford University.
  • Successful Completion Rate = 67% or 2/3 of all attempted credits. Attempted undergraduate credits are all Ashford University course attempts recorded on the academic transcript, including repeated courses, withdrawals, and incompletes, as well as transfer credits that apply toward the student’s current degree program. Grades that count negatively against successful completion rates include I, W, WF, and F.
  • Grades of D+, D, or D- that do not count toward successful completion of required competency courses and thus must be repeated, also do not count toward successfully completed courses.
  • Successful completion of all program requirements must be accomplished within 150% of the normal length of the program as measured in credits attempted toward the program. Credits accepted in transfer toward the program are included as attempted and earned credits in determining the maximum timeframe.
  • Repeated courses count negatively against successful completion rates.

If at any point during the program, the institution determines that the student will not be able to successfully complete all program requirements at the conclusion of 150% of the normal length of a program as measured in credits, he or she will be dismissed from the University.

Satisfactory Academic Progress Review and Evaluation

Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) is reviewed at regular SAP increments. Students are evaluated against both qualitative and quantitative standards at the conclusion of a SAP increment. After each evaluation, students who do not meet SAP standards will be notified in writing. Students who have an outstanding incomplete grade at the time of SAP review may not be allowed to continue until the incomplete grade is successfully completed.

SAP increments will be adjusted to coincide with the payment period. Please note any of the following activities may have an impact on the student’s payment period which will result in a SAP review that may not be congruent with the standard SAP increment:

  • Changing program of study;
  • Returning to the University after being officially or unofficially withdrawn;
  • Earning letter grades in competency courses that are considered unsuccessful for fulfillment of competency requirements;
  • Repeating coursework in which a passing grade was earned;
  • Returning after being out of attendance over 180 days;
  • Completing courses which do not apply to the student’s program of study; and/or
  • Taking courses concurrently.

Additionally, if it is determined that the SAP review did not align with the Financial Aid Payment Period, SAP will be reevaluated to coincide with the Financial Aid Payment Period and could affect the outcome of a previous SAP review.

Academic and Financial Aid Warning

Students who do not meet the minimum requirements for making satisfactory academic progress at the time of evaluation are placed on Academic and Financial Aid Warning for the following SAP increment.

Students are given up to one SAP increment to meet the requirements for satisfactory academic progress. All coursework earned after the period during which the student did not meet satisfactory academic progress is counted as a part of the Academic and Financial Aid Warning period. Students who are otherwise eligible to receive Title IV financial aid are eligible to receive Title IV financial aid while on Academic and Financial Aid Warning. Students may be required to re-take coursework previously completed in order to increase the likelihood of successfully meeting satisfactory academic progress and/or graduation requirements. These requirements may affect the student’s eligibility for financial aid funds.

At the conclusion of the Academic and Financial Aid Warning period, students who do not meet the requirements for satisfactory academic progress will be dismissed from the University. Dismissed students are not eligible to receive Title IV financial aid. Dismissed students should refer to the Appeal of Academic Dismissal policy in this section of this Catalog.

Academic and Financial Aid Probation

Students who have been granted an appeal for readmission after dismissal following a period of Academic and Financial Aid Warning, are placed on Academic and Financial Aid Probation for the following payment period.

Students who are otherwise eligible to receive Title IV financial aid are eligible to receive Title IV financial aid while on Academic and Financial Aid Probation. Students may be required to re-take coursework previously completed in order to increase the likelihood of successfully meeting satisfactory academic progress and/or graduation requirements. These requirements may affect the student’s eligibility for financial aid funds.

At the conclusion of the Academic and Financial Aid Probation period, students who do not meet the requirements for satisfactory academic progress will be dismissed from the University. Dismissed students are not eligible to receive Title IV financial aid. Dismissed students should refer to the Appeal of Academic Dismissal policy in this section of this Catalog.

Probation-Academic Plan

Students who are approved by the Appeals Committee for re-admission after dismissal following a period of Academic and Financial Aid Probation, after a period on Probation-Academic Plan or after dismissal due to exceeding the maximum time frame are placed on Probation-Academic Plan, and are required to meet specific academic requirements outlined in writing in an academic plan from the Registrar’s Office. Students are provided with an academic plan to assist the student in meeting regular SAP requirements within a specific period of time. Students may be limited in the number of courses for which they are scheduled while on Probation-Academic Plan. It is the student’s responsibility to adhere to the academic plan.

Students who are otherwise eligible to receive Title IV financial aid are eligible to receive Title IV financial aid while on Probation-Academic Plan. Students may be required to re-take coursework previously completed in order to increase the likelihood of successfully meeting satisfactory academic progress and/or graduation requirements. These requirements may affect the student’s eligibility for financial aid funds.

Students will be placed on Probation–Academic Plan for the first payment period/SAP increment while on the academic plan. Students on Probation-Academic Plan are reviewed against the progression requirements outlined in the academic plan. Students who are not meeting plan requirements at the time of review will be dismissed from the University. Dismissed students are not eligible to receive Title IV financial aid. Dismissed students should refer to the Appeal of Academic Dismissal policy in this section of this Catalog.

Appeal of Academic Dismissal

Students who have been dismissed from the University for failure to meet satisfactory academic progress requirements or the consecutive unsuccessful grades policy may appeal to be re-admitted to the University. Students must appeal in writing to the University Registrar. The appeal must be submitted to academic.progress@ashford.edu or electronically via the online SAP Appeal form or the Unsuccessful Grades Dismissal Appeal form and approved prior to enrollment in any future courses. Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include:

  • a reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in undue hardship to the student;
  • compelling evidence that they have the ability to demonstrate satisfactory academic progress and to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of college level credits during the period of absence; and
  • a plan for completion of the coursework required to meet satisfactory academic progress during the following payment period.

Appeals are evaluated by an Appeals Committee made up of the University Registrar or designee, and representative from Academic Affairs. The decision of the Committee will be communicated in writing to the student by the Registrar’s Office.

The passage of time does not substantiate eligibility for readmission or appeal for readmission, however, students who have experienced mitigating circumstances and have been dismissed from the University for failure to meet satisfactory academic progress requirements or the consecutive unsuccessful grades policy, and have been denied re-admission after an appeal, may submit another appeal to be readmitted after six months have elapsed since their last appeal was received by the University. The appeal must meet the criteria outlined previously and the student must present compelling evidence that they have the ability to demonstrate satisfactory academic progress and to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of college level credits since the last appeal was submitted.

General Transfer Credit Provisions and Limitations

Students are responsible for reviewing their scheduled courses with their Student Advisor and informing him or her of any courses that they believe are duplicative or equivalent in content to previously completed coursework or nontraditional learning. Students may submit official transcripts to Ashford University for review of transfer credits at any time. However, transfer credit and/or nontraditional credit is not retroactive. Credits submitted and evaluated will not be accepted if they are duplicative of course work already earned at Ashford University, through transfer of credit, or nontraditional credit. Students are fully responsible for any charges for duplicative coursework taken at Ashford University.

Ashford University’s Registrar’s Office maintains records of all previous education and training obtained from students as part of the initial transfer credit evaluation at enrollment. Any additional evaluation requested by students following enrollment is also maintained. The outcomes of all transfer credit evaluations completed are communicated to students along with the resulting shortened program of study where applicable, as shown in their Student Portal.

Ashford University will provide an unofficial pre-evaluation of transfer credit upon request of the student and submission of unofficial transcripts. This service is intended to assist the student in determining how many transfer credits are likely to apply to an Ashford University degree and if transfer credit is equivalent to Ashford University courses prior to submission and evaluation of official transcripts. Pre-evaluation of transfer credit prior to the submission of official transcripts is NEVER a guarantee that a certain number of transfer credits will officially apply toward the student’s specific degree program.

Once official transfer credit evaluation is completed, students are responsible for reviewing their degree progress reports and notifying their Student Advisors of any perceived discrepancies between credits completed and credits applied in transfer.

Duplication: It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that transfer credits, nontraditional learning, and/or Ashford University coursework do not duplicate previous credit earned. A student may not earn credit by examination, nontraditional learning or transfer credits in an area in which he or she has completed an equivalent course/exam or a course of a similar level. Degree-seeking students should work with their Student Advisor to determine if coursework will fit into their academic plan and not duplicate previous credit awarded.

Regression: It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that transfer credits, nontraditional learning, and/or Ashford University coursework is not considered regression from previous credit earned. A student may not earn credit by examination, nontraditional learning or transfer credits in an area in which would be considered regression from previous courses/exams he or she completed. A student may not take Ashford University coursework in an area in which he or she has already completed a course that is more advanced in content level. Degree-seeking students should work with their Student Advisor to determine if coursework will fit into their academic plan and not be considered regression from previous credit awarded.

Applicants and/or students who have questions concerning their transfer credit evaluation and/or official degree progress report should contact their Student Advisor to discuss their concerns. Students requesting re-evaluation of specific transfer credits will be directed to the Transfer Credit Appeal form in the Student Portal at www.ashford.edu and are required to submit course descriptions and/or syllabi for the previous courses to be reviewed by the Office of the Registrar.

Transfer credits will be officially evaluated, based on review of official transcripts by the Office of the Registrar, in terms of curriculum. Courses similar in content and level will be accepted as equivalents to University courses based on the following criteria along with any program specific criteria:

  • Transfer credits must carry college level academic credit (generally, 100-level or higher). Remedial or developmental course credit is not transferable into a program of study.
  • Credits must have been earned with grade of “C-” or better from regionally accredited and approved nationally accredited colleges or universities. Transfer credits will generally be evaluated from each college or university independently.
  • Credits from international institutions will be accepted based on a detailed evaluation from an approved evaluation service.
  • Transfer credit may not be granted when it duplicates college credit previously earned. Credit will not be given for the same learning twice.
  • Unless special conditions exist, upper-division courses will not be considered equivalent or duplicative of lower-division courses.
  • No general age limit on transfer credit from regionally accredited and approved nationally accredited institutions, with possible exceptions in subject areas where there has been significant change. Requirements are noted in specific degree/major requirements.
  • Graduate-level credits cannot be applied to undergraduate degrees.
  • A quarter credit hour taken in transfer will be equated to two-thirds of a semester hour. When quarter credits are used as equivalencies to General Education requirements, the difference in required credits must be earned through completion of coursework necessary to achieve the total required credits for graduation. For example: A 3-quarter-credit course may be accepted as meeting General Education core or competency requirements but will equate to 2.00 credits applied towards that requirement. Therefore, one additional credit of coursework will be needed to meet General Education graduation requirements. A minimum of 5 quarter credits in Natural Science is required to meet the General Education Science requirement, if a laboratory component is included. If not, the equivalent of 6 semester credits, without a laboratory component, is required.
  • Limitations on the number and type of transfer credits accepted are set by each Ashford University degree program.
  • EXP 105, an introductory course, may be waived in certain circumstances. Please see Bachelor's Program Course Sequencing policy in this section of the Catalog.
  • Capstone courses must be taken at Ashford University. Students may not use transfer credits or nontraditional credits to waive capstone course requirements, with the exception of GEN 499 General Education Capstone, in certain circumstances. Refer to General Education Capstone in the General Academic Information and Policies section of this Catalog.

Nationally accredited institutions granted accreditation by the following accrediting agencies will be considered in transfer:

  • Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools, Accreditation Commission (AARTS);
  • Association of Biblical Higher Education (ABHE, formerly known as AABC);
  • Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS, formerly known as AICS or CCAACICS);
  • Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, Commission on Accrediting (ATS);
  • Distance Education and Training Council, Accrediting Commission (DEAC, formerly known as DETC and NHSC); and
  • Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools, Accreditation Commission (TRACS).

Credits from the following institutions will be considered for transfer for Ashford University Non-Competency General Education requirements if the course in transfer holds a grade of “C-” or higher and is equivalent to at least three semester credits. All other transfer courses from the following institutions will be considered as fulfilling elective credit requirements in Ashford University programs.

  • Council on Occupational Education (COE, formerly known as SACS-COEI);
  • Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training (ACCET);
  • Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools (ABHES); and
  • Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges (ACCSC)

Credits earned toward a Vocational Diploma/Certificate or Diploma/Certificate will not be considered for transfer, with the exception of a nursing (hospital) diploma.

Credits from any institutions with whom Ashford University has current articulation agreements will be considered for transfer.

Associate of Arts Transfer Credit, Prior Learning Credit, and Nontraditional Credit Provisions and Limitations

  • Students in an Associate of Arts program may apply a maximum of 49 credits of combined nontraditional learning and/or transfer credits toward the 67 credits required for an Associate of Arts degree. Students in a 64 credit Associate of Arts program may apply a maximum of 46 credits of combined nontraditional learning and/or transfer credits toward the degree.
  • A maximum of 30 nontraditional credits of which a maximum of 15 PLA credits may be applied toward degree completion on a course match basis.
  • PLA credit cannot be awarded for a course previously taken with the University when a failing grade was received.
  • A maximum of 9 credits with a "D" grade are transferrable into a program of study as long as the student's cumulative overall GPA is 2.0 or above. If students sign an Authorization to Close File form, their CGPA cannot be determined therefore, "D" grades cannot be applied. "D" credits cannot be applied toward the major or toward General Education competencies at any time.
  • Students who transfer in General Education courses or transfer from an Ashford Bachelor’s program will be required to complete all of the course requirements for an Associate of Arts program, even if the student transfers in 64 credits or more.
  • Washington residents may apply a maximum of 16 credits toward an Associate's degree from a combination of prior learning assessment or other nontraditional learning, including national testing programs, or credit recommendation services.
  • Georgia residents may apply a maximum of 16 credits toward an Associate's degree from credit by examination and prior learning assessment.

Bachelor's Degree Transfer Credit, Prior Learning Credit, and Nontraditional Credit Provisions and Limitations

  • A maximum of 90 credits of combined nontraditional learning, prior learning, and transfer credits may be accepted and applied toward the 120 credits required for a Bachelor’s degree.
  • Within the 90 credit maximum, a maximum of 75 credits of nontraditional credit, including a maximum of 30 credits of prior learning may be applied toward degree completion. These 75 credits can be any combination of acceptable types of nontraditional credit.
  • Within the 75 credit nontraditional maximum, a maximum of nine (9) nontraditional credits may be applied toward the major requirements (including additional majors). Nontraditional credits may also apply up to a maximum of 50% of the requirements for a minor or specialization or 100% of the requirements for a transfer concentration. The content of nontraditional credits must be comparable to the content of the replaced course.
  • Nontraditional credit may not be counted toward the residency requirement in a degree program.
  • Nontraditional credit may not be granted when it duplicates college credit previously earned. Credit will not be given for the same learning twice.
  • Nontraditional credit is posted to the transcript as credit earned (i.e., without a grade), and does not affect a student’s grade point average.
  • PLA credit cannot be awarded for a course previously taken with the University when a failing grade was received.
  • A maximum of 9 credits with a “D” grade are transferable into a program of study as long as the student’s cumulative overall GPA is 2.0 or above. If students sign an Authorization to Close File form, their CGPA cannot be determined therefore, “D” grades cannot be applied. “D” credits cannot be applied toward the major or toward General Education competencies at any time.
  • Maximum allowance of six (6) credits may be accepted from Physical Education type activity courses (unless student was a prior PE major). Physical Education type credits are generally applied towards the elective credit requirement.
  • Maximum allowance of six (6) credits may be accepted for software applications courses.
  • Unless special conditions exist, upper-division courses will not be considered equivalent or duplicative of lower-division courses.
  • Credits earned from a regionally or approved nationally accredited institution as part of an Associate degree where a student earned a 2.0 cumulative GPA or higher are accepted as fulfilling all General Education and competency requirements of a Bachelor’s program*, with the exception of EXP 105 (introductory course) and the General Education Capstone, if one of the two subsequent conditions is satisfied:
    • The student meets the General Education requirements for Bachelor degrees offered through state universities in which the college granting the Associate degree resides; OR
    • The transfer credits have been evaluated and deemed acceptable by the University Registrar’s Office.
    *This does not constitute a waiver of any course required to earn a particular major.
  • Assocate of Applied Science (AAS) degrees will not be accepted as fulfilling the General Education or competency requirements. Credits earned in an AAS degree or a certificate program will be evaluated on an individual basis for application toward the Bachelor's degree. Courses taken that are similar to those taken in an Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degree program will be accepted in transfer.
  • Washington residents may apply a maximum of 30 credits toward a Bachelor's degree from any combination of prior learning assessment or other nontraditional learning, including national testing programs, or credit recommendation services.
  • Georgia residents may apply a maximum of 30 credits toward a Bachelor's degree from credit by examination and prior learning assessment.

Nontraditional Credits

Ashford University recognizes the uniqueness of each student’s experience and realizes that learning takes place in a variety of environments. Nontraditional credits can be awarded in three ways: through national testing programs, through national credit recommendations, and through prior learning assessment. National testing programs include AP: Advanced Placement, Berlitz, CLEP: College Level Examination Program, DSST: DANTES Subject Standardized Tests, Excelsior: UExcel, IB: International Baccalaureate, and TECEP: Thomas Edison College Examination Program. National credit recommendations include ACE: American Council on Education, and National CCRS: National College Credit Recommendation Service. Prior learning assessment includes Sponsored Professional Training and Experiential Essays. National testing programs and national credit recommendations should be transferred in through the Registrar's Office. All Prior Learning submissions should be processed by the Prior Learning Assessment Department. Please review the Nontraditional Credit Provisions and Limitations sections for additional information regarding nontraditional credits.

Prior Learning Assessment (PLA)

The Ashford University Prior Learning Assessment program allows students pursuing an Associate’s or a Bachelor’s degree the opportunity to earn credit for college-level learning that occurs outside a traditional classroom setting. The program complies fully with the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) standards for excellence. Credit will only be awarded in areas that fall within the regular curricular offerings at Ashford University.

Students may earn credit through the Prior Learning Assessment program in two ways:

Through Sponsored Professional Training: Students may participate in the Sponsored Professional Training component of PLA by providing the following documentation:

  • Evidence of successful completion (i.e., official certificate or letter)
  • Evidence of length of course (number of contact hours)
  • Evidence of course content (i.e., syllabus or handouts)
  • Contact information for course instructor/work supervisor (current phone/email)
  • Credit Rationale Paper for each submission/topic

Ashford University faculty will evaluate the submission of Sponsored Professional Training for evidence of college-level learning. Applicable fees for evaluation of Sponsored Professional Training are listed in the Financial Information section of this Catalog. Payment for evaluation is charged per credit submitted for evaluation and does not guarantee that credit will be awarded. PLA credit cannot be awarded for a course previously taken with the University when a failing grade was received.

Through Experiential Learning: Students may participate in the experiential learning component by first enrolling in the experiential learning course, EXP 200 Fundamentals of Adult Learning. EXP 200 is a 3-credit elective course, and per-credit tuition is charged at the regular rate outlined in the current tuition and fee schedule in the Financial Information section of this Catalog. Upon successful completion of EXP 200, students may submit one or more experiential essays for review. Ashford University faculty will evaluate the experiential essay submission for evidence of college-level learning applicable to the student’s Ashford University degree program. Additional charges apply per evaluation submitted, as outlined in the tuition and fee schedule in the Financial Information section of this Catalog. Payment for evaluation is charged per essay submitted for evaluation and does not guarantee that credit will be awarded.

Students may participate in one or both PLA components depending on their experience, background, and need.

Prior Learning Assessment credit awarded at another regionally or approved nationally accredited institution may be transferred to Ashford University with the approval of the Ashford University Registrar and the Department of Prior Learning Assessment, if the content area falls within the regular curricular offerings of Ashford University. In order to be applied toward an Ashford University degree, transcript records must include PLA subject area and/or content information. Students may also be required to submit the original PLA documentation. Such transfer credit counts toward the nontraditional credit maximum applicable in a degree program.

