Minors

Adding a minor to your degree program is an excellent way to broaden and enrich your education. A minor is a program of study consisting of 18-36 semester credit hours that is distinct from and supplements your major. You can begin your minor coursework at any time. A minor may be taken as a way to give a coherent pattern to elective hours, to expand career options, to prepare for graduate study, or simply to explore in greater depth an area different from your major. You may not select a minor in the exact same area of study as your major.

You may choose from the following minors:
Accounting
Advanced Science (BS degrees only)
Art Therapy
Arts Administration
Biology 
Botany
Business Administration
Business Economics
Chemistry
Child and Adolescent Learning and Development
Computer Graphic Design
Computer Science
Criminal Justice
e-Business
English and Communication
English as a Second Language 
Environmental Studies
Finance
Health Care Administration
History
Human Resources Management
Information Systems
International Management
Liberal Arts
Marketing
Mathematics
Music
Organizational Leadership
Organizational Management
Physical Education 
Political Science and Government
Psychology
Religious Studies
Social Science