Prior Learning Assessment applies to students pursuing Associate’s or Bachelor’s degrees. It does not apply to students pursuing a graduate degree or non-degree seeking students. To be eligible for PLA, undergraduate students must be fully admitted, satisfy the English Proficiency requirement, and successfully complete their first course at Ashford. Additionally,

  • Prior Learning Assessment credit may be applied to an Associate of Arts program on a course match basis only;
  • PLA cannot be used to waive EXP 105, or a Capstone course; and,
  • Prior learning assessment credit may or may not be transferable. It is the student’s responsibility to find out if credits will transfer to an institution that the student may plan to attend in the future.

Students who have formally completed the PLA process but disagree with the final credit decision may be eligible to appeal. Please contact the Department of Prior Learning Assessment to discuss the appeal process. Please read the Nontraditional Credit Provisions and Limitations for more information in this section of the Catalog.

Articulation Agreements

Ashford University enters into articulation agreements with other schools in the spirit of cooperation and to mutually recognize each other as quality institutions of higher learning. The purpose of an articulation agreement is to enable students transferring to Ashford University to carry with them the credit they have already earned for as much relevant study as possible. Students who transfer under the terms and conditions of a valid articulation agreement are subject to the requirements outlined by the articulation agreement and Ashford University Academic Catalog at the time the student is enrolled into his or her Ashford University program. A list of schools with which Ashford University has established articulation agreements, terms of articulation and transfer guides outlining all articulated courses by degree program can be found on Ashford University’s website at www.ashford.edu/admissions/community_colleges.htm.

Associate’s Program Academic Policies

General Education Courses in Associate’s Programs

While the General Education courses in each Associate degree program are recommended, Associate’s students may speak with their Student Advisor if they would prefer to take a different 100 to 200-level General Education course. This policy does not apply to core courses in the Associate degree program.

Residency Requirements in Associate’s Programs

Students enrolling into an Associate of Arts degree program must successfully complete a minimum of eighteen (18) credits of Ashford University courses and all other program requirements for degree completion. Credits earned through Prior Learning Assessment are not included in the 18-credit calculation. Students are not required to complete their final course toward degree completion at Ashford University.

Progression Requirements in Associate’s Programs

Associate of Arts students will be required to successfully complete an online orientation prior to enrolling in credit-bearing coursework as outlined in the Admission Policies and Procedures for Associate of Arts Degree Programs. Following successful completion of orientation, students are required to successfully complete EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education as their first course. Unsuccessful completion of EXP 105 will result in the rescheduling of the course and revision of future course sequence. EXP 105 satisfies an Associate of Arts core program requirement and cannot be replaced or waived by transfer credit. Associate of Arts students will be registered, per the program of enrollment indicated on their Admissions Application, for the full Associate of Arts program course sequence.

Students may request changes to course registration in writing to their Enrollment Services Advisor, University Advisor or Student Advisor and should include any appropriate supporting documentation. It is the student’s responsibility to inform his or her Enrollment Services Advisor/University Advisor and Student Advisor, in writing, of potential equivalent transfer courses and to provide appropriate supporting documentation prior to each course start date.

Bachelor’s Program Academic Policies

Residency Requirements in Bachelor’s Programs

At least 30 credits included in the degree must be Ashford University credits. Credits earned through Prior Learning Assessment are not included in the 30-credit calculation. Students are not required to complete their final course toward degree completion at Ashford University.

Progression Requirements for Bachelor’s Programs

To ensure a framework for success, and to make certain students have built the necessary skills to recognize the complex subject matter inherent in major coursework, Bachelor degree-seeking students are eligible to be enrolled in major coursework once the following requirements are met. Students must successfully meet:

  • any introductory course requirements;
  • the English Proficiency requirement; 
  • the General Education Information Technology Competency; and
  • the Communication Competencies I & II.

Students who meet all progression requirements will be allowed to take approved 100 or 200 level courses in their respective majors (if applicable), as long as they are taken in the prescribed order and meet all prerequisite requirements. Once students meet the above requirements and successfully earn at least 30 credits, they will be allowed to take 300 or 400 level major courses, as long as they are taken in the prescribed order and meet all prerequisite requirements.

Bachelor’s Program Course Sequencing

All Bachelor’s program students are required to successfully complete EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education as their first course. Students with zero (0) traditional college-level transferable credits are also required to successfully complete an online orientation prior to enrolling in credit-bearing coursework as outlined in the Admission Policies and Procedures for Online Bachelor's Degree Programs. Following successful completion of orientation, students are required to successfully complete EXP 105. Unsuccessful completion of EXP 105 will result in the rescheduling of the course and revision of future course sequence. A minimum grade of C- is required to successfully complete the course. EXP 105 is considered an introductory course requirement and cannot be replaced or waived by credit in transfer, unless a student provides proof of one of the following:

  • 90 credits of lower-division transfer credits that are applicable to the student’s chosen degree program prior to initial program enrollment;
  • A previously earned Bachelor’s degree at Ashford University, or from a regionally or approved nationally accredited institution; or
  • A Bachelor’s degree from a country other than the United States that has been evaluated by an approved evaluation service, and accepted by Ashford University as equivalent to a Bachelor’s degree in the United States.
  • Earned nine (9) credits or more at Ashford University with a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher.

Students who have not previously completed the coursework applicable to the Ashford University General Education requirements, and have not fulfilled the Bachelor’s progression requirements, will generally be enrolled in the General Education course sequence or in specific General Education courses required for degree completion and then progress into their appropriate major course sequence. Students who do not wish to take any or all of the General Education course sequence through Ashford University must generally fulfill the Bachelor’s progression requirements and contact their Student Advisor to request a schedule change in order to begin major coursework.

Students may request changes to course registration by contacting their Enrollment Services Advisor, University Advisor, or Student Advisor and should include any appropriate supporting documentation. It is the student’s responsibility to inform his or her Enrollment Services Advisor/University Advisor and Student Advisor of potential equivalent transfer courses and to provide appropriate supporting documentation prior to each course start date.

 

The following General Education course sequence is the standard for the University. On occasion, courses may be substituted to satisfy specific General Education requirements.

General Education Course Sequence:

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits) (introductory course)
  • PSY 202 Adult Development & Life Assessment OR
    GEN 102 Digital Literacy for Life & the Workplace (3 credits)
  • ENG 121 English Composition I (3 credits)
  • INF 103 Computer Literacy (3 credits) OR
    GEN 103 Information Literacy (3 credits)
  • ENG 122 English Composition II (3 credits)
  • COM 200 Interpersonal Communication (3 credits)
  • ENG 125 Introduction to Literature (3 credits)
  • ENG 225 Introduction to Film (3 credits)
  • PHI 103 Informal Logic (3 credits)
  • PHI 208 Ethics & Moral Reasoning (3 credits)
  • SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (3 credits)
  • POL 201 American National Government (3 credits)
  • HIS 206 United States History II (3 credits)
  • ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (3 credits)
  • SCI 207 Our Dependence upon the Environment (4 credits)
  • MAT 221 Introduction to Algebra (3 credits)
  • MAT 222 Intermediate Algebra (3 credits)
  • GEN 499 General Education Capstone (3 credits)
    Capstone prerequisite: Completion of a minimum of 75 credits

 

Transfer Concentration Guidelines for Bachelor's Programs

Transfer concentrations are intended for Bachelor’s students who have experience and/or extensive transfer credit coursework in a field of study at the time of admission.

Students must petition for a transfer concentration in a defined subject area and submit a minimum of twelve (12) credits of coursework before approval is granted. In rare cases, a student with some transfer coursework completed in a given subject area may petition to the University Registrar’s Office, after admission, to complete part of a concentration through Ashford University coursework.

  • Transfer concentrations generally will not be approved in fields of study that lead to licensure or certification.
  • Transfer credits will only be applied toward the required coursework in applicable majors if the student has maximized all other transfer credit possibilities within the Bachelor’s degree and has otherwise earned enough upper-division credits to meet program requirements. Otherwise, transfer concentration coursework will be applied toward elective credit.
  • A student can earn more than one transfer concentration as long as each transfer concentration has at least six credits that do not apply to another concentration or major.
  • Students earning transfer concentrations with substitutions against major coursework are not exempt from the minimum requirement for earning thirty (30) upper-division credits.

SMART Track Program Requirements for Bachelor's Programs

Students enrolled in an Ashford University Bachelor’s degree program may be eligible to enroll in up to six (6) credits (nine (9) applicable credits for the MACC, MBA, MPA or MSCJ programs) of graduate-level coursework toward their Bachelor’s degree and accelerate completion of a Master’s degree with Ashford University.

Bachelor’s Program Stipulations and Requirements for Enrolling and Applying Master’s-Level Coursework

  • Students in a Bachelor’s-level program offered at Ashford University may attempt up to six (6) Master’s-level credits* offered at Ashford University to satisfy elective requirements in their Bachelor’s program.
  • Bachelor’s-level tuition applies to any AU Master’s-level coursework attempted as part of the Bachelor’s program. Students are limited to six (6) attempted credits* at the Bachelor’s-level tuition rate (AU Military Grant rates are applicable for students who qualify). Financial aid is also awarded at the Bachelor’s-level.
  • Students are not permitted to retake Master’s-level courses attempted while enrolled in a Bachelor’s program. Only one attempt per Master’s course is permitted at the undergraduate-level (W and WF grades included).
  • Master’s-level coursework attempted as part of a Bachelor’s program is applied toward the Bachelor’s-level cumulative grade point average (CGPA).
  • Enrollment in the Master’s degree program begins after an applicant has been formally admitted to the program by submitting an application indicating an earned Bachelor’s degree. Students are subject to the academic requirements that are in effect at the time of enrollment in the Master’s degree program. Any Master’s degree requirements that have been satisfied by coursework taken as part of the SMART Track will be considered fulfilled.
  • Unless otherwise stipulated by program, the graduate-level coursework will apply toward elective credit requirements.
  • Master’s-level courses taken while enrolled in a Bachelor’s program will count toward the upper division credit requirement.
  • Graduate-level courses are normally six (6) weeks in length; therefore enrollment may extend graduation dates and may delay financial aid disbursement timing.
  • Graduate-level courses are graded as follows: A, B, C, F, W, WF, or I. Plus, Minus, and D grades are not awarded in graduate-level coursework.
  • Students may not apply more than 9 credits of graduate coursework to their Bachelor’s degree program. 

SMART Track Courses

Specific graduate-level courses for which Bachelor’s students are eligible to enroll may be stipulated by each Master’s degree program. The following courses have been designated by program for SMART Track student enrollment. Enrollment in any courses other than those subsequently designated must be approved by the appropriate Dean, University Provost or designee.

Master of Accountancy

  • BUS 600 Management Communications with Technology Tools (3 credits)
  • ECO 610 Global Economics (3 credits)
  • *BUS 591 Financial Accounting & Analysis (3 credits)

Master of Arts in Education

  • EDU 650 Teaching, Learning & Leading in the 21st Century (3 credits)
  • EDU 692 Creativity, Culture, & Global Contexts in Education Decision Making (3 credits)

Master of Arts in Health Care Administration

  • MHA 601 Principles of Health Care Administration (3 credits)
  • MHA 622 Health Care Ethics & Law (3 credits)

Master of Arts in Organizational Management

  • BUS 600 Management Communications with Technology Tools (3 credits)
  • BUS 610 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)

Master of Arts in Psychology

  • PSY 600 Introduction to Graduate Study in Psychology (3 credits)
  • PSY 605 Developmental Psychology (3 credits)

Master of Arts in Special Education

  • ESE 601 Introduction to Students with Exceptionalities in the School Setting (3 credits)
  • ESE 603 Law & Ethics in Special Education (3 credits)

Master of Arts in Teaching and Learning with Technology

  • EDU 648 Teaching & Learning with Technology (3 credits)
  • EDU 652 Instructional Design & Delivery (3 credits)

Master of Business Administration

  • BUS 600 Management Communications with Technology Tools (3 credits)
  • BUS 610 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)
  • *BUS 591 Financial Accounting & Analysis (3 credits)

Master of Public Administration

  • BUS 600 Management Communications with Technology Tools (3 credits)
  • BUS 610 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)
  • *BUS 599 Introduction to Quantitative Principles (3 credits)

Master of Science in Criminal Justice

  • *CRJ 501 Criminal Justice, Criminal Law & the Constitution (3 credits)
  • CRJ 510 Criminal Justice Policy & Theory (3 credits)
  • CRJ 512 Criminological Theory (3 credits)

*Otherwise eligible students enrolled in a Bachelor’s degree program who plan to apply to the Ashford University MACC or MBA program may take BUS 591 for an additional three (3) elective credits for a total of nine (9) Master’s level credits to satisfy appropriate Bachelor’s degree requirements and this prerequisite course to the MACC or MBA program. Students who plan to apply to the Ashford University MPA program may take BUS 599 for an additional three (3) elective credits for a total of nine (9) Master’s level credits to satisfy appropriate Bachelor’s degree requirements and this prerequisite course to the MPA program. Students who plan to apply to the Ashford University MSCJ program may take CRJ 501 for an additional three (3) elective credits for a total of nine (9) Master’s level credits to satisfy appropriate Bachelor’s degree requirements and this prerequisite course to the MSCJ program.

SMART Track Student Eligibility

Students must meet the following criteria in order to take Master’s-level coursework in a Bachelor’s program:

  • Must be a senior-level student with 108+ credits earned toward a Bachelor’s degree at Ashford University. Students may be pre-qualified and enrolled in SMART Track courses when 105 credits are earned in anticipation of 108 credits completed prior to beginning SMART Track coursework.
  • Must have a 2.75 or higher cumulative GPA to begin a Master’s-level course.
  • Must meet any prerequisite coursework requirements for each course.
  • Must indicate to their Student Advisor that they plan to apply for admission to a specific Master’s degree program at Ashford University upon completion of the Bachelor’s degree, and request the courses through their Student Advisor.
  • Must be in good financial standing at Ashford University.
  • Students must complete a SMART Track Request form.

Applying Coursework Taken at Bachelor’s Level to Ashford University Master’s Programs

Students who graduate from an Ashford University Bachelor’s program may apply up to six (6) applicable Master’s level credits (or nine (9) applicable credits for the MACC, MBA, MPA, or MSCJ programs) earned as part of their Bachelor’s program to an Ashford University Master’s program. In order to be applied toward completion of an Ashford University Master’s program, courses taken at the Bachelor’s level must be:

  • Applicable to the specific Ashford University Master’s program in which the student enrolls.
  • Students are encouraged to complete the graduate level course with a “B” or higher. Grades earned in Master’s level courses completed as part of an undergraduate program will be calculated into the graduate-level cumulative grade point average (CGPA).

Students who have successfully completed BUS 591 as part of their Bachelor’s degree program with a grade of “C” or higher have also satisfied this prerequisite in the MBA.

Students who have successfully completed BUS 599 as part of their Bachelor’s degree program with a grade of “C” or higher have also satisfied this prerequisite in the MPA.

Graduation Requirements for Bachelor’s Degrees

To be eligible for a Bachelor’s degree, a student must successfully accomplish the following:

  • Completion of a minimum of 120 total credits; including:
    • Minimum of 30 credits completed at the University as a matriculated student (residency requirement); and
    • Minimum of 30 credits of upper-division coursework, including 18 credits of upper-division coursework in the chosen major (upper-division requirement).
  • Completion of the General Education requirements, including competencies;
  • Completion of all required major, minor, and specialization course requirements; and
  • Minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all coursework attempted at the University.
  • A major grade point average of 2.50 is required for all coursework attempted at Ashford University in the Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management and the Bachelor of Science in Nursing majors.

Note: The date of degree conferral recorded on the student’s transcript and diploma will reflect the date the student completes all academic degree requirements. However, release of transcripts, diplomas, and verifications for degrees awarded are contingent upon submission of the Petition to Graduate form, payment of the graduation fee, and payment of any outstanding balances with the University.

Programs will be noted on the transcript as shown on the program heading. Programs with transfer concentrations or specializations are also noted on the transcript.

Forbes School of Business: Undergraduate Programs and Requirements

Bachelor of Arts in Accounting

Students pursuing the Accounting major at the University will develop the necessary analytical, conceptual, technical knowledge and proficiency in accounting. The curriculum will enable students to better understand the internal and external business environment through study in business administration, economics, and quantitative methods. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaa.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not qualify a student to sit for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) examination. All prospective students are advised to contact individual state boards of accounting for additional information relating to licensure requirements (e.g., education and work experience and any potential restrictions, such as prior criminal convictions) prior to enrolling. A list of state accounting boards is available here: www.nasba.org/stateboards/. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

Additionally, students may wish to seek a Certified Management Accountant designation. Information on the CMA exam can be found at their website (www.imanet.org). Students are advised that a degree program is different from an exam preparation course and they may need more education in addition to work experience in order to successfully pass the examination.

Program Outcomes

Accounting major graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate fundamental accounting principles and procedures;
  2. Employ technology tools related to the area of accounting;
  3. Analyze alternatives to complex accounting problems;
  4. Integrate accounting and finance information in business decision making; and
  5. Analyze the legal, regulatory and ethical issues in the practice of accounting.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)   Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • ACC 308 Accounting Information Systems (3 credits)
  • ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 206
  • ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 305
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 
  • ACC 310 Cost Accounting I (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 206
  • ACC 380 Accounting for Not-For-Profit Organizations (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 206
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • ACC 407 Advanced Accounting (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ACC 306 and ACC 310
  • ACC 410 Auditing (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ACC 306, ACC 310, GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.

Please note, student who have successfully completed ACC 201 and/or ACC 202 at the Associate’s level will be waived from ACC 205 and/or ACC 206 respectively at the Bachelor’s level.

Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration

The BA in Business Administration will provide students with the technical knowledge, critical thinking skills, and the ability to communicate ideas in a collaborative environment. Graduates will be equipped with a practical understanding of these and other important business concepts and skills. Ashford University takes great pride in ensuring that students are challenged to open their minds to new ways of thinking and problem solving. The BA in Business Administration degree will assist students in meeting both personal and professional goals. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaba.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Business Administration major graduates will be able to:

  1. Collaborate to achieve team goals;
  2. Develop an awareness of their leadership style;
  3. Evaluate a situation and apply an effective leadership style;
  4. Use technology tools related to their area of emphasis;
  5. Manage change within a dynamic business environment; and
  6. Create a strategic business plan.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 29 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.

*In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • *CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business (3 credits)
  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations (3 credits)
  • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
  • ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 
  • BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205, ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499

     
    * Satisfies General Education requirements.
    ^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.

Transfer Concentration Option

Students may add a transfer concentration to the BA in Business Administration program by transferring in 12 applicable credits in one of the following areas:

  • Business Management
  • Marketing
  • Accounting
  • Finance
  • Hospitality Management
  • Retail Management
  • Computer Science Studies

Transfer concentrations are intended for students who have experience and/or extensive transfer credit coursework in a field of study at the time of admission to the program. The following major courses are designated for substitution with concentration coursework, where appropriate: BUS 303, MGT 415, MGT 435, and PHI 445. For additional details, see Transfer Concentration Guidelines in this section of the Catalog.

Bachelor of Arts in Business Economics

The Bachelor of Arts in Business Economics links the fields of economics and business to provide students with an understanding of the theoretical and practical approaches of economics while preparing graduates for employment in a continually changing global and technologically innovative business environment. It prepares students for employment in a variety of business fields, particularly finance, banking, business management, and government service. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obabe.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Business Economics major graduates will be able to:

  1. Assess business facts and interpret them consistent with economic thinking;
  2. Examine how decision makers allocate scarce resources to achieve economic efficiency;
  3. Apply economic tools to analyze decisions made by consumers, firms, and policy makers; and
  4. Predict the impact of fiscal, monetary, and trade policy on a firm using microeconomic and macroeconomic models..

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 23 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
  • ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits) Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203
  • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)
  • ^ECO 342 Principles of Econometrics (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 308
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
  • ECO 408 Managerial Economics (3 credits)      Prerequisite: ECO 204
  • ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ECO 203
  • BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205, ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Business Information Systems

The Bachelor of Arts in Business Information Systems program enables graduates to understand the interaction, planning, development, and operations of information systems and information sharing within a business or organization. Courses focus on information technology planning, networking, e-business strategies, strategic data utilization, and business management, as well as problem solving and leadership in designing, developing, and implementing new or existing information systems within businesses and organizations. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obabis.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Business Information Systems major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply analytical, logical, and critical thinking abilities in the development of effective information systems solutions;
  2. Evaluate information systems and enterprise solutions appropriate to meet presented business challenges;
  3. Compare and contrast the local and global impact of computing on individuals, organizations, providers, and society;
  4. Develop alternative information systems solutions appropriate for addressing business problems;
  5. Evaluate processes that support the delivery and management of information systems within the business application environment;
  6. Apply knowledge to make responsible decisions when addressing professional, ethical, legal, and social issues and responsibilities relevant to the Information Technology discipline; and
  7. Employ collaborative team skills to accomplish a common goal.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • *COM 340 Technical Writing (3 credits)
  • **INF 231 Programming Concepts (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103
  • INF 340 Business Systems Analysis (3 credits)
  • **^INF 322 Database Management Systems (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 231
  • INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 231
  • BUS 352 e-Business (3 credits)
  • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)
  • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103
  • MGT 497 Strategic Technology Planning for Organizations (3 credits)    Prerequisites: MGT 330; INF 340; GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
**Please note that some applications in this course may require additional hardware, software, and/or internet connectivity requirements. This includes use of Windows XP with Service Pack 2.0 or higher and broadband Internet access.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Business Leadership

The Bachelor of Arts in Business Leadership focuses on understanding the skills and knowledge necessary to be an effective leader in business organizations. The program emphasizes theory and practice through a comprehensive curriculum of communications, industrial/organizational psychology, conflict management, organizational behavior, social responsibility, motivation, strategic management, and leadership. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obabl.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Business Leadership major graduates will be able to:

  1. Examine the influence of leadership, vision, and strategic planning in a variety of organizations and environments;
  2. Assess the process of leading others in environments increasingly characterized by change and complexity;
  3. Apply principles of human behavior and motivation to maximize use of human resources;
  4. Analyze methods of organization change and development; and
  5. Evaluate the most recent tools and concepts emerging in management and leadership.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
Electives: 35 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

  • BUS 119 Principles of Personal & Organizational Leadership (3 credits)
  • *BUS 250 Corporate & Social Responsibility (3 credits)
  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 318 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330
  • *PSY 302 Industrial/Organizational Psychology (3 credits)
  • BUS 340 Business Communications (3 credits)
  • *COM 325 Communication & Conflict (3 credits)
  • MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
  • MGT 425 Leadership & Motivation (3 credits)
  • MGT 321 Assessing Leadership Skills (3 credits)
  • BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459
  • MGT 450 Strategic Planning for Organizations (3 credits)    Prerequisite: MGT 330
  • MGT 460 Leadership Priorities & Practice (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Consumer and Family Financial Services

The Bachelor of Arts in Consumer and Family Financial Services program is designed to prepare students for careers in insurance, investments, or family financial advisement. While this program provides students with a comprehensive knowledge of business finance, personal financial planning, investment management, life and health insurance, property and casualty insurance, principles of banking, consumer lending, international finance, financial institutions, and trust operations, it is distinct from a pure corporate finance program due to its focus on individual and personal support. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obacffs.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Consumer and Family Financial Services major graduates will be able to:

  1. Analyze and communicate financial information to individual consumers;
  2. Assess legal concepts and their application to the individual investor;
  3. Evaluate the U.S. banking system and its regulation, examination, and control and the personal account limits of the various regulatory agencies;
  4. Asses the role of advisor in the provision of business services to clients;
  5. Develop a life-time financial plan;
  6. Examine the role of life, health, property, and casualty insurance in business and personal financial planning; and
  7. Evaluate various types of investments in terms of their risks and potential returns.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • BUS 215 Personal Financial Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • SRV 301 Introduction to Service Management (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 323 Risk Management & Insurance (3 credits)
  • BUS 342 Financial Planning & Practice (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • BUS 405 Principles of Investments (3 credits)
  • ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I (3 credits)
  • BUS 458 Consumer & Family Finance Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.

Bachelor of Arts in eMarketing

The Bachelor of Arts in eMarketing degree prepares student to compete in areas of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and coordinate the market research, develop marketing strategy, assess sales data, create advertising pieces, promote products or service, initiate pricing policy, participate in product development, and brand management from an e-business perspective. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaem.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

eMarketing major graduates will be able to:

  1. Evaluate marketing situations and make informed marketing decisions;
  2. Examine the significance of global markets and the universal marketing processes to develop global marketing plans applying alternative media approaches;
  3. Apply computer applications used by the e-marketing profession in an e-business solution; and
  4. Assess the business as an integrated system including the relations among the functional business areas, and the application long-range planning, implementation and business control systems.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
  • BUS 336 Marketing Strategy (3 credits)
  • BUS 350 Consumer Behavior (3 credits)
  • BUS 339 Marketing Research (3 credits)
  • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 352 e-Business (3 credits)
  • BUS 455 Internet & Social Media Marketing (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 330 
  • BUS 497 e-Marketing Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.

Bachelor of Arts in Entrepreneurship

Business is inherently entrepreneurial in nature but the skill set and knowledge required to be an entrepreneur are different from those required of other business managers. Ashford University’s Bachelor of Arts in Entrepreneurship curriculum was designed to help emerging entrepreneurs build successful businesses and harness opportunities. The program takes students through a course of study that educates them in sound business principles, preparing a business plan, and how to finance and manage a small business. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obae.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Entrepreneurship major graduates will be able to:

  1. Assess the risks involved in an entrepreneurial venture;
  2. Analyze the impact of the political, legal and ethical environment on entrepreneurial ventures;
  3. Analyze emerging issues facing emerging businesses in competitive markets;
  4. Integrate the functional areas of business in the strategic planning process; and
  5. Construct a business plan for an entrepreneurial venture.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)
  • BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship (3 credits)
  • BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 362
  • BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 362
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • BUS 435 Small Business Ventures (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 362
  • BUS 433 New Business Strategy (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 362
  • BUS 437 Business Plan Development (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 362 and GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Finance

The Bachelor of Arts in Finance provides students with an understanding of financial analysis, financial management, and financial systems. It prepares students for employment in a variety of business fields including credit manager, trust administrator, financial planning, financial services, banking, real estate, corporate financial management, risk management and insurance, and securities sales and management. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaf.

Special Terms and Conditions: A degree in finance prepares a student for many different career options. Some of these career options will require holding specific certifications such as Certified Financial Planner, Chartered Financial Analyst or FINRA registration. While a degree program provides a wide background in the finance field, Ashford University does not guarantee that any student is prepared for any certification examination at the completion of their degree. You are encouraged to research the requirements of each organization so that you can see how your education and work experience can help prepare you for the designation you will need.

Program Outcomes

Finance major graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate problem solving skills including the ability to analyze business and financial conditions;
  2. Apply financial theories to conduct financial analysis;
  3. Understand how to measure and achieve the efficiency use of financial resources;
  4. Evaluate the political, social, legal, regulatory, and technological issues in the context of micro- and macro-finance; and
  5. Understand the business as an integrated system including the relations among the functional areas, and the application long-range planning, implementation and control systems.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • *ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)   
  • ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)    
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • BUS 215 Personal Financial Management (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203
  • BUS 323 Risk Management & Insurance (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • BUS 405 Principles of Investments (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 401
  • BUS 450 International Finance (3 credits)
  • BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205; ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Human Resources Management

The Bachelor of Arts in Human Resources Management degree program is designed for students seeking to acquire a concentration of human resource knowledge within a broad base of business concepts. Students will explore and acquire insights into the relationship between the organization’s ability to implement its strategic intent through the HR organization’s functional areas like recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits. All students must complete a capstone requirement which integrates content across the degree program and validates the students’ knowledge. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obahrm.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

Program Outcomes

Human Resources Management major graduates will be able to:

  1. Evaluate internal and external organizational environments and the impact of their interrelationships on human resource functions;
  2. Analyze the process of job analysis, staffing, appraisal and compensation, training, career planning, and organizational development;
  3. Examine the interaction among management, labor, and labor law;
  4. Assess and develop methods designed to prevent employer liability and labor relation issues (anti-discrimination statutes, employee and labor relations, union and non-union environment issues); and
  5. Analyze the ethical, legal, and safety challenges faced in the workplace.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 23 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 318 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459
  • BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 303
  • BUS 375 Employee Training (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 303
  • HRM 400 Human Resource Technology Management (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 
  • BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: BUS 303
  • MGT 490 Strategic Human Resources Planning (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in International Business

Business is inherently international in nature and the success or even survival of modern multinational enterprises is largely dependent upon highly skilled business professionals competent in international business practices and strategies. The Bachelor of Arts in International Business degree program provides the essential body of knowledge for students seeking well-defined careers in international business and skills required for professional advancement and business prosperity. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaib.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

International Business major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply basic business practices to resolve international business problems;
  2. Assess market globalization factors and typical business strategies for competing in foreign markets;
  3. Construct a country strategic risk assessment that includes all the relevant factors for firms operating overseas or thinking of entering new markets;
  4. Integrate culturally sensitive concepts into team communication; and
  5. Analyze emerging issues facing countries or businesses in international markets.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 35 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 15 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • *COM 360 Advanced Communications in Society (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques (3 credits)
  • *BUS 357 International Business (3 credits)
  • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 378 International Business Law (3 credits)
  • BUS 439 International Human Resources Management (3 credits)
  • *POL 353 Comparative Politics (3 credits)
  • BUS 450 International Finance (3 credits)
  • MGT 492 Strategic Management for the Multinational Enterprise Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Operations Management and Analysis

The Bachelor of Arts in Operations Management and Analysis program prepares students to be operations managers who possess the analytical, problem-solving, and behavioral management skills needed to diagnose problems, improve operating systems, and communicate and gather support for required system improvements that contribute to a business’ success. It prepares students for employment in a variety of business fields, particularly manufacturing, production control, distribution, inventory control, quality management, and supply chain management. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaoma.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Operations Management and Analysis major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply systems analysis to management decisions and operational success;
  2. Assess methods of quality management, product and service development, and learn processes in business operations;
  3. Develop skills in managing projects and programs;
  4. Examine globalization effects on the organization’s operations, supply chain, and product or services production; and
  5. Understand effective decision-making, problem-solving, and technical skills required in management.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 23 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques (3 credits)
  • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103 or Information Technology competency
  • INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ACC 205 and BUS 308 or MAT 332
  • INF 340 Business Systems Analysis (3 credits)    Prerequisite: Information Technology competency
  • BUS 461 Decision Modeling & Analysis (3 credits)    Prerequisites: MGT 330 and BUS 308
  • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 446 Production Operations Control (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 
  • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205; ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Management

The Organizational Management program is designed for students who have work experience and desire to improve their understanding of how organizations function and develop effective skills in management and leadership. The curriculum places emphasis on the human side of managing organizations, allowing for skill development in communication, group behavior, decision making, human resource management, and ethics. Focused attention is given to defining and understanding strategic planning, financial management, law, and marketing areas in which an organizational leader must be knowledgeable to be effective. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaom.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Organizational Management major graduates will be able to:

  1. Examine one’s personal leadership style and determine its appropriateness to various organizational situations;
  2. Demonstrate appropriate decision-making skills in organizational contexts;
  3. Formulate strategies for effective team development;
  4. Analyze alternative solutions for complex business problems;
  5. Compare and contrast individual characteristics that influence work behaviors and organizational effectiveness; and
  6. Analyze the impact of social problems on the workplace at the individual, group, organizational, and societal levels.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
Electives: 35 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

  • BUS 119 Principles of Personal & Organizational Leadership (3 credits)
  • *BUS 250 Corporate and Social Responsibility (3 credits)
  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 318 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)     Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330.
  • *BUS 340 Business Communication (3 credits
  • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits)
  • MGT 450 Strategic Planning for Organizations (3 credits)    Prerequisite: MGT 330
  • MGT 460 Leadership Priorities & Practice (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Transfer Concentration Option

Students may add a transfer concentration to the Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Management program by transferring in 12 applicable credits in a defined subject area. Transfer concentrations are not required and are intended for students who have experience and/or extensive transfer credit coursework in a field of study at the time of admission to the program. The following major courses are designated for substitution with concentration coursework, where appropriate: BUS 119, BUS 250, BUS 340 and MGT 435. For additional details, see Transfer Concentration Guidelines in this section of the Catalog.

Bachelor of Arts in Project Management

The Bachelor of Arts in Project Management program provides students with the critical skills needed to manage projects and lead project teams. Students learn how to initiate, plan, execute, control, and close projects. Students also learn critical skills related to leadership, team development, risk analysis, project cost management, schedule/task control, effective communication, and quality control. This major is also designed to incorporate the core business knowledge appropriate to manage wider organizational processes. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obapm.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this degree by itself does not qualify a student to sit for any certification examinations offered by the Project Management Institute (PMI) including: the Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM), Project Management Professional (PMP), Program Management Professional (PgMP), PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP), PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP), or the PMI Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP). Graduates of this program may meet some of the requirements to sit for PMI certification exams, but, it is the responsibility of each student or graduate to research the requirements for each. In most instances, the requirements to sit for a PMI certification exam include a secondary diploma or a four year degree, and a certain number of documented hours of project management experience.

The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an independent entity not affiliated with Ashford University. Successful completion of this degree does not fully qualify a student for any PMI certification. Students or graduates that are interested in pursuing PMI certifications are strongly encouraged to visit their website (www.pmi.org) for additional information.

Program Outcomes

Project Management major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply proven project management principles to business situations;
  2. Apply current project management best practices to initiate, plan, execute, control, and close a well-documented project;
  3. Examine successful project team development and management strategies;
  4. Assess how project management practices can support organizational effectiveness and the corporate strategic planning process;
  5. Evaluate the role of risk in projects and ways to mitigate its effects;
  6. Examine the application of ethics to the practice of project management; and
  7. Integrate dynamic business data using relevant technology solutions.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)     Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)
  • INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control (3 credits)     Prerequisites: ACC 205 and BUS 308 or MAT 332
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • INF 338 Leadership & Communication Skills for Project Managers (3 credits)    Prerequisites: MGT 330 and Communication I and II competency
  • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)     Prerequisite: INF 103 or Information Technology competency
  • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
  • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
  • BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205; ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Public Administration

The Bachelor of Art in Public Administration is designed for students who seek entry-level management careers in government management at the federal, state, or local level and nonprofit management. Students will receive a solid foundation in public sector practices and processes complemented by coursework in the social sciences. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obapa.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Public Administration major graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate theoretical knowledge for understanding, developing, and implementing public policy and administration;
  2. Integrate academic theory and practical applications;
  3. Apply management theory to the practice of public administration;
  4. Identify relevant political and legal factors in the policy process and analyze their roles critically; and
  5. Judge the ethical components of public responsibility.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 32 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 12 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
  • *POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits)
  • *ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration (3 credits)
  • PPA 303 Finance for Public Administrators (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ECO 203     
  • PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators (3 credits)
  • PPA 307 Intergovernmental Relations & Issues (3 credits)   Prerequisite: PPA 301 
  • PPA 401 Urban Management (3 credits)   Prerequisite: PPA 301 
  • PPA 403 Administrative Law (3 credits)
  • PPA 405 Personnel Management (3 credits)
  • PPA 497 Public Policy Formation (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Public Relations and Marketing

Graduates of the major in Public Relations and Marketing will be able to develop an understanding and mastery of marketing and public relations functions. Emphasis is on creating a repertoire of communication skills in order to become an effective communicator across contexts, as well as to develop competence in using planning skills to create and implement marketing and public relations solutions to meet client’s needs. Graduates will be able to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of marketing and public relations messages and engage in problem analysis, strategic planning, message development, and tactical solutions. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaprm.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Public Relations and Marketing major graduates will be able to:

  1. Develop an understanding and mastery of marketing, and public relations functions;
  2. Create a repertoire of communication skills in order to become an effective communicator across contexts;
  3. Develop competence in using planning skills to create and implement marketing and public relations solutions to meet client’s needs;
  4. Evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of marketing and public relations messages; and
  5. Engage in problem analysis, strategic planning, message development, and tactical solutions.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 29 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
  • BUS 336 Marketing Strategy (3 credits)
  • BUS 339 Marketing Research (3 credits)
  • *BUS 340 Business Communications (3 credits)
  • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
  • BUS 350 Consumer Behavior (3 credits)
  • BUS 352 e-Business (3 credits)
  • *CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business (3 credits)
  • CGD 240 Media Writing & Editing (3 credits)
  • CGD 318 Public Relations Practices & Promotional Writing (3 credits)
  • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • BUS 421 PR/Marketing Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Real Estate Studies

The Bachelor of Arts in Real Estate Studies degree prepares student for a career in the real estate profession. The curriculum incorporates a rich foundation of general business with the specialized advanced core in real estate studies. The real estate major prepares students for careers in mortgage lending, development, equity investment, brokerage and sales, valuation, consulting, property and asset management, etc. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obares.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this degree does not guarantee that any state real estate licensing agency will accept a students or a graduate’s application to sit for or successfully complete any such exam. In addition, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for a certification or as a qualifying academic credential for membership in such professional organization.

Most US states require licensing to perform various professional activities associated with real estate business services. Such licensing may require an examination performed by designated controlling state agencies. If students or graduates are interested in pursuing any state licenses, they are strongly encouraged to research their local state real estate agency’s requirements for licensure.

Program Outcomes

Real Estate Studies major graduates will be able to:

  • Assess real estate professional governance and licensing in the states and how such laws and systems benefit consumers;
  • Examine essential real estate business practices;
  • Apply real estate law, contract law, and Uniform Commercial Code in solving complex real estate problems;
  • Discern how economic, demographic, dynamic, and market trends influence real estate and real estate valuations; and
  • Examine basic real estate financial markets and financing methods most commonly applied to single family residences, multiple family residences, and commercial properties.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 23 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • RES 301 Principles of Real Estate (3 credits)
  • RES 325 Real Estate Practice (3 credits)
  • RES 327 Real Estate Economics (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • RES 334 Real Estate Finance (3 credits)
  • RES 345 Legal Aspects of Real Estate (3 credits)
  • RES 429 Property Management (3 credits)
  • RES 431 Commercial Real Estate Investment (3 credits)
  • RES 450 Real Estate Appraisal (3 credits)
  • RES 497 Strategic Management of the Real Estate Enterprise (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.

Bachelor of Arts in Service Management

The Bachelor of Arts in Service Management with specializations program is designed to provide the knowledge and skills to be effective in one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. The course of study prepares students to deliver services that include all internal and external activities of organizations aimed at customer acquisition, retention and care. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit http://www.ashford.edu/pd/obasm.

Because careers may range from consultant and specialist jobs to management tasks within the numerous fields and functions in the service sector, students must select a specialization in this program. Specializations include Non-profit Enterprise, Hospitality Enterprise, Restaurant Enterprise Management, and Retail Management.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Service Management major graduates will be able to:

  1. Assess service logistics in a variety of service environments;
  2. Apply various service systems to construct customer relationship platforms;
  3. Integrate innovative practices and processes designed to increase the performance of a service organization;
  4. Develop new human capital strategies in service organizations; and
  5. Design service metrics based on the needs of a service organization.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 23-26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits in the major and 3 credits in the Non-Profit Enterprise specialization may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (33 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits) Prerequisite: ACC 205
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • SRV 301 Introduction to Service Management (3 credits)
  • SRV 312 Service Operations Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 340 Marketing in a Services Environment (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits)    Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205; ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499

Choose one specialization from the following:

Hospitality Enterprise Specialization (12 credits)

  • SRV 332 Fundamentals of Hospitality (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 333 Resort Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 423 Food & Beverage Control (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 425 Event, Meeting, & Conference Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301

Retail Management Specialization (12 credits)

  • BUS 337 Principles of Retail Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
  • BUS 441 Retail Pricing Management (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ECO 204 and SRV 340
  • BUS 442 Retail Merchandising (3 credits)

Non-Profit Enterprise Specialization (12 credits)

  • *SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives (3 credits)
  • BUS 318 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)
  • SRV 428 Non-Profit Agency Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 429 Fiscal Management of Nonprofit Organizations (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301

Restaurant Enterprise Management Specialization (12 credits)

  • SRV 346 Introduction to Restaurant Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 347 Sanitation & Safety (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 438 Menu Planning & Design (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301
  • SRV 423 Food & Beverage Control (3 credits)    Prerequisite: SRV 301

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Sports and Recreation Management

The Sports and Recreation Management major helps to prepare professionals for managerial positions in the sports and recreation industry including professional, intercollegiate, and interscholastic sports; sport/fitness clubs; sports/athletics equipment merchandising; public, private, and commercial recreation programs; and intramural and recreational sports.

Students complete coursework in the following areas: accounting, business, economics, English, information systems, philosophy, physical education, sociology, speech, and psychology. The curriculum consists of learning experiences that are essential for assuming entry-level business management positions in the sports and recreation profession. Students completing the required coursework will be exposed to various theories of management in the field of business administration, exhibit college-level writing and speaking skills, and acquire a knowledge base in the field of sports and recreation management. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obasrm.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.

Program Outcomes

Sports and Recreation Management major graduates will be able to:

  1. Integrate knowledge from sports recreation and business administration fields;
  2. Apply theory to practice;
  3. Communicate effectively in a variety of modalities; and
  4. Apply business procedures to team and facilities management.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 29 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • *CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business (3 credits)
  • CGD 318 Public Relations Practices & Promotional Writing (3 credits)
  • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
  • *BUS 340 Business Communications (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques (3 credits)
  • SRM 401 Sport Finance (3 credits)    Prerequesite: ACC 205
  • SRM 311 Sport Law (3 credits)
  • *ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
  • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • SRM 320 Organization & Administration of Sports & Recreation Management (3 credits)
  • SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management (3 credits)
  • SRM 325 Case Research in Sports & Recreation Management (3 Credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.

Bachelor of Arts in Supply Chain Management

The Bachelor of Arts in Supply Chain Management program focuses on effective management of supply chain processes and information flows that optimize activities and costs to serve the customer efficiently and effectively. Production schedules, procurement, transportation services, quality, and warehousing management activities are studied as individual functions as well as strategic relationships among the functions. Emphasis is placed on problem solving, logical thinking, and development of accurate management assessments. This major is also designed to incorporate the core business knowledge appropriate to manage wider organizational processes. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obascm.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this degree by itself does not qualify students to obtain any certifications from The Association for Operations Management (APICS). Also, successful completion of this degree does not by itself qualify students to sit for the APICS Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP) certificate examination. The requirements to sit for the CSCP certificate examination include a combination of education and documented supply chain management experience. Conversely, the APICS Certified in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM) certificate does not have any requirements to take the five examinations which are required to obtain CPIM certification, aside from exam registration fees.

Students or graduates interested in pursuing the APICS CSCP or the APICS CPIM certification are strongly encouraged to visit the APICS website (www.apics.org) for additional information.

Similarly, successful completion of this degree by itself does not qualify students to obtain any certifications from The American Purchasing Society or sit for any of their certification examinations. If a student or graduate is interested in pursuing certifications offered by this professional association including: the Certified Purchasing Professional (CPP), the Certified Professional Purchasing Manager (CPPM), and the Certified Professional Purchasing Consultant (CPPC), they are strongly encouraged to visit The American Purchasing Society portal (www.american-purchasing.com). Some of the prerequisites for eligibility for certification are a minimum of three years purchasing related experience or a degree from a recognized college, plus two years of purchasing related experience. Information on other prerequisites and requirements for certification is available at www.american-purchasing.com.

Program Outcomes

Supply Chain Management major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply proven supply chain management principles to business situations;
  2. Examine globalization effects on the organization’s supply chain and product or services production.
  3. Evaluate an appropriate supply chain design for a given application.
  4. Analyze the implications of supply chain management to organizational effectiveness;
  5. Assess supply chain performance using information technology.
  6. Integrate supply chain goals with the corporate strategic planning process.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 23 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (45 credits)

  • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
  • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
  • *ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
  • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
  • ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)     Prerequisites: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
  • ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
  • INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103 or Information Technology competency
  • ^BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques (3 credits)
  • MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: MGT 330
  • MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: MGT 330
  • MGT 370 International Supply Chain Management (3 credits)
  • MGT 300 Supply Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
  • BUS 461 Decision Modeling & Analysis    (3 credits)    Prerequisites: MGT 330 and BUS 308
  • MGT 496 Strategic Warehouse Management    (3 credits)    Prerequisites: MGT 330 and GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

College of Education: Undergraduate Programs and Requirements

Associate of Arts in Early Childhood Education

The Associate of Arts in Early Childhood Education is designed around courses that are grounded in the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) standards, developmentally appropriate practices based upon best practices in child development research, center-based curriculum, and professionalism. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/oaaece.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state’s education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher’s license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford’s online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits.State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University’s online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University’s online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Kentucky Residents: Please be advised that although Ashford University College of Education offers a variety of programs aimed at preparing potential educators in diverse settings, our K-12 educator preparation programs are NOT accredited in Kentucky by the Education Professional Standards Board and are NOT recognized for initial, additional, or renewal of certification or salary enhancement (rank change) for K-12 educators in Kentucky. For more information, please visit the Education Professional Standards Board’s website at http://www.epsb.ky.gov/certification/outofstate.asp.

Washington Residents: This program is not intended to lead to teacher certification. Teachers are advised to contact their individual school districts as to whether this program may qualify for salary advancement.

Program Outcomes

Students who successfully complete the Associate of Arts in Early Childhood Education degree program will be able to:

  1. Construct and evaluate curriculum designed to meet the differentiated academic, social and developmental needs of young children in alignment with the NAEYC standards;
  2. Effectively utilize and evaluate assessment information as both formative and summative to inform and adapt instruction;
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of a wide range of instructional strategies and behavioral techniques to address the developmental needs of various ages of young children in a structured setting;
  4. Identify knowledge of the unique needs of special learners and adapt curriculum and instruction to meet these needs; and
  5. Identify the stages of language, physical and social development in children ages birth to eight.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 67 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *49 credits
Core Requirements: *21 credits
*In this program, 6 credits from the core may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Core Requirements (21 credits)

  • ART 101 Art Appreciation (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Cultural and Aesthetic Awareness requirement
  • ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education (3 credits)
  • ECE 201 Introduction to Early Childhood Behavior Management (3 credits)
  • ECE 203 Introduction to Curriculum & Instruction for the Early Childhood Classroom (3 credits)
  • ECE 205 Introduction to Child Development (3 credits)
  • ELL 240 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Diversity Awareness requirement
  • PED 212 Foundations of Movement & Motor Activities (3 credits)

General Education Requirements (49 credits)

  • PSY 202 Adult Development & Life Assessment (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Social and Personal Awareness requirement
  • ENG 121 English Composition I (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Communication I Competency requirement
  • GEN 103 Information Literacy (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Information Technology Competency requirement
  • ENG 122 English Composition II (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Communication II Competency requirement
  • ENG 125 Introduction to Literature (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Literature requirement
  • COM 200 Interpersonal Communication (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Communication III Competency requirement
  • HIS 103 World Civilizations I (3 credits) Satisfies General Education History requirement
  • *MAT 221 Introduction to Algebra (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Mathematical Competency Prerequisite requirement
  • MAT 222 Intermediate Algebra (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Mathematical Competency requirement
  • PHI 103 Informal Logic (3 credits) Satisfies General Education Critical Thinking Competency requirement
  • PHI 208 Ethics & Moral Reasoning (3 credits) Satisfies a General Education Humanities requirement
  • POL 201 American National Government (3 credits) Satisfies a General Education Political Science requirement
  • SCI 207 Our Dependence upon the Environment (4 credits) Satisfies General Education Science requirement
  • SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (3 credits) Satisfies a General Education Applied Ethics requirement

* Students who waive MAT 221 are required to take 64 total program credits in order to meet graduation requirements.

Associate of Arts in Early Childhood Education Graduation Requirements

To be eligible for an Associate of Arts in Early Childhood Education degree, a student must successfully accomplish the following:

  • Completion of all program/course requirements;
  • Completion of a minimum of 67 credits. Additional prerequisite courses may be required;
  • Minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all coursework attempted at the University; and
  • At least 18 credits earned toward the Associate of Arts degree must be completed at Ashford University.

    Note: The date of degree conferral recorded on the student’s transcript and diploma will reflect the date the student completes all academic degree requirements. However, release of transcripts, diplomas, and verifications for degrees awarded are contingent upon submission of the Petition to Graduate form, payment of the graduation fee, and payment of any outstanding balances with the University.

The degree will be noted on the transcript as an Associate of Arts in Early Childhood Education.

Bachelor of Arts in Child Development

The Child Development major will focus on a comprehensive study of children (infancy through adolescence), and the family, cultural, peer, school and neighborhood contexts that influence the development of children. With an increasing attention to the importance of factors impacting the development of children, the Child Development major will provide investigation and knowledge of the development of children. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obacd.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Program Outcomes

Child Development major graduates will be able to:

  1. Utilize knowledge of child development to construct and evaluate curriculum that effectively addresses the stages of development including cognitive, language, physical and affective development of young children;
  2. Analyze the influence and impact of families and communities on a child’s learning and development;
  3. Describe how family structure and cultural backgrounds influence communication processes in a child’s environment;
  4. Evaluate the critical role of play in children’s learning and development; and
  5. Apply their knowledge as an advocate for children, families, childcare and education.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
Electives: 29 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development (3 credits)
  • ECE 205 Introduction to Child Development (3 credits)
  • *SOC 312 Child, Family & Society (3 credits)
  • ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children (3 credits)
  • ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students (3 credits)
  • ECE 332 Child Development (3 credits)
  • ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children (3 credits)
  • ECE 354 Assessment & Intervention During Early Childhood (3 credits)
  • ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics (3 credits)
  • ECE 311 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods (3 credits)
  • ECE 351 Play & Learning for the Young Child (3 credits)
  • ECE 497 Child Development Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Cognitive Studies

Cognitive Studies is a versatile degree offering which includes the study of the mind, brain, and learning. This is a growing field of study due to technological advances that have allowed us to examine the brain and brain functioning. This degree is an interdisciplinary study with courses in psychology, education, and neuroscience. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obacos.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Program Outcomes

Cognitive Studies major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply knowledge of brain functioning to teaching and learning;
  2. Examine life span development and the impact of developmental delays;
  3. Identify the unique needs of learners with cognitive or developmental delays and programs to address these needs;
  4. Identify changes in the child and adult brain over time and the impact on cognitive functioning; and
  5. Acquire and apply foundational research skills to a topic of interest in an area of cognitive studies.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
Electives: 29 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • *PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
  • ECE 205 Introduction to Child Development (3 credits)
  • ESE 370 Learning & the Brain (3 credits)
  • EDU 338 Human Development & Learning (3 credits)
  • ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students (3 credits)
  • ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children (3 credits)
  • EDU 411 Reading & Cognition or EDU 362 Adult Learning & Instruction (3 credits)
  • EDU 382 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners (3 credits)
  • PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
  • PSY 323 Perception, Learning, & Cognition (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
  • EDU 416 Intelligence Assessment (3 credits)
  • EDU 417 Cognitive Studies Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

 

Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education

The Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education major prepares students for a career in education. Upon completion of coursework in childhood development, curricula, and program development, students will be well acquainted with the education industry, be highly trained in various theories of childhood development, and exhibit advanced instructional skills. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaece.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Kentucky Residents: Please be advised that although Ashford University College of Education offers a variety of programs aimed at preparing potential educators in diverse settings, our K-12 educator preparation programs are NOT accredited in Kentucky by the Education Professional Standards Board and are NOT recognized for initial, additional, or renewal of certification or salary enhancement (rank change) for K-12 educators in Kentucky. For more information, please visit the Education Professional Standards Board’s website at http://www.epsb.ky.gov/certification/outofstate.asp.

Washington Residents: This program is not intended to lead to teacher certification. Teachers are advised to contact their individual school districts as to whether this program may qualify for salary advancement.

Program Outcomes

Early Childhood Education major graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of child development principles, including cognitive, language, physical and affective domains, in creating environments that are healthy, supportive, and challenging for children;
  2. Analyze the influence and impact of families and communities on a child’s learning and development;
  3. Design and assessment developmentally appropriate strategies and programs promoting positive development and learning for children;
  4. Identify components of personnel management in the recruiting, hiring, and maintenance of staff in quality child care settings; and
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of fiscal, legal, ethical, and program requirements in a quality child care settings.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education (3 credits)
  • ECE 214 Nutrition & Health of Children & Families (3 credits)
  • ECE 332 Child Development (3 credits)
  • *SOC 312 Child, Family & Society (3 credits)
  • PED 212 Foundations of Movement & Motor Activities (3 credits)
  • ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children (3 credits)
  • ECE 311 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods (3 credits)
  • ECE 335 Children’s Literature (3 credits)
  • ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students (3 credits)
  • ECE 313 Collaboration with Parents & Community (3 credits)
  • ECE 312 Administration of Early Childhood Education Programs (3 credits)
  • ECE 405 Children & Families in a Diverse Society (3 credits)
  • ECE 430 Early Childhood Education Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education Administration

The Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education Administration prepares students for a career in early childcare administration. Upon completion of coursework in organizational behavior and management, childhood development, and curricula and program administration, students will be well acquainted with the education industry, be highly trained in various theories of childhood development, and exhibit advanced organizational management skills. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaecea.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Kentucky Residents: Please be advised that although Ashford University College of Education offers a variety of programs aimed at preparing potential educators in diverse settings, our K-12 educator preparation programs are NOT accredited in Kentucky by the Education Professional Standards Board and are NOT recognized for initial, additional, or renewal of certification or salary enhancement (rank change) for K-12 educators in Kentucky. For more information, please visit the Education Professional Standards Board’s website at http://www.epsb.ky.gov/certification/outofstate.asp.

Washington Residents: This program is not intended to lead to teacher certification. Teachers are advised to contact their individual school districts as to whether this program may qualify for salary advancement.

Program Outcomes

Early Childhood Education Administration major graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of child development principles, including cognitive, language, physical and affective domains, in creating environments that are healthy, supportive, and challenging for children;
  2. Analyze the influence and impact of families and communities on a child’s learning and development;
  3. Design and assess developmentally appropriate strategies and programs promoting positive development and learning for children;
  4. Apply leadership principles in directing and managing a child care setting;
  5. Identify components of personnel management in the recruiting, hiring, and maintenance of staff in quality child care settings; and
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of fiscal, legal, ethical, and program requirements in administrating quality child care settings.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education (3 credits)
  • ECE 214 Nutrition & Health of Children & Families (3 credits)
  • ECE 332 Child Development (3 credits)
  • *SOC 312 Child, Family & Society (3 credits)
  • ECE 311 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods (3 credits)
  • ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students (3 credits)
  • ECE 313 Collaboration with Parents & Community (3 credits)
  • ECE 312 Administration of Early Childhood Education Programs (3 credits)
  • MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
  • MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations (3 credits)
  • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
  • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
  • ECE 430 Early Childhood Education Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies

The Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies program is designed to provide the foundational knowledge and skills needed to understand and work in education in a variety of settings. Although this BA does not provide teacher certification or licensure, the course of study prepares students to work with students in a variety of capacities or to continue their education in a Post-Baccalaureate program to complete their teaching degree requirements. Careers in the field of education or working with students may include any of the following settings: business, public sector, education, childcare, recreation centers, nonprofit organizations, health and human services, counseling, social work, psychology, career services, sociology, and public administration. Education specializations that may be included with this degree include Early Childhood Education, Child Development, Instructional Design, and English Language Learner Studies. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaeds.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Kentucky Residents: Please be advised that although Ashford University College of Education offers a variety of programs aimed at preparing potential educators in diverse settings, our K-12 educator preparation programs are NOT accredited in Kentucky by the Education Professional Standards Board and are NOT recognized for initial, additional, or renewal of certification or salary enhancement (rank change) for K-12 educators in Kentucky. For more information, please visit the Education Professional Standards Board’s website at http://www.epsb.ky.gov/certification/outofstate.asp.

Missouri Students: Contact the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, Routes to Certification at 573-751-0051 or at http://dese.mo.gov/eq/cert/routes-to-certification.htm to verify additional coursework and/or other requirements and how those requirements can be met in Missouri.

Washington Residents: This program is not intended to lead to teacher certification. Teachers are advised to contact their individual school districts as to whether this program may qualify for salary advancement.

Program Outcomes

Education Studies major graduates will be able to:

  1. Design effective curriculum, instruction and assessment to meet the needs of diverse learners;|
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of child and adolescent development in the cognitive, social, physical, and emotional domains;
  3. Identify the unique needs of special learners and adapt curriculum and instruction to meet these needs;
  4. Apply alignment practices of standards, instruction and assessment to identified academic, district and state standards, goals and priorities as part of the planning and material selection process; and
  5. Apply foundational research skills to a topic of interest in an area of education.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
Electives: 35 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

Introduction

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • EDU 304 Introduction to Education (3 credits)

Foundation

  • *EDU 324 History of American Education (3 credits)
  • *EDU 372 Educational Psychology (3 credits)
  • ESE 370 Learning & the Brain (3 credits) 
  • PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development (3 credits)

Methodology

  • EDU 381 Curriculum & Instructional Design (3 credits)
  • EDU 382 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners (3 credits)

Literacy

  • EDU 371 Phonics-Based Reading & Decoding (3 credits)    Prerequisite: EDU 372

Technology and Diverse Populations

  • EDU 321 Introduction to Serving English Language Learners (3 credits)
  • EDU 352 Foundations of Educational Technology (3 credits)

Capstone

  • EDU 498 Education Studies Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in English Language Learner Studies

The Bachelor of Arts in English Language Learner Studies major focuses on a comprehensive study of the broad application of linguistics in addressing second language learning needs. The program of study is designed around courses that are grounded in the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) standards. This program addresses English Language Development (ELD) as it applies to its five stages for children and adults. The program focuses on best practices to deliver instruction in research-based four square and sheltered models to address ELD standards that map to national consortiums as well as support the Common Core Standards for K-12 learners. In addition, to prepare those who will address adult ELL populations, a concentration on adult learner models and authentic learning activities is embedded in the program curriculum. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaells.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Program Outcomes

English Language Learner Studies major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply concepts, linguistic theories, research, knowledge of the structure of English, and sociolinguistics to facilitate the acquisition of English for English Language Learners;
  2. Analyze the influences of culture and diversity as it affects second language learning;
  3. Apply knowledge of meta-linguistics in second language development in constructing multiple identities;
  4. Describe standards-based practices and strategies for developing and integrating English listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in instructional settings; and
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of history, research and current practices in the field of second language acquisition and ELL.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
Electives: 29 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • EDU 321 Introduction to Serving English Language Learners (3 credits)
  • *ELL 240 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners (3 credits)
  • ELL 242 Understanding & Teaching English Language (3 credits)
  • ELL 354 Grammar in a Second Language (3 credits)
  • ELL 355 Methods, Materials, & Technology for Learning a Second Language (3 credits)
  • ELL 351 Listening & Speaking in a Second Language (3 credits)
  • ELL 353 Reading & Writing in a Second Language (3 credits)
  • ELL 357 English Language Teaching & Adult Learners (3 credits)
  • ELL 420 Testing & Assessment for ELL Students (3 credits)
  • ELL 359 Contemporary Issues in English Language Instruction (3 credits)
  • ELL 361 Language Learning in a Global Context (3 credits)
  • ELL 497 English Language Learner Studies Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

*Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Instructional Design

The Bachelor of Arts in Instructional Design program prepares students to design training and instruction for online, place-based, and blended learning environments. Students develop expertise with instructional design theories, practices, and technologies through realistic project-based assessments that ensure preparation for practicing instructional design within corporate, government, military, non-profit, school, university, and consulting contexts. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaid.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Program Outcomes

Instructional Design major graduates will be able to:

  1. Design instructional and training interventions and assessments for online, place-based, and blended delivery;
  2. Apply the results of learning, task, performance, and other analyses to the design of training and instruction;
  3. Apply evaluations of technologies for developing, delivering, and assessing instructional and training interventions;
  4. Distinguish how different principles and theories of learning, design, and assessment influence design processes and outcomes;
  5. Develop plans to manage collaborative processes and participants typically involved in an instructional design project; and
  6. Respond appropriately to ethical, legal, and political factors influencing instructional design projects for diverse learners and contexts.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: 52 credits
Major Course Requirements: 39 credits
Electives: 26 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • ESE 370 Learning & the Brain (3 credits)
  • EDU 120 Principles of Instructional Design (3 credits)
  • EDU 232 Instructional Design for E-Learning (3 credits)    Prerequisite: EDU 120     
  • EDU 335 Design Concepts & Application (3 credits)    Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232 
  • EDU 337 Collaboration in the Virtual Classroom (3 credits)    Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232
  • EDU 356 Emerging Issues in Educational Technology (3 credits)     Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232
  • EDU 358 Assessment of Student Learning (3 credits)   Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232 
  • EDU 336 Evaluation of E-Learning (3 credits)    Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232 
  • EDU 362 Adult Learning & Instruction (3 credits)    
  • EDU 431 Advanced Instructional Design (3 credits)    Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232
  • EDU 433 Project Management for Instructional Design (3 credits)    Prerequisites: EDU 120 and 232
  • EDU 496 Capstone Instructional Design (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

Bachelor of Arts in Library Science and Media

Library Science and Media is a growing field. In addition to programming and developing collections, librarians in the 21st century are charged with managing various informational literacies including digital resources. As technology continues to advance and as institutions continue to develop their virtual presence, librarians will play an essential role in supporting research and informational systems. The evolving role of librarians and the training necessary to become 21st century information experts will be explored through coursework in this degree program. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obalsm.

Certification and Licensure Terms and Conditions: An online degree from Ashford University does not lead to immediate teacher licensure in any state. If you want to become a classroom teacher, contact your state's education authorities prior to enrolling at Ashford to determine what state-specific requirements you must complete before obtaining your teacher's license. Ashford graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a state-by-state basis that will include one or more of the following: student teaching or practicum experience, additional coursework, additional testing, or, if the state requires a specific type of degree to seek alternative certification, earning an additional degree. None of Ashford's online education programs are CAEP, TEAC or NCATE accredited, which is a requirement for certification in some states. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure or employment in this field of study. All prospective students are advised to visit the Education Resource Organizations Directory (EROD) and to contact the licensing body of the state where they are licensed or intend to obtain licensure to verify that these courses qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits in that state prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s policies and procedures relating to licensure as those policies are subject to change.

*The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) is the resulting entity from the merger of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).

Alabama Students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 334-353-8567 or www.alsde.edu to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits. State authorization to provide a program related to the preparation of teachers or other P-12 school/system personnel does not indicate eligibility for an Alabama certificate. Applicants who complete an educator preparation program at an institution outside of Alabama must apply for an Alabama professional educator or professional leadership certificate through the Alabama Certificate Reciprocity Approach. Current requirements may be found at www.alsde.edu.

Georgia Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Georgia. In Georgia, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Hawaii Students: An education degree offered through Ashford University's online modality does not lead to teacher licensure in the state of Hawaii. In Hawaii, an alternative route to certification is not available.

Program Outcomes

Library Science and Media major graduates will be able to:

  1. Apply the concepts and tools of inquiry to create learning environments and experiences to include multiple environments;
  2. Evaluate technology tools and applications for effective instructional delivery and research applications;
  3. Create learning opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners and cultures;
  4. Analyze media, literature and materials for inclusion in specific settings and programs, including multiple modalities; and,
  5. Develop research skills and strategies to support accurate, efficient and appropriate information acquisition.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: 52 credits
Major Course Requirements: 33 credits
Electives: 32 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (33 credits)

  • EDU 100 Issues in Education (3 credits)    Prerequisites: GEN 103 and ENG 122
  • EDU 304 Introduction to Education (3 credits)
  • EDU 381 Curriculum & Instructional Design (3 credits)
  • EDU 382 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners (3 credits)
  • EDU 352 Foundations of Educational Technology (3 credits)
  • EDU 411 Reading & Cognition (3 credits)
  • EDU 367 Elementary & Secondary School Media (3 credits)
  • EDU 440 Information Literacy (3 credits)
  • EDU 441 Research & Analysis Skills (3 credits)
  • EDU 443 Literature for Children & Teens (3 credits)
  • EDU 495 Library Science & Media Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

College of Health, Human Services, and Science: Undergraduate Programs and Requirements

Bachelor of Arts in Applied Behavioral Science

The Bachelor of Arts in Applied Behavioral Science is a generalist degree with an interdisciplinary emphasis. Providing a foundation from the social and behavioral sciences, the degree program teaches students to utilize critical thinking to understand behavior and solve societal problems at the individual, family, and community level. An interdisciplinary approach is utilized to assist students in developing an overview of the diversity of societal problems, and the interdisciplinary framework for solutions. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaabs.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

Program Outcomes

Applied Behavioral Science major graduates will be able to:

  1. Analyze major concepts, theoretical perspectives, and empirical findings to solve complex problems in the field of study;
  2. Compose effective communications in a variety of formats for assessment, evaluation, and/or intervention purposes;
  3. Apply the principles of the scientific method to assessment, evaluation, and intervention at intrapersonal and interpersonal levels;
  4. Explain the value of empirical evidence, acting ethically, and acknowledging and respecting human diversity; and
  5. Utilize the scientific approach to address practical problems related to the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals in social contexts.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
Electives: 32 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

  • *PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
  • ABS 200 Introduction to Applied Behavioral Sciences (3 credits)
  • SOC 203 Social Problems (3 credits)
  • COM 321 Communication Theory (3 credits)
  • PSY 304 Lifespan Development (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
  • PSY 301 Social Psychology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
  • *SOC 320 Public Policy & Social Services (3 credits)
  • ^PSY 325 Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences (3 credits)
  • PSY 326 Research Methods (3 credits)
  • ABS 300 Psychological Assessment (3 credits)
  • PSY 352 Cognitive Psychology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 and PSY 326
  • SOC 402 Contemporary Social Problems & the Workplace (3 credits)
  • ABS 497 Applied Behavioral Sciences Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

Bachelor of Arts in Complementary and Alternative Health

This degree provides students the opportunity to study the history and delivery of major non-allopathic health systems including but not limited to the following: Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Naturopathic Medicine, Biofeedback, Herbal Medicines, Chiropractic Medicine, Acupuncture, Hypnosis, Acupressure, Reiki, Reflexology, Energy Systems, and Transpersonal Health such as meditation, hypnosis, and prayer. Students analyze complementary and alternative health studies as well as identify usage trends, and integration into health services and disease management from multi-cultural perspectives. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obacah.

Special Terms and Conditions: Please note, each of the professions previously listed may require additional study for certification, licensing, or licensing examination preparation. Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

Program Outcomes

Complementary and Alternative Health major graduates will be able to:

  1. Explore the history and practice of non-allopathic health systems;
  2. Examine cultural influences as related to complementary and alternative health practices;
  3. Analyze complementary and alternative health usage trends;
  4. Differentiate major complementary and alternative health systems;
  5. Examine complementary and alternative health practices integrated into U.S. health care delivery;
  6. Analyze research in complementary and alternative health; and
  7. Examine components of holistic health care service and delivery.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
Electives: 35 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

  • *ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (3 credits)
  • HWE 200 Introduction to Health & Wellness (3 credits)
  • HCS 326 Holistic Health (3 credits)
  • HCS 316 Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness (3 credits)
  • HCS 321 Foundations of Complementary & Alternative Health (3 credits)
  • *SOC 313 Social Implications of Medical Issues (3 credits)   
  • HCS 339 Introduction to Western Herbalism; Basic Doctrine, Energetics and Classifications (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HCS 321 and HCS 326
  • HCA 415 Community & Public Health (3 credits)
  • HCA 430 Special Populations (3 credits)
  • HCS 435 Spirituality, Health, & Healing (3 credits)
  • HPR 460 Analysis of Health Research (3 credits)
  • HCS 495 Complementary & Alternative Health Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Gerontology

This degree provides a foundation of the biological, psychological, social, spiritual, and developmental aspects of aging and longevity. A multidisciplinary perspective promotes student exploration of the needs and influences of the growing population of senior citizens, and their impact on multiple aspects of society. Multiculturalism, social, and ethical issues of aging and longevity are explored within the multidisciplinary context of the major. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obag.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

Program Outcomes

Gerontology major graduates will be able to:

  1. Examine interdisciplinary aspects of aging;
  2. Analyze social policy and the aging continuum;
  3. Examine legal, ethical, and financial factors influencing aging independence;
  4. Examine social support service models for the aging;
  5. Analyze multicultural perspectives on aging;
  6. Analyze the mental, physical, social, spiritual, and developmental aspects of aging;
  7. Analyze contemporary theory and research in gerontology;
  8. Analyze the aging population demographics relative to the impact on society past, present, and future; and
  9. Examine emerging service delivery models for the aging.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
Electives: 41 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 12 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

  • *SOC 322 Sociological Aspects of Adulthood (3 credits)
  • GRO 200 Introduction to Gerontology (3 credits)
  • GRO 202 Psychology of Aging (3 credits)  
  • GRO 325 Aging & Health (3 credits)
  • *GRO 330 Social Policy & Aging (3 credits)
  • GRO 338 Mental Well-Being & Aging (3 credits)
  • *SOC 326 Diversity & Aging (3 credits)
  • GRO 410 Death & Dying (3 credits)
  • *GRO 440 Ethics & Legal Aspects of Aging (3 credits)
  • HCA 442 Contemporary Issues in Aging (3 credits)
  • PSY 326 Research Methods (3 credits)
  • GRO 497 Gerontology Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Health and Human Services

The Bachelor of Arts in Health and Human Services is an interdisciplinary degree program preparing students to work in diverse entry level positions in health and human services. Emphasis of the major is on the delivery of health and human services to diverse populations, in the context of the current and emerging political, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and regulatory environment. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obahhs.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

Program Outcomes

Health and Human Services major graduates will be able to:

  1. Analyze health and human services delivery from political, socioeconomic, and psychosocial perspectives;
  2. Evaluate social and human delivery systems at the individual, family, group, organization, and community levels;
  3. Analyze social problems within the context of health care environments;
  4. Evaluate ethical issues and challenges inherent in the provision of health and human services, and service provision;
  5. Analyze human behaviors within the health and human services context;
  6. Evaluate health and human services issues, challenges, and interventions;
  7. Discuss the provision of health and human services from multi-cultural perspectives; and
  8. Identify effective communication components and strategies with diverse health and human services constituents.

Program Requirements

Total number of credits required: 120 credits
Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
General Education Requirements: *52 credits
Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
Electives: 38 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

  • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

  • HHS 201 Introduction to Human Services (3 credits)
  • *HHS 207 Communication Skills for Health & Human Service Personnel (3 credits)
  • HHS 310 Health & Human Services Culture: The Helping Relationship (3 credits)
  • HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care (3 credits)
  • *SOC 313 Social Implications of Medical Issues (3 credits)    
  • HCA 415 Community & Public Health (3 credits)
  • *HHS 320 Cultural Awareness in the Human Services (3 credits)
  • HCA 430 Special Populations (3 credits)
  • HHS 435 Contemporary Issues, Trends, Health Law Ethics in Health & Human Services (3 credits)
  • HIM 301 Introduction to Health Informatics (3 credits)
  • HHS 460 Research Methods in Health & Human Services (3 credits)
  • HHS 497 Health & Human Services Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

* Satisfies General Education requirements.

Bachelor of Arts in Health and Wellness

This degree explores the dimensions of health and wellness and their relationship to health status and disease and injury prevention. Through a holistic wellness perspective, students study the implications of positive and negative health practices impacting physical, social, occupational, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and environmental health. Students examine major health risks and diseases affecting contemporary society, and explore the principal ways to promote health and wellness through lifestyle and behavioral change throughout the lifespan. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obahw.

Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

Program Outcomes

Health and Wellness major graduates will be able to:

  1. Describe the function of the human body;
  2. Examine chronic conditions and diseases;
  3. Analyze lifestyle factors which affect health and wellness;
  4. Assess the health and wellness status of individuals;
  5. Develop personalized wellness programs using evidenced-based strategies;
  6. Apply behavior change theories, motivational strategies, and counseling techniques to implementation plans of wellness programs;
  7. Employ cultural competence in wellness programming; and
  8. Evaluate the effectiveness of wellness programs.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *37 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 4 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (37 credits)

    • HWE 200 Introduction to Health & Wellness (3 credits)
    • *HPR 205 The Human Body, Health, & Disease (4 credits)
    • HCS 308 Introduction to Nutritional Concepts (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HWE 200
    • HWE 330 Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Physiology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HPR 205
    • HCS 334 Personal Fitness & Wellness for Optimal Living (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HPR 205 and HWE 200
    • HWE 340 Exercise & Physiology (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 330
    • PSY 361 Health Psychology (3 credits)
    • PSY 380 Counseling and Behavior Change (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HWE 200 and PSY 361
    • HWE 415 Stress Management (3 credits)   Prerequisite: HWE 200
    • HWE 420 Wellness for Special Populations (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HWE 200, HWE 330, HWE 340, and HCS 334
    • HPR 460 Analysis of Health Research (3 credits)
    • HWE 498 Health & Wellness Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499    

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Administration

    The Health Care Administration major provides foundational knowledge in health-related topics, operations, and applications for those working in or seeking careers in the rapidly growing healthcare industry. The degree is characterized by an interdisciplinary and integrated learning approach, reflecting the realities of the healthcare system. Specific curriculum in health administration, regulation and financing, health care planning, health policy, and quality monitoring is provided. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obahca.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Health Care Administration major graduates will be able to:

    1. Analyze the legal and ethical issues of healthcare systems;
    2. Explore cultural and social-demographic variables influencing the delivery of healthcare services;
    3. Examine the provision of healthcare services within a regulatory environment;
    4. Analyze the major financing systems of U.S. healthcare services;
    5. Analyze the major forces driving change in the healthcare system;
    6. Assess the major issues confronting community and public health services; and
    7. Apply the theoretical dimensions of leadership within the health care environment. 

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 35 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

    • HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care (3 credits)
    • *SOC 313 Social Implications of Medical Issues (3 credits)    
    • HCA 340 Managing in Health & Human Services (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HCA 305 or 205
    • *HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HCA 305 or 205
    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring & Accreditation (3 credits)  Prerequisites:  HCA 205
    • ^ACC 281 Accounting Concepts for Health Care Professionals (3 credits)    Prerequisite: Information Technology competency
    • HCA 312 Health Care Finance (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HCA 305 or 205 and ACC 281
    • HCA 430 Special Populations (3 credits)
    • HCA 415 Community & Public Health (3 credits)
    • HCA 421 Health Care Planning & Evaluation (3 credits)
    • HCA 459 Senior Project (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Health Education

    This degree identifies and explores the theoretical and practical issues encountered by health educators, and provides students the skills needed to apply health education principles to health challenges facing individuals, groups, and communities. Upon completion of this degree, students will have foundational understanding of the interrelationships between physical, social, and cultural forces in the etiology of disease and the ensuing practices of assessing, planning, executing, and evaluating health challenges impacting the well-being of today’s multicultural society. While this program prepares students to become health educators that encourage healthy lifestyles and wellness through educating individuals and communities about behaviors that promote healthy living and prevent diseases and other health problems, it is NOT intended to prepare students to become certified teachers in the K-12 setting. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obahe.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Health Education major graduates will be able to:

    1. Examine the individual and community needs for health education;
    2. Examine the impact of social and cultural factors in health education planning, delivery, and evaluation;
    3. Analyze research in health education;
    4. Identify elements of effective health education;
    5. Differentiate tools health educators use to bring about health change;
    6. Examine the interrelationships between physical, social, mental, and cultural forces in the etiology of disease;
    7. Examine behavior change theories and models in the context of health education; and
    8. Apply measures of individual and community health needs to health education planning, delivery, and evaluation.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 38 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

    • HPR 231 Introduction to Health Education (3 credits)
    • HCS 408 Methods of Community Health Promotion (3 credits)
    • *HCS 316 Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness (3 credits)
    • *HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205
    • HPR 303 Health Communications (3 credits)
    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • HPR 350 Introduction to Epidemiology (3 credits)
    • HCS 412 Health Promotion Planning & Evaluation (3 credits)
    • *HCA 415 Community & Public Health (3 credits)
    • HCA 430 Special Populations (3 credits)
    • HPR 460 Analysis of Health Research (3 credits)
    • HCS 497 Health Education Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

    The Psychology major focuses on the study of human behavior and mental processes. This major explores psychology both as an area of scientific investigation and as a health or human services profession. Students majoring in psychology may also seek employment opportunities in business, law, government, health care, and other careers that involve understanding human behavior and providing competent leadership. This program leads to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts. It is eligible for federal financial aid, but not subject to the gainful employment requirements.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Psychology major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate breadth of psychological knowledge;
    2. Analyze information and data with scientific thinking;
    3. Defend ethics, social justice, and diversity;
    4. Illustrate professional communication skills and;
    5. Apply professional skills to career planning and success.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirements: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits) 

    • *PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
    • PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development (3 credits)
    • PSY 331 Psychology of Learning (3 credits)   Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 301 Social Psychology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 302 Industrial/Organizational Psychology (3 credits)
    • PSY 304 Lifespan Development (3 credits)
    • PSY 330 Theories of Personality (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 350 Physiological Psychology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • ^PSY 325 Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences (3 credits)    
    • PSY 326 Research Methods (3 credits)
    • PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 496 Applied Project (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.
    ^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

    Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management

    Health information management (HIM) is the practice of acquiring, analyzing, and protecting the medical information that's vital to providing patient care, and providing the data that health professionals need in order to provide quality care. HIM professionals are highly trained in the latest technology and understand the workflow of healthcare providers, from large hospital systems to the private practice. They are vital to daily operations and managing electronic health records. Students in this online degree program will compare and contrast biomedical research, quality management, and performance improvement strategies used in health care. Employment in the field is projected to grow much faster on average than other professions (www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/medical-records-and-health-information-technicians.htm). Students will be able to evaluate emerging trends in technology, information systems, and data security.

    Criminal Convictions
    Applicants are advised that healthcare organizations (hospitals, home health agencies, clinics and other types of health agencies) may require a background check for any student completing a professional practice experience as well as for employment.

    Professional Practice Experiences
    Students earning the Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management degree will complete two Professional Practice Experiences, one that is virtual and one that is a combination of virtual and onsite at a facility. As part of the second Professional Practice Experience embedded in HIM 495, students will complete a minimum of 40 hours of supervised Professional Practice Experience at an approved facility. The 40 hours must be completed during normal business hours of Monday through Friday from 8AM to 5 PM while they are enrolled in HIM 495. Students can only complete their Professional Practice Experiences in states where this program is available.

    Memberships
    Students should also be aware that they will be required to pay for other memberships and fees to the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) in order to successfully complete this program.

    For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obshim.

    Special Terms and Conditions: This program is not accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM). CAHIIM is an independent accrediting organization whose mission is to serve the public interest by establishing and enforcing quality Accreditation Standards for Health Informatics and Health Information Management (HIM) educational programs.

    Academic leadership will pursue programmatic accreditation for this program with CAHIIM after the program launches. Eligibility for students to sit for the RHIA certification examination is not available until the program receives formal Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation.

    Students should be aware that, if Ashford does not receive CAHIIM accreditation before they graduate, they will not be eligible to sit for the RHIA national certification exam. Students also should know be aware that without the RHIA certification, their options in relation to employability and salary potential will be significantly reduced.

    Successful completion of this program does not guarantee certification from the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), which may be a requirement for certain positions in this field. Prospective students are advised to regularly review the requirements for job postings in their intended field of employment, which are subject to change. Other factors, such as a student’s criminal history, may prevent an applicant from obtaining employment in this field.

    Program Outcomes

    Students who successfully complete the Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management degree program will be able to:

    1. Analyze health data structure, content, standards, clinical classification systems and reimbursement methodologies;
    2. Manage strategic planning and organizational development;
    3. Compare and contrast health statistics, biomedical research, quality management, and performance improvement strategies used in health care;
    4. Examine driving factors influencing healthcare organization, delivery systems, healthcare privacy, confidentiality, and legal and ethical issues;
    5. Evaluate emerging applications in health informatics;
    6. Evaluate emerging healthcare trends in information and communication technology, information systems and data security; and
    7. Analyze the process of job analysis, staffing, appraisal and compensation, training, career planning, and organizational development.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *70 credits
    Electives: 5 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    Students must earn a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.50 in all major coursework attempted at the University.
    *In this program, 10 credits from the major can also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (70 credits)

    • *INF 103 Computer Literacy (3 credits)
    • INF 231 Programming Concepts (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103
    • HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care (3 credits)
    • HIM 105 Medical Terminology (3 credits)
    • *HIM 205 Anatomy & Physiology for HIM I (4 credits)
    • HIM 206 Anatomy & Physiology for HIM II (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HIM 205
    • HIM 217 Electronic Health Records (3 credits)    Prerequisite: Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management majors only.
    • HIM 210 Pathophysiology (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205 and HIM 206
    • HIM 250 Clinical Classification Systems I (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, and HIM 206
    • *HIM 252 Legal Aspects of Health Information (3 credits)    Prerequisite HIM 217
    • HIM 251 Clinical Classification Systems II (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, HIM 210, HIM 217, and HIM 250
    • HIM 310 Healthcare Reimbursement (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HCA 205 or HCA 305
    • HIM 301 Introduction to Health Informatics (3 credits)
    • ^^HIM 360 Healthcare Statistics (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HIM 217
    • ^HIM 370 Professional Practice Experience I (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, HIM 250, HIM 251, HCA 205 or HCA 305, HIM 310, HIM 217, HIM 252, HIM 210, and HIM 360
    • HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring and Accreditation (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HCA 205 or HCA 305
    • HIM 410 Health Informatics – A Systems Perspective (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HIM 301
    • HIM 420 Health Information Governance & Strategic Planning (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HIM 301
    • ^HIM 450 Healthcare Management (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HCA 375 and HIM 360
    • HIM 435 Analyzing Healthcare Data (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HIM 301
    • ^^HIM 440 Health Informatics Research Methods and Data Analysis (3 credits)    Prerequisites: HIM 360
    • HIM 445 Healthcare Project Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: HIM 301
    • ^HIM 495 Professional Practice Experience II (3 credits)    Prerequisite: Completion of BSHIM program core courses

    + EXP 105 fulfills 3 credits toward total elective credit requirements and is required for all online undergraduate students.
    * Satisfies General Education requirements.
    ^ This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution.
    ^^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

    Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN to BSN)

    The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN to BSN) program is designed for registered nurses seeking to expand their knowledge in the increasingly complex health care industry, and for students who wish to earn a Bachelor’s degree as a stepping-stone for future graduate study. In this program, coursework and practice experiences cover a wide range of content from patient care quality and safety, to leadership, community health, ethics and technology. Students will address areas of need for planned change within a healthcare organization or the community and use their assessment skills to create evidence-based interventions based upon observations, practice-forced research, and learning. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obsn.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Ashford University intends to pursue initial accreditation by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (http://www.aacn.nche.edu/ccne-accreditation) for our Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program. Applying for accreditation does not guarantee that accreditation will be granted. Please be advised that without programmatic accreditation, RN to BSN program students may not be able to transfer credits to another higher education nursing program, apply for federal scholarships or grants, obtain federal employment or join the military in an RN capacity until such accreditation is obtained. In addition, if initial accreditation is not granted prior to the conclusion of a student’s program, RN to BSN program graduates should be aware that graduation from a programmatically accredited undergraduate nursing program may be an admissions requirement for entry into graduate-level study in the field.

    Program Outcomes

    Students who successfully complete the Bachelor of Science in Nursing online degree program will be able to:

    1. Apply nursing leadership concepts and skills to promote quality care and patient safety across a variety of healthcare settings
    2. Apply (a) current evidence and (b) critical thinking and (c) assessment skills to professional nursing practice;
    3. Use technological and informatics systems related to health care to promote quality patient care;
    4. Synthesize local and federal policies that affect health, health care delivery, and health care management;
    5. Use interprofessional communication and collaborative skills to communicate with and educate peers, health care professionals, patients and their families, and the community;
    6. Assess health and wellness beliefs and practices to promote health and disease prevention among individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations;
    7. Articulate the value of pursuing practice excellence, through lifelong learning and engagement, to grow professionally; and
    8. Integrate holistic nursing knowledge, values, skills, and attitudes into practice across the lifespan and continuum of healthcare environments.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
    Electives: 29 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Prerequisite Course Requirements

    The following coursework or equivalent must be successfully completed prior to enrolling in 300 level courses in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing major:

    • Introduction to Sociology
    • Introduction to Psychology
    • Introduction to Statistics
    • Human Anatomy (with lab)
    • Human Physiology (with lab)
    Students who have not satisfied required prerequisite coursework in transfer may enroll in the applicable Ashford University coursework below to satisfy this requirement:

    • SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology
    • PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology
    • PSY 325 Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences
    • HIM 205 Anatomy and Physiology for HIM I and HIM 206 Anatomy and Physiology for HIM II

    Any prerequisite coursework completed at Ashford University is applied to a student’s elective credit requirements or General Education requirements

    Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

    • *ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits)     Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents
    • *NUR 322 Health Care Ethics and Medical Law (3 credits)
    • NUR 300 Professional Role Development and Practice in Nursing (3 credits)      Prerequisites: ENG 325 and NUR 322
    • NUR 302 Transcultural Nursing Care (3 credits)     Prerequisite: NUR 300
    • NUR 304 Health Assessment (3 credits)     Prerequisite: NUR 302
    • NUR 306 Nursing Research (3 credits)     Prerequisite: NUR 300
    • NUR 301 Introduction to Health Informatics (3 credits)    
    • GRO 325 Aging and Health (3 credits)
    • NUR 400 Family Health Nursing (3 credits)     Prerequisites: NUR 304, NUR 306 and GRO 325
    • NUR 402 Community Health Nursing (3 credits)     Prerequisites: NUR 304 and NUR 306
    • NUR 404 Nursing Care and Management of Chronic Illness and Disability (3 credits)     Prerequisites: NUR 400 and NUR 402
    • NUR 406 Leading and Managing in Nursing (3 credits)     Prerequisites: NUR 304 and NUR 306
    • NUR 492 Capstone I: Nursing Practice Improvement Inquiry (3 credits)     Prerequisites: NUR 404, NUR 406 and permission of the program chair
    • NUR 494 Capstone II: Nursing Practice Improvement and Evaluation (3 credits)     Prerequisites: NUR 492 and permission of the program chair

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    College of Liberal Arts: Undergraduate Programs and Requirements

    Associate of Arts in Military Studies

    The Associate of Arts in Military Studies degree provides students with a solid foundation in general education from which the fundamentals of military studies can be drawn. Students will make use of the critically reflective tools for interpreting pertinent historical, cultural, philosophical, and political issues that lead to an understanding of military studies. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/oaams.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study. This program is not a Military Science (ROTC) program and does not lead to a commission.

    Program Outcomes

    Students who successfully complete the Associate of Arts in Military Studies degree program will be able to:

    1. Communicate information and ideas at an acceptable competency level through written, verbal, and technological means;
    2. Demonstrate skills in logical reasoning at a level useful in decision making and problem solving activities;
    3. Apply the perspectives of history to understand military studies;
    4. Develop an understanding of international relations and the relationship to the military studies; and
    5. Formulate questions concerning the role of the military within chronological and geographical context to serve as a foundation for more in-depth inquiries.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 64 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *49 credits
    Core Requirements: *21 credits
    *In this program, 9 credits from the core may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Core Requirements (21 credits)

    • POL 111 Introduction to Political Science (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Political Science requirement
    • POL 255 Introduction to International Relations (3 credits)
    • HIS 103 World Civilizations I (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education History requirement
    • HIS 104 World Civilizations II (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Diversity Awareness requirement
    • MIL 275 Military Ethics (3 credits)   
    • MIL 208 Survey of the American Military since WWI (3 credits)
    • MIL 212 The Military as a Peace Keeping Force (3 credits)

    General Education Requirements (49 credits)

    • PSY 202 Adult Development & Life Assessment (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Social and Personal Awareness requirement
    • PHI 208 Ethics & Moral Reasoning (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Humanities requirement
    • CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Cultural and Aesthetic Awareness requirement
    • COM 200 Interpersonal Communication (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Communication III Competency requirement
    • ENG 121 English Composition I (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Communication I Competency requirement
    • ENG 122 English Composition II (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Communication II Competency requirement
    • ENG 125 Introduction to Literature (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Literature requirement
    • INF 103 Computer Literacy (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Information Technology Competency requirement
    • *MAT 221 Introduction to Algebra (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Mathematical Competency Prerequisite requirement
    • MAT 222 Intermediate Algebra (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Mathematical Competency requirement
    • PHI 103 Informal Logic (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Critical Thinking Competency requirement
    • SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (3 credits)    Satisfies General Education Applied Ethics Competency requirement
    • SCI 207 Our Dependence upon the Environment (4 credits)    Satisfies General Education Science requirement

    *Students who waive MAT 221 are required to take 61 total program credits in order to meet graduation requirements.

    Associate of Arts in Military Studies Graduation Requirements

    To be eligible for an Associate of Arts in Military Studies degree, a student must successfully accomplish the following:

    • Completion of all program/course requirements;
    • Completion of a minimum of 64 credits. Additional prerequisite courses may be required;
    • Minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all coursework attempted at the University; and
    • At least 18 credits earned toward the Associate of Arts degree must be completed at Ashford University.

    Note: The date of degree conferral recorded on the student’s transcript and diploma will reflect the date the student completes all academic degree requirements. However, release of transcripts, diplomas, and verifications for degrees awarded are contingent upon submission of the Petition to Graduate form, payment of the graduation fee, and payment of any outstanding balances with the University.

    The degree will be noted on the transcript as an Associate of Arts in Military Studies.

    Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics

    Applied Linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study focusing on the practical problems of language-related issues in order to improve the lives of individuals and conditions in society. This major draws from courses in anthropology, English, psychology, sociology, education, and more. Students in this major will address topics such as: how languages can best be learned and taught, social factors that affect language learning, and how technology can be used to contribute to the effectiveness of language teaching and learning. A Bachelor’s degree in Applied Linguistics provides students with valuable training for many opportunities following graduation, and for continuing on to graduate degrees in specialized areas of the field. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaal.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state.

    Program Outcomes

    Applied Linguistics major graduates will be able to:

    1. Apply the overall theories and purposes of linguistic study and research;
    2. Assess how language is learned;
    3. Examine the use of language-related technologies and their impact on professions;
    4. Recount the history and evolution of the English language;
    5. Demonstrate an understanding of Linguistics fields, such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics;
    6. Interpret the policy issues and sociological aspects of applied linguistics; and
    7. Develop a capstone research paper exemplifying the ability to apply theoretical knowledge, and research and technological skills in preparation for a career in the field.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
    Electives: 29 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

    Understanding and Teaching Language Courses (9 credits):

    • LNG 101 Introduction to Language (3 credits)
    • LNG 330 Language and Power: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • LNG 206 Language & Technology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321

    Theoretical Linguistics Courses (15 credits):

    • LNG 320 Structures of Language (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • LNG 310 Sounds of Language (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • LNG 415 Meaning in Language (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • *LNG 360 Language & Society (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • LNG 450 Computational Linguistics (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321

    Second Language Acquisition Courses (9 credits):

    • LNG 212 Second Language Acquisition (3 credits)   Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • *ELL 361 Language Learning in a Global Context (3 credits)
    • ELL 355 Methods, Materials, & Technology for Learning a Second Language (3 credits)

    Speech Therapy Courses (6 credits):

    • LNG 222 Survey of Communicative Disorders (3 credits)   Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321
    • LNG 455 Language Development Disorders (3 credits)    Prerequisite: LNG 101 or LNG 321

    Applied Linguistics Capstone Course (3 credits):

    • LNG 497 Applied Linguistics Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisites: LNG 101 or LNG 321 and GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Communication Studies

    The Bachelor of Arts in Communication Studies major is designed for students who seek career opportunities in many fields: public relations, human resources, business management, communications management, education, public policy and administration, sociology, journalism, and the media. Communication Studies provides students with an understanding of ethical responsibilities when accessing and disseminating information, and the role of interpersonal, group, and mediated messages in a democratic society. Within the program, students will examine multiple topics in communication from persuasion and communication theory to various forms of written communication, both business/ professional writing and writing for media purposes. This program leads to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts. It is eligible for federal financial aid, but not subject to the gainful employment requirements.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Communication Studies major graduates will be able to:

    1. Communicate with fluency and clarity;
    2. Select effective communication techniques appropriate to audience and context;
    3. Identify barriers to effective communication in different contexts and formulate effective solutions;
    4. Articulate the value of free expression to a democratic society;
    5. Demonstrate sensitivity in communications between and among different groups and individuals of diverse backgrounds;
    6. Demonstrate adaptability to changes in communication technology;
    7. Conduct effective independent research; and
    8. Communicate in ways consistent with the highest ethical standards of the communications professions.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *33 credits
    Electives: 41 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (33 credits)

    • COM 101 Introduction to Communication (3 credits)
    • COM 425 Communication in Organizations (3 credits)
    • ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents
    • COM 345 Media Writing for Communication (3 credits)
    • *COM 323 Persuasion & Argumentation (3 credits)
    • *COM 325 Communication & Conflict (3 credits)
    • *COM 360 Advanced Communications in Society (3 credits)
    • COM 340 Technical Writing (3 credits)
    • CGD 318 Public Relations Practice & Promotional Writing (3 credits)
    • ENG 315 Business & Professional Writing (3 credits)
    • COM 480 Communication Studies Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    *Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Cultural Anthropology

    A Bachelor of Arts degree in Cultural Anthropology provides students with basic skills of critical thinking, writing, research, and cross-cultural understanding. The Cultural Anthropology major examines patterns and processes of cultural change with a focus on how people live in particular places, and how they organize, govern and create meaning. Students will examine diversity in other cultures and consider other world views to gain an understanding of how and why diversity in human culture came about. Research in cultural anthropology is distinguished by its reliance on participant observation, and students will learn the research methodologies used to collect and assess critically anthropological data. Students who complete the program will be prepared to enter graduate school in several of the social science disciplines. Course offerings examine topics ranging from anthropological theory, urban and gender anthropology and the study of Native American culture. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaca.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state.

    Note: Some applications in major courses may require additional hardware, software, and/or internet connectivity requirements. This includes the use of plug-in software Adobe Flash Player 8 for Windows or 8.0 for Mac users.

    Program Outcomes

    Cultural Anthropology major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the topical scope and main concepts of cultural anthropology, including gender and conflict;
    2. Explain how cultural systems construct reality differently for various human groups;
    3. Evaluate the role of anthropology as essential to understanding contemporary cultures in the US and globally;
    4. Evaluate the ethical principles and guidelines that are the framework for all anthropological work; and
    5. Apply anthropological research skills in analysis, the collection of data and artifacts.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *40 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 7 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (40 credits)

    • ANT 234 Family, Kin, & Groups (3 credits) Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or other Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement (Recommended Prerequisite: Successful completion of ENG 122)
    • *ANT 202 Human Origins & Prehistory (4 credits)    Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement
    • ANT 307 Anthropology of War (3 credits)    Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement
    • ANT 340 Anthropological Theory (3 credits)    Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement
    • ANT 343 Language, Culture, & Communication (3 credits)    Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement
    • ANT 315 Material Culture: Archaeology and the Human Condition     Prerequisite: ANT 202
    • ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual (3 credits)    Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement
    • ANT 347 Urban Anthropology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 315 or SOC 205
    • ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 205
    • *ANT 348 Native American Anthropology (3 credits)    Prerequisites: Communication I & II Competency and ANT 101 or Diversity Awareness General Education Requirement
    • ANT 464 Applied Anthropology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 205 (Recommended prerequisite: Senior Level Status)
    • ANT 462 Anthropological Research Methods (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ANT 307, ANT 315, ANT 343, ANT 347, ANT 348, ANT 351, ANT 353 and ANT 348
    • ANT 499 Ethnographic Study Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ANT 462 and GEN 499 and no more than 12 additional credits required before graduation

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in English

    This program will offer students a disciplined study of literature and provide a rigorously designed foundation for the development of writing and critical thinking skills. An English degree is versatile, and employers value the proficiency in communication and composition that are valuable in any career. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaen.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state.

    Program Outcomes

    English major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of various literary genres and works in their historical, analytical, and sociopolitical contexts;
    2. Develop the ability to write creatively, clearly, and concisely;
    3. Develop critical thinking skills through intellectual inquiry;
    4. Demonstrate the ability to integrate significant literary ideas and themes into a personal worldview;
    5. Evaluate the power of language relative to ethnicities and gender;
    6. Analyze how writing, language, and literature function to shape human culture and individual identity; and
    7. Apply effective independent research skills.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 35 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

    All students must take ENG 121 and ENG 122 or their equivalents prior to beginning their English major course requirements.

    • ENG 341 Studies in Literary Genres (3 credits)
    • *ENG 201 American Literature to 1865 (3 credits)
    • ENG 202 American Literature After 1865 (3 credits)
    • ENG 345 British Literature I (3 credits)
    • ENG 346 British Literature II (3 credits)
    • ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits) 
    • ENG 353 Evolution & History of the English Language (3 credits)
    • *ENG 317 International Voices (3 credits)
    • ENG 380 Literary Research (3 credits)
    • ENG 318 Creative Writing (3 credits)
    • ENG 438 Literary Theory (3 credits)
    • ENG 497 English Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Studies

    The Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Studies prepares students as professionals and citizens of the world for work in environmental careers. Environmental Studies is an interdisciplinary program that instills in students an ability to better understand the relationships between humans and the environments and humanity’s impact on the different environments. Students work individually and collaboratively to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and motivation to seek out solutions to global environmental issues. Through interdisciplinary study in science, the social sciences, and the humanities, Environmental Studies encourages students to embrace the interconnections in knowledge and the environment in order to understand and manage the complexities of environmental, cultural, and socials issues that are local, national, and global in scale. This program leads to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts. It is eligible for federal financial aid, but not subject to the gainful employment requirements.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state.

    Program Outcomes

    Environmental Studies major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate specific knowledge of material, information, and techniques in the natural sciences relating to a career in the environmental fields;
    2. Evaluate the specific knowledge of material and information in the humanities and social sciences relating to a career in the environmental fields;
    3. Apply critical reading, thinking, and communication skill using language specific to the environmental fields;
    4. Implement appropriate current technologies that allow work and knowledge in the field to meet or exceed course expectations; and
    5. Demonstrate critical thinking, reading, and integration skills in the analysis of complex situations in order to develop descriptions, interpretations, and solutions regarding issues in the environmental fields.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *43 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 10 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (43 credits)

    • ENV 100 Introduction to Environmental Studies (3 credits)
    • *SCI 207 Our Dependence upon the Environment (4 credits)
    • ENV 322 Energy & Environmental Systems (3 credits)
    • ENV 325 Environmental Management (3 credits)
    • ENV 326 Ecology & Evolution (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ENV 100 and SCI 207
    • ENV 330 Environmental Ethics (3 credits)
    • ENV 350 Conservation Biology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ENV 326
    • ENV 333 Environmental Impact (3 credits)
    • ENV 345 Business & the Environment (3 credits)
    • *POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits)
    • ^ENG 328 Scientific & Technical Writing (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ENG 122 or equivalent
    • */**GEO 308 Geographic Information Systems (3 credits)
    • **ENV 495 Environmental Research (3 credits)
    • **ENV 497 Environmental Studies Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.
    **Please note that some applications in this course may require additional hardware, software, and/or internet connectivity requirements. This includes use of Windows XP with Service Pack 2.0 or higher and broadband Internet access. GIS software used in this program is not compatible with Mac OS.
    ^ Science General Education requirement must be met before taking this course.

    Bachelor of Arts in History

    In a world transformed by the powerful tides of globalization, history provides an intellectual toolkit for dealing with complex national and international realities. Every aspect of the present is rooted in aspects of the past. Immersion in place-based knowledge and understanding how unintended consequences shape our lives help students to understand an increasingly complex world. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obah.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state.

    Program Outcomes

    History major graduates will be able to:

    1. Utilize appropriate historical sources in the completion of written and/or oral narratives and analysis;
    2. Interpret events, institutions, and human communities in their historical contexts;
    3. Assess historical phenomena in terms of continuity, change, causation, and significance;
    4. Analyze major issues, trends and debates with respect to the historiography of specific topics and themes;
    5. Evaluate historical events and trends from global perspectives that examine interaction between societies and cultures; and
    6. Assess the significance of social and cultural developments within broader historical contexts. 

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

    • *HIS 103 World Civilizations I (3 credits)
    • *HIS 104 World Civilizations II (3 credits)
    • HIS 205 United States History I (3 credits)
    • HIS 206 United States History II (3 credits)
    • *POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)  
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe (3 credits)  
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 378 Historiography & Historical Methodologies (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 340 Recent American History (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 311 Gender in History (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 342 The Middle East (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 355 Decolonization in Asia, Africa and the Americas
      Prerequisites: HIS 204 and English Proficiency
    • HIS 379 The Atlantic World (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency
    • HIS 497 History Capstone: Advanced Research Project (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Homeland Security and Emergency Management

    The Bachelor of Arts in Homeland Security and Emergency Management provides students with a broad view of homeland security, emergency management, and preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels. The program is designed to transcend a single discipline to consider counter-terrorism, emergency planning for natural disasters and response to terrorism, research and analysis, and an interdisciplinary foundation of courses including ethics, international relations, cyber crime, as well as a strong emphasis on American Government and the United States Constitution. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obahsem.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Homeland Security and Emergency Management major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate a comprehension of relevant bodies of law, the intelligence community, and international, political, social, and cultural environments;
    2. Develop critical thinking skills for effective problem solving relative to crisis management issues, principles, and procedures;
    3. Understand the importance of the historic, cultural, and diversity aspects of selected populations;
    4. Demonstrate the ability to write a substantive report or analysis using strong research skills and technical writing proficiency;
    5. Evaluate data and analyze the validity of the information;
    6. Create a report that demonstrates the ability to retrieve information from relevant websites including the pertinent governmental websites and repositories of information; and
    7. Evaluate the ethical implications of Homeland Security measures.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *42 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (42 credits)

    • *HSM 101 Introduction to Homeland Security and Emergency Management (3 credits)
    • HSM 201 Department of Homeland Security Missions and Current Issues (3 credits)
    • POL 201 American National Government (3 credits)
    • *POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
    • SOC 333 Research Methods (3 credits)
    • *HSM 311 Ethics & Homeland Security (3 credits)
    • HSM 315 Emergency Planning (3 credits)
    • HSM 320 Emergency Response to Terrorism (3 credits)
    • HSM 421 Research & Analysis in Homeland Security (3 credits)
    • LIB 323 Revolution & Terrorism in the Modern World (3 credits)
    • HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis (3 credits)
    • HSM 435 Psychology of Disaster (3 credits)
    • HSM 438 Introduction to Cyber Crime (3 credits)
    • HSM 497 Homeland Security & Emergency Management Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Journalism and Mass Communication

    The Bachelor of Arts in Journalism & Mass Communication draws upon the applied liberal arts tradition of the university. This program builds on a wide range of journalism-related studies: electronic media communication, ethics, law and integrity in journalism, and the First Amendment. Graduates will be prepared for employment or advancement in a wide variety of journalism positions, advertising and marketing, communications, and in many areas of mass media. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obajmc.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Journalism and Mass Communication major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the rights, roles and responsibilities of news media professionals;
    2. Apply the journalistic concepts of accuracy, timeliness and impact;
    3. Demonstrate professional-level communication skills in the areas of print, online media layout, report, editorial writing and interviewing;
    4. Apply ethical principles and decision-making in the practice of journalism; and
    5. Demonstrate the research skills necessary to interpret and analyze public records, reference materials, and internet resources.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: 39 credits
    Electives: 29 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.

    *In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

    • *JRN 101 Digital & Media Literacy (3 credits)
    • JRN 200 Elements of Journalism (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents
    • JRN 201 Multimedia News Writing and Editing (3 credits)    Prerequisite: JRN 200
    • JRN 333 Ethics in Journalism (3 credits)
    • JRN 410 Journalism Law (3 credits)
    • JRN 301 Newsgathering and Reporting (3 credits)    Prerequisite: JRN 201
    • JRN 321 Visual Journalism (3 credits)   Prerequisite: JRN 301
    • JRN 412 Advanced Editorial & Feature Writing (3 credits) Prerequisite: ENG 325
    • JRN 341 Specialized Journalism (3 credits)
    • JRN 339 Global Journalism (3 credits)
    • JRN 425 Journalism & Politics (3 credits)
    • JRN 415 Methods of Research & Analysis in Journalism (3 credits)
    • JRN 497 Journalism & Mass Communication Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Law Enforcement Administration

    The Bachelor of Arts in Law Enforcement Administration (LEA) is designed for students who wish to advance their careers by developing management skills in the field of law enforcement. The major is designed to provide students with the knowledge and leadership skills necessary to maintain social order, protect individual rights, meet public needs, and uphold the laws and institutions of democracy. Students will learn problem solving and communication skills, and develop increased empathy and a greater understanding of diversity. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obalea.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to professional licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization, and students will not receive the training required to become a law enforcement officer. Each state has its own standards and training requirements for appointment as a law enforcement officer. It is the student’s responsibility to review any state certification or licensure requirements in their intended field of employment.

    Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Law Enforcement Administration major graduates will be able to:

    1. Develop management and leadership skills appropriate to law enforcement administration;
    2. Evaluate the practices and systems for maintaining individual rights;
    3. Develop an understanding of police responsibility, ethics, and rights;
    4. Analyze criminal behavior;
    5. Demonstrate an understanding of race, crime, and social policy;
    6. Develop an understanding of the character traits necessary for becoming a responsible, moral law enforcement leader;
    7. Evaluate the guidelines for policing in today’s communities; and
    8. Create a final project that demonstrates an understanding of research and illustrates critical thinking and clear and concise writing skills.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 32 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

    • LEA 101 Introduction to Concepts in Law Enforcement Administration (3 credits)
    • LEA 312 Community Policing (3 credits)
    • *LEA 316 Ethics in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 328 Leadership & Supervision in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 408 Technological Management in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 339 Law Enforcement Personnel Management (3 credits)
    • LEA 413 Investigations Management (3 credits)
    • LEA 432 Fiscal Administration in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 439 Politics & Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits)   Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents
    • LEA 444 Training Management (3 credits)
    • LEA 497 Law Enforcement Administration Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts

    The Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts major is designed for students who seek career opportunities in many fields. The Liberal Arts program is designed to provide students with a broad-based liberal arts experience enriching the student’s understanding of the physical and social world. The diversity of courses will enable the student to examine major national and global issues, especially those issues related to cultures and their diversity. Liberal studies emphasize literature, philosophy, social science, and analytical and critical thinking skills, all of which prepare students for lifelong learning and social, cultural, and technological change.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state.

    Program Outcomes

    Liberal Arts major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate appropriate comparative and analytical communication skills across disciplines;
    2. Conduct effective independent research;
    3. Demonstrate interpersonal and collaborative skills between and among diverse groups and individuals;
    4. Apply critical thinking skills in analyzing complex social and cultural issues;
    5. Summarize and integrate viewpoints from different disciplines; and
    6. Analyze the values that influence interactions among people, groups, or nations.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *33 credits
    Electives: 50 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 18 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (33 credits)

    • *LIB 101 The Art of Being Human (3 credits)
    • *LIB 102 Human Questions (3 credits)
    • LIB 301 Liberal Arts Seminar (3 credits)
    • *LIB 202 Women, Culture & Society (3 credits)
    • LIB 315 The Environment & the Human Spirit (3 credits)   Prerequisite:ENG 122 or equivalent
    • *LIB 316 Historical Contexts & Literature (3 credits)
    • LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study in Conflict Resolution (3 credits)
    • *LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (3 credits)
    • *LIB 332 Science & Culture (3 credits)
    • LIB 356 Research Methods for the Humanities (3 credits)
    • LIB 495 Capstone – Advanced Research Project (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Military Studies

    The Military Studies program is developed to provide students with a foundation in the areas of historical and political studies and methodologies to understand the role of the military as an institution within society. This major will provide students with historical and ethical perspectives on military affairs. Students will take a broad variety of courses that provide a context in chronology and geography to develop the skills, knowledge base, and moral awareness in preparation for a career as a leader in the military or in the private sector. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obams.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study. This program is not a Military Science (ROTC) program and does not lead to a commission.

    Program Outcomes

    Military Studies major graduates will be able to:

    1. Apply the methodologies and approaches characteristic of a range of liberal arts disciplines (e.g. anthropology, history, literature, political science, philosophy, and international relations) in a military context;
    2. Analyze issues concerning the role of the military within its chronological and geographical context;
    3. Demonstrate the ability to conduct effective research by creating a final summative research project;
    4. Assess the moral and ethical concerns raised through the study of the relationship of the military to society;
    5. Analyze the importance of the military as an instrument for the preservation of peace, as well as the waging of war; and
    6. Demonstrate an understanding of the character traits necessary for becoming a responsible, moral leader.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
    Electives: 41 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 15 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

    • *MIL 275 Military Ethics (3 credits)
    • *MIL 322 Literature of War (3 credits)
    • MIL 310 American Military History I (3 credits)
    • MIL 311 American Military History II (3 credits)
    • MIL 312 Peacekeeping (3 credits)
    • *ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits)    Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents
    • *HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe (3 credits)
    • *POL 255 Introduction to International Relations (3 credits)
    • LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution (3 credits)
    • MIL 350 Studies in Military Leadership (3 credits)
    • POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
    • LIB 323 Revolution and Terrorism in the Modern World (3 credits)
    • MIL 497 Military Studies Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Government

    The Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Government focuses on the systematic study of political institutions, behavior, political parties, research methods, comparative politics, and an emphasis on our national government. Political Science is key for imparting knowledge of political processes, values, and public policy and is designed to provide students with the analytical tools and critical thinking skills to address the intricate and complex relationships among the private, public, transnational, and global sectors. For more information about on-time completion rates, the median loan debt of students who completed this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obapsg.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Political Science and Government major graduates will be able to:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which power and authority are embedded in the structures and workings of the government and politics;
    2. Analyze political issues and develop methods to resolve them through effective and creative communication;
    3. Develop the ability to undertake in-depth analyses of political behavior as it applies to various political theories in democracy and representation;
    4. Assess critically the causes and implications of conflict, compromise, and cooperation at the local, national, transnational, and global levels; and
    5. Evaluate public policy as it relates to political behavior, rights, and justice.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 35 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 6 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

    • *POL 111 Introduction to Political Science (3 credits)
    • POL 201 American National Government (3 credits)
    • POL 255 Introduction to International Relations (3 credits)
    • *POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
    • POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits)
    • POL 319 State & Local Government (3 credits)
    • POL 325 Congress & the Presidency (3 credits)
    • POL 353 Comparative Politics (3 credits)
    • POL 411 Political Behavior (3 credits)
    • POL 470 Introduction to Political Analysis (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: 18 credit hours in Political Science  
    • POL 480 Methodology in Political Science (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: POL 470 
    • POL 497 Political Science Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Bachelor of Arts in Social and Criminal Justice

    The Social and Criminal Justice major offers a unique interdisciplinary program that examines criminal justice from a perspective that sees it as a means of building a more just society. Students examine topics such as forensics, psychology, crime prevention, the Constitution, criminal law, and the correctional system. This program leads to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts. It is eligible for federal financial aid, but not subject to the gainful employment requirements.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Social and Criminal Justice major graduates will be able to:

    1. Analyze criminal justice issues within the systems of law enforcement, the judiciary, and corrections;
    2. Evaluate the application of the social justice principles of equality, solidarity, and human rights toward building a just society;
    3. Apply knowledge of cultural sensitivity and diversity awareness to social and criminal justice;
    4. Deconstruct the relationship between law enforcement, the judiciary, and corrections;
    5. Interpret the relationship between social justice and criminal justice; and,
    6. Develop critical perspectives in the study of social and criminal justice by drawing on the fields of criminology, law, philosophy, psychology, science, and sociology.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *36 credits
    Electives: 41 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 12 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (36 credits)

    • *SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (3 credits)
    • *POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
    • CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice (3 credits)
    • *SOC 305 Crime & Society (3 credits)
    • SOC 333 Research Methods (3 credits)
    • CRJ 308 Psychology of Criminal Behavior (3 credits)
    • CRJ 305 Crime Prevention (3 credits)
    • CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice (3 credits)
    • CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure (3 credits)
    • CRJ 311 Forensics (3 credits)
    • *CRJ 303 Corrections (3 credits)
    • CRJ 422 Criminal Justice Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.

    Note: CRJ 201 should be taken prior to 300-level CRJ courses and above.

    Bachelor of Arts in Social Science

    The Social Science Program explores global environmental, health, social and technological issues and social change that shape our world from an interdisciplinary perspective. The program brings together diverse disciplines in a comprehensive manner, enabling students to develop a meaningful understanding of the complex associations and influences within a topic and to become global thinkers. This program leads to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts. It is eligible for federal financial aid, but not subject to the gainful employment requirements.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Social Science major graduates will be able to:

    1. Evaluate fundamental social science concepts;
    2. Integrate knowledge from the social sciences to examine a variety of perspectives about contemporary issues;
    3. Evaluate the importance and influence of diversity within and among cultures and societies;
    4. Communicate theoretical perspectives, findings, and interpretations of contemporary issues in the social sciences;
    5. Analyze contemporary issues in the social sciences using critical thinking and ethical reasoning skills; and
    6. Apply qualitative and quantitative research methods to explain and analyze issues of global and contemporary significance.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
    Electives: 38 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 12 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

    • *SSC 101 Introduction to Social Science (3 credits)
    • SOC 205 Social Theory (3 credits)
    • ENV 230 Concepts of Sustainability (3 credits)
    • *POL 255 Introduction to International Relations (3 credits)
    • *PSY 301 Social Psychology (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PSY 101 or SSC 101 or equivalent
    • SOC 333 Research Methods (3 credits)
    • ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender (3 credits)
    • SSC 340 Human Health and Global Environmental Change (3 credits)
    • ^LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (3 credits)
    • SSC 350 eSociety: Science, Technology and Society (3 credits)
    • *COM 360 Advanced Communications in Society (3 credits)
    • ANT 464 Applied Anthropology (3 credits)
    • SOC 490 Social Science Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.
    ^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

    Note: SSC 101 and SOC 205 should be taken prior to 300-level courses and above in their respective subject areas.

    Transfer Concentration Option

    Students may add a transfer concentration to the Bachelor of Arts in Social Science program by transferring in 12 applicable credits in a defined subject area. Transfer concentrations are not required and are intended for students who have experience and/or extensive transfer credit coursework in a field of study at the time of admission to the program. The following major courses are designated for substitution with concentration coursework, where appropriate: POL 255, LIB 320, ANT 353, and PSY 301. For additional details, see Transfer Concentration Guidelines in this section of the Catalog.

    Bachelor of Arts in Sociology

    The BA in sociology is focused on the study of humans in society, and specifically in reference to their identifying groups (race, gender, sexuality, etc.) and the unique issues they can face. Sociology majors study social theory and social structures, research methods and the making and implementation of social policy. This allows majors to understand the cause of social issues, provide solutions, and influence positive social change. Graduates of the program are prepared for entry-level social research, analysis, public and social services, as well as workplace and community advocacy and activism positions. This program leads to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts. It is eligible for federal financial aid, but not subject to the gainful employment requirements.

    Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Further, Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Further, a criminal record may prevent an applicant from obtaining licensure, certification, or employment in this field of study.

    Program Outcomes

    Sociology major graduates will be able to:

    1. Defend knowledge of foundational sociological concepts; specifically, concepts of diversity, social responsibility, human rights, and dignity and respect for others in society;
    2. Assess a variety of classical and contemporary sociological theoretical perspectives;
    3. Evaluate research methodologies within the sociological context;
    4. Critically evaluate sociological issues; and
    5. Apply sociological tools to impact societal issues.

    Program Requirements

    Total number of credits required: 120 credits
    Introductory Course Requirement: 3 credits
    General Education Requirements: *52 credits
    Major Course Requirements: *39 credits
    Electives: 35 credits
    Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
    *In this program, 9 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.

    Introductory Course Requirement (3 credits)

    • EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)

    Major Course Requirements (39 credits)

    • *SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology (3 credits)
    • SOC 203 Social Problems (3 credits)
    • SOC 205 Social Theory (3 credits)
    • SOC 333 Research Methods (3 credits)
    • ^PSY 325 Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences (3 credits)    
    • SOC 301 Identity & Social Inequality (3 credits)
    • SOC 304 Social Gerontology (3 credits)
    • *SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives (3 credits)
    • SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups (3 credits)
    • SOC 307 Gender & Sexuality (3 credits)
    • SOC 401 Engaging in Sociology (3 credits)    Prerequisites: SOC 101, SOC 333 and SOC 301
    • *SOC 320 Public Policy & Social Services (3 credits)
    • SOC 490 Social Science Capstone (3 credits)    Prerequisite: GEN 499

    * Satisfies General Education requirements.
    ^ Math competency requirement must be met before taking this course.

    Minors

    Minors offered in the online modality provide students with additional opportunities to broaden and enrich their education. A minor is a program of study that is distinct from and supplements a student’s major. A minor may be taken as a way to give a coherent pattern to elective credits, to expand career options, to prepare for graduate study, or simply to explore in greater depth an area different from one’s major.

    Coursework that is applied toward fulfillment of a minor may count toward elective or General Education requirements, but will not apply toward fulfillment of a transfer concentration or specialization. Students cannot earn a minor in the same subject area as their major field of study or a major that has more than 50% of the same coursework, unless otherwise noted. In addition, students cannot declare or earn two minors that share more than 50% of the same coursework. Students must declare a minor prior to degree conferral.

    Note: The date of degree conferral recorded on the student’s transcript and diploma will reflect the date the student completes all academic degree requirements. However, release of transcripts, diplomas, and verifications for degrees awarded are contingent upon submission of the Petition to Graduate form, payment of the graduation fee, and payment of any outstanding balances with the University.

    Accounting Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Accounting.

    • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
    • ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ACC 205
    • ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ACC 206
    • ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ACC 305
    • ACC 310 Cost Accounting I (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ACC 206
    • ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ACC 205

    Business Administration Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Business Administration, Business Economics, Human Resources Management, or Sports and Recreation Management.

    • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
    • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
    • ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Critical thinking competency
    • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)

    Business Economics Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Business Economics. 

    • BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Mathematical competency
    • ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Critical thinking competency
    • ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
    • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ECO 100 and ECO 203
    • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)
    • ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ECO 203

    Child Development Minor (18 credits)

    • ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children (3 credits)
    • ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children (3 credits)
    • ECE 354 Assessment & Intervention During Early Childhood (3 credits)
    • ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics (3 credits)
    • PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development (3 credits)
    • SOC 312 Child, Family & Society (3 credits)

    Communications Studies Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Communication Studies.

    • COM 101 Introduction to Communication (3 credits)
    • COM 323 Persuasion & Argumentation (3 credits)
    • COM 325 Communication & Conflict (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents
    • COM 345 Media Writing for Communication (3 credits)
    • COM 360 Advanced Communication in Society (3 credits)
    • COM 425 Communication in Organizations(3 credits)

    Cultural Anthropology Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Cultural Anthropology.

    Required Courses:

    • ANT 234 Family, Kin, & Groups (3 credits)
    • ANT 307 Anthropology of War (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 101
    • ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 101

    Choose from three of the following courses:

    • ANT 340 Anthropological Theory (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 101
    • ANT 343 Language, Culture, & Communication (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 101
    • ANT 347 Urban Anthropology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 315
    • ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 340
    • ANT 348 Native American Anthropology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 340
    • ANT 464 Applied Anthropology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 340

    Educational Psychology Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in Psychology.

    Required Courses:

    • PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
    • PSY 331 Psychology of Learning (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 323 Perception, Learning, & Cognition (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • EDU 338 Human Development & Learning (3 credits)
    • PSY 352 Cognitive Psychology (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: PSY 101 and PSY 326

    Choose one of the following courses:

    • ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children (3 credits)
    • PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    Entrepreneurship Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Entrepreneurship.

    • BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship (3 credits)
    • BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 362
    • BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 362
    • BUS 433 New Business Strategy (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 362
    • BUS 435 Small Business Ventures (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 362
    • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)

    Environmental Studies Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in Environmental Studies.

    Required Courses:

    • ENV 230 Concepts of Sustainability (3 credits)
    • ENV 322 Energy & Environmental Systems(3 credits)
    • ENV 325 Environmental Management (3 credits)

    Choose three of the following courses:

    • ENV 300 Environmental Biology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Introductory biology course or SCI 207
    • ENV 330 Environmental Ethics (3 credits)
    • ENV 333 Environmental Impact (3 credits)
    • ENV 345 Business & the Environment (3 credits)
    • ENV 495 Environmental Research (3 credits)
    • POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits)

    Finance Minor (18 credits)

    • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
    • BUS 215 Personal Financial Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 and Mathematical competency
    • BUS 405 Principles of Investments (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 401
    • BUS 430 Finance Seminar (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 405
    • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ECO 100 and ECO 203

    Global Studies Minor (18 credits)

    • SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives (3 credits)
    • ENG 317 International Voices (3 credits)
    • POL 255 Introduction to International Relations (3 credits)
    • POL 353 Comparative Politics (3 credits)
    • ANT 347 Urban Anthropology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 315
    • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)

    Health and Wellness Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Health and Wellness.

    • HWE 200 Introduction to Health and Wellness (3 credits)
    • HCS 308 Introduction to Nutritional Concepts (3 credits)
    •  HCS 334 Personal Fitness and Wellness for Optimal Living (3 credits)   
      Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 200
    • HWE 330 Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Physiology (3 credits)   
      Prerequisite: HPR 205
    • HWE 340 Exercise and Physiology (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 330
    • HWE 420 Wellness for Special Populations  (3 credits)  
      Prerequisites: HWE 200, HWE 330, HWE 340, and HCS 334

    Health Care Administration Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Health Care Administration.

    • HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care (3 credits)
    • HCA 340 Managing in Health & Human Services (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205
    • HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205
    • HCA 415 Community & Public Health (3 credits)
    • HCA 421 Health Care Planning & Evaluation (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework
    • HCA 430 Special Populations (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework

    Health Psychology Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Psychology.

    • PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
    • GRO 202 Psychology of Aging (3 credits)
    • HCS 316 Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness
    • PSY 350 Physiological Psychology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 361 Health Psychology (3 credits)
    • PSY 380 Counseling and Behavior Change (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: HWE 200 and PSY 361

    Homeland Security and Emergency Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Homeland Security and Emergency Management.

    • HSM 305 Survey of Homeland Security & Emergency Management (3 credits)
    • HSM 311 Ethics & Homeland Security (3 credits)
    • HSM 315 Emergency Planning (3 credits)
    • HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis (3 credits)
    • HSM 435 Psychology of Disaster (3 credits)
    • HSM 438 Introduction to Cyber Crime (3 credits)

    Humanities Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Liberal Arts.

    • LIB 101 The Art of Being Human (3 credits)
    • LIB 102 Human Questions (3 credits)
    • LIB 315 The Environment & the Human Spirit (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ENG 122 or equivalent
    • LIB 316 Historical Contexts & Literature (3 credits)
    • LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution (3 credits)
    • LIB 332 Science & Culture (3 credits)

    Human Resources Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Human Resources Management.

    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459
    • BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 303
    • BUS 375 Employee Training (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 303
    • BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 303
    • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)

    Identity Studies Minor (18 credits)

    • SOC 301 Identity & Social Inequality
    • SOC 307 Gender & Sexuality
    • SOC 308 Race & Ethnicity
    • SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives
    • ANT 348 Native American Anthropology
      Prerequisite: ANT 340
    • ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic & Ritual
      Prerequisite: ANT 101

    Information Systems Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Business Information Systems.

    • INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • INF 231 Programming Concepts (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • INF 322 Database Management Systems (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 231 and Mathematical competency
    • INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 231
    • INF 340 Business Systems Analysis (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Information Technology competency
    • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)

    Instructional Design Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Instruction Design, or students majoring in Education Studies with an Instructional Design Specialization.

    • EDU 120 Principles of Instructional Design (3 credits)
    • EDU 337 Collaboration in the Virtual Classroom (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232
    • EDU 356 Emerging Issues in Educational Technology (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232
    • EDU 358 Assessment of Student Learning (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232
    • EDU 362 Adult Learning & Instruction (3 credits)
    • ESE 370 Learning & the Brain (3 credits)

    International Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in International Business.

    • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
    • BUS 357 International Business (3 credits)
    • BUS 378 International Business Law (3 credits)
    • BUS 439 International Human Resources Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 450 International Finance (3 credits)
    • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)

    International Security and Military Studies Minor (18 credits)

    • MIL 208 Survey of the American Military since WWI (3 credits)
    • MIL 212 The Military as a Peace Keeping Force (3 credits)
    • MIL 275 Military Ethics (3 credits)
    • ANT 307 Anthropology of War (3 credits)
    • HIS 331 World War II (3 credits)
    • HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis (3 credits)

    Journalism & Mass Communication Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in Journalism & Mass Communication.
    • JRN 200 Elements of Journalism (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122
    • JRN 201 Multimedia News Writing and Editing (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: JRN 200
    • JRN 301 Newsgathering and Reporting (3 credits)
    • JRN 341 Specialized Journalism (3 credits)
    • JRN 333 Ethics in Journalism (3 credits)
    • JRN 410 Journalism Law (3 credits)

    Law Enforcement Administration Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in Law Enforcement Administration.
    • LEA 201 Introduction to Law Enforcement Administration (3 credits)
    • LEA 328 Leadership & Supervision in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 339 Law Enforcement Personnel Management (3 credits)
    • LEA 408 Technological Management in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 432 Fiscal Administration in Law Enforcement (3 credits)
    • LEA 444 Training Management (3 credits)

    Literature Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in English.

    Required Courses:

    • ENG 303 Survey of Shakespeare (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing.
    • ENG 317 International Voices (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: English Proficiency
    • ENG 380 Literary Research (3 credits)

    Choose three of the following courses:

    • ENG 201 American Literature to 1865 (3 credits)
    • ENG 202 American Literature After 1865 (3 credits)
    • ENG 345 British Literature I (3 credits)
    • ENG 346 British Literature II (3 credits)
    • ENG 341 Studies in Literary Genres (3 credits)
    • ENG 438 Literary Theory (3 credits)

    Logistics Management Minor (18 credits)

    • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
    • INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: MGT 330
    • MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: MGT 330
    • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
    • MGT 401 Hazardous Materials Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: MGT 330

    Long Term Care Administration Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Health Care Administration.

    • HCA 333 Introduction to Long Term Care (3 credits)
    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • HCA 417 Electronic Health Records (3 credits)
    • HCA 312 Health Care Finance (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: HCA 281 and HCA 305 or HCA 205.
    • HCA 322 Healthcare Ethics and Medical Law (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205.
    • HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring & Accreditation (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205.

    Special Terms and Conditions: The Minor in Long Term Care Administration is not a licensure program. Ashford University cannot confirm whether this course or program meets requirements for professional licensure in any state. For information regarding professional licensure requirements in your state, you should contact the applicable testing agency and licensing board/agency in your state and determine whether the program meets requirements for licensure in the state where you reside.

    Marketing Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Public Relations and Marketing.

    • BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
    • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
    • BUS 336 Marketing Strategy (3 credits)
    • BUS 339 Marketing Research (3 credits)
    • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
    • BUS 350 Consumer Behavior (3 credits)

    Operations Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Operations Management and Analysis.

    • BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Mathematical competency
    • BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: Mathematical competency
    • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 446 Production Operations Control (3 credits)
    • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • INF 340 Business Systems Analysis (3 credits)
    • Prerequisite: Information Technology competency

    Organizational Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Business Administration or Organizational Management.

    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 340 Business Communication (3 credits)
    • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
    • MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
    • BUS 318 Organizational Behavior (3 credits)
    • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)

    Political Science and Government Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Political Science and Government.

    • POL 201 American National Government (3 credits)
    • POL 211 Introduction to Politics (3 credits)
    • POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
    • POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits)
    • POL 353 Comparative Politics (3 credits)
    • POL 255 Introduction to International Relations (3 credits)

    Project Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Project Management.

    • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ACC 205, and MAT 332 or BUS 308
    • INF 338 Leadership & Communication Skills for Project Managers (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: MGT 330 and and fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency
    • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
    • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)
    • MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)

    Psychology Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Psychology.

    • PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
    • PSY 301 Social Psychology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 330 Theories of Personality (3 credits)
    • PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 331 Psychology of Learning (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • PSY 350 Physiological Psychology (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    Public Administration Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Public Administration.

    • PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration (3 credits)
    • PPA 303 Finance for Public Administrators (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ECO 203
    • PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators (3 credits)
    • PPA 307 Intergovernmental Relations & Issues (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PPA 301
    • PPA 401 Urban Management (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: PPA 301
    • PPA 403 Administrative Law (3 credits)

    Social and Criminal Justice Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Social and Criminal Justice.

    • CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice (3 credits)
    • CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice (3 credits)
    • CRJ 303 Corrections (3 credits)
    • CRJ 305 Crime Prevention (3 credits)
    • CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure (3 credits)
    • CRJ 311 Forensics (3 credits)

    Social Sciences Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in Social Science.

    • SSC 101 Introduction to Social Science (3 credits)
    • HIS 206 United States History II (3 credits)
      Recommended Prerequisite: ENG 122
    • SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives (3 credits)
    • POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits)
    • LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (3 credits)
    • ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ANT 340

    Sociology Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Sociology.

    • SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology (3 credits)
    • SOC 203 Social Problems (3 credits)
    • SOC 304 Social Gerontology (3 credits)
    • SOC 305 Crime & Society (3 credits)
    • SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups (3 credits)
    • SOC 312 Child, Family & Society (3 credits

    Speech & Language Disorders Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in Applied Linguistics.

    • LNG 101 Introduction to Language (3 credits)
    • LNG 222 Survey of Communicative Disorders (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: LNG 101
    • LNG 310 Sounds of Language (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: LNG 101
    • LNG 320 Structures of Language (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: LNG 101
    • LNG 360 Sociolinguistics (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: LNG 101
    • LNG 455 Language Development Disorders (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: LNG 101

    Sports and Recreation Management Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in Sports and Recreation Management.

    • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
    • BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
    • MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
    • SRM 401 Sport Finance (3 credits)   Prerequisite: ACC 205
    • SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management (3 credits)

    World History Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: This minor is not available to students majoring in History.

    • HIS 104 World Civilizations II (3 credits)
    • HIS 378 Historiography & Historical Methodologies (3 credits)   
    • HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe (3 credits)
    • HIS 342 The Middle East (3 credits)
    • HIS 351 Asia in the Age of Decolonization & Globalization (3 credits)
    • HIS 379 The Atlantic World (3 credits) 

    Writing Minor (18 credits)

    Please note: this minor is not available to students majoring in English.

    • ENG 315 Business and Professional Writing (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing.
    • ENG 318 Creative Writing (3 credits)
    • ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122
    • ENG 328 Scientific & Technical Writing (3 credits)
      Prerequisites: ENG 122 and fulfillment of the General Education Science requirement.
    • COM 345 Media Writing for Communication (3 credits)
    • ENG 353 Evolution and History of the English Language (3 credits)

    Specializations

    A specialization is an area of study that supplements select undergraduate majors. Students begin specialization coursework following successful completion of the major capstone. Students must declare a specialization prior to completion of program requirements. A student may not enroll in any undergraduate specialization that has a course overlap with any declared major(s).

    Business Economics Specialization (12 credits)

    Available for Bachelor of Arts in Accounting degree program only.

    • ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
    • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ECO 100 and ECO 203
    • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)
    • ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: ECO 203

    Child Development Specialization (12 credits)

    Available for Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies degree program only.

    • ECE 205 Introduction to Child Development (3 credits)
    • ECE 332 Child Development (3 credits)
    • ECE 351 Play & Learning for the Young Child (3 credits)
    • ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics (3 credits)

    Early Childhood Education Specialization (12 credits)

    Available for Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies degree program only.

    • ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education (3 credits)
    • ECE 311 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods (3 credits)
    • ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children (3 credits)
    • ECE 335 Children’s Literature (3 credits)

    Education and Public Policy Specialization (12 credits)

    Available for Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies degree program only.

    • EDU 108 Introduction to Policy & Education (3 credits)
    • EDU 363 Education & Social Justice (3 credits)
    • EDU 365 Politics of American Education (3 credits)
    • EDU 428 Student Achievement in Public Schools (3 credits)

    English Language Learner Studies Specialization (12 credits)

    Available for Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies degree program only.

    • ELL 240 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners (3 credits)
    • ELL 355 Methods, Materials, & Technology for Learning a Second Language (3 credits)
    • ELL 359 Contemporary Issues in English Language Instruction (3 credits)
    • ELL 420 Testing & Assessment for ELL Students (3 credits)

    Entrepreneurship Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting, Business Administration, Health Care Administration, Human Resources Management, and Sports and Recreation Management degree programs only.

    • BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship (3 credits)
    • BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 362
    • BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 362
    • BUS 433 New Business Strategy (3 credits)
      Prerequisite: BUS 362

    Finance Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting, Business Administration, Health Care Administration, and Sports and Recreation Management degree programs only.

    • BUS 215 Personal Financial Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits)    
      Prerequisites: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 and Mathematical competency
    • BUS 405 Principles of Investments (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 401
    • ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203

    Health Care Informatics Systems Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in all Bachelor’s programs in the College of Health, Human Services, and Science except for Applied Behavioral Science, Psychology, Health Information Management, and Nursing (RN to BSN).

    • HIM 301 Introduction to Health Informatics (3 credits)
    • HCA 417 Electronic Health Records (3 credits)
    • HIM 410  Health Informatics-A Systems Perspective (3 credits)
    • HIM 435 Analyzing Healthcare Data (3 credits)

    History Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Government degree program only.

    • HIS 331 World War II (3 credits)
    • HIS 340 Recent American History (3 credits)
    • HIS 342 The Middle East (3 credits)
    • HIS 379 The Atlantic World (3 credits)

    Human Resources Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration, Health Care Administration and Organizational Management degree programs only.

    • BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459
    • BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 303
    • BUS 375 Employee Training (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 303
    • BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: BUS 303

    Infant and Toddler Care Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Education Administration only.

    • ECE 341 Social & Emotional Growth of Infants & Toddlers (3 credits)
    • ECE 343 Quality Care Environments for Infants & Toddlers (3 credits)
    • ECE 345 Infant & Toddler Learning & Development (3 credits)
    • ECE 347 Culture, Family & Childcare (3 credits)

    Information Systems Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting, Business Administration, Health Care Administration, Public Relations and Marketing and Sports and Recreation Management degree programs only.

    • INF 231 Programming Concepts (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • INF 322 Database Management Systems (3 credits)    
      Prerequisites: INF 231 and Mathematical competency
    • INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: INF 231
    • INF 340 Business Systems Analysis (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: Information Technology competency

    Instructional Design Specialization (12 credits)

    Available for Bachelor of Arts in Education Studies degree program only.

    • EDU 120 Principles of Instructional Design (3 credits)
    • EDU 232 Instructional Design for E-Learning (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: EDU 120
    • EDU 335 Design Concepts & Applications for Online Learning (3 credits)    
      Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232
    • EDU 336 Evaluation of E-Learning (3 credits)    
      Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232

    International Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting, Business Administration, Health Care Administration, and Public Relations and Marketing degree programs only.

    • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
    • BUS 357 International Business (3 credits)
    • BUS 450 International Finance (3 credits)
    • ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)

    Logistics Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration, Entrepreneurship, International Business, Organizational Management, Operations Management and Analysis, and Public Administration only.

    • MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: MGT 330
    • MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: MGT 330
    • MGT 370 International Supply Chain Management (3 credits)
    • MGT 401 Hazardous Materials Management (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: MGT 330

    Long-Term Care Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in the Bachelor of Arts in Health and Human Services degree program only.

    • HCA 333 Introduction to Long-Term Care (3 credits)
    • HCA 442 Contemporary Issues in Aging (3 credits)
    • PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • SOC 304 Social Gerontology (3 credits)

    Long-Term Care Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Administration program only.

    • HCA 442 Contemporary Issues in Aging (3 credits)
    • HCA 444 Long-Term Care: The Consumer Perspective (3 credits)
    • PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent
    • SOC 304 Social Gerontology (3 credits)

    Marketing Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration and Sports and Recreation Management degree programs only.

    • BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
    • BUS 339 Marketing Research (3 credits)
    • BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
    • BUS 350 Consumer Behavior (3 credits)

    Operations Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting and Business Administration degree programs only.

    • BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques (3 credits)    Prerequisite: Mathematical competency
    • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
    • BUS 446 Production Operations Control (3 credits)
    • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: INF 103

    Project Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting, Business Administration, Health Care Administration, Organizational Management, Public Relations and Marketing, and Sports and Recreation Management degree programs only.

    • INF 336 Project Procurement Management (3 credits)    
      Prerequisite: INF 103
    • INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control (3 credits)   
      Prerequisite: ACC 205, and MAT 332 or BUS 308
    • BUS 445 Total Quality Management (3 credits)
    • INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)

    Public Administration Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Accounting, Business Administration, Health Care Administration, and Organizational Management degree programs only.

    • PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration (3 credits)
    • PPA 303 Finance for Public Administrators (3 credits)    Prerequisite: ECO 203
    • PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators (3 credits)
    • PPA 401 Urban Management (3 credits)    Prerequisite: PPA 301

    Sports and Recreation Management Specialization (12 credits)

    Available in Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration, Organizational Management and Public Administration degree programs only.

    • ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
    • BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
    • SRM 401 Sport Finance (3 credits)
    • SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management (3 credits)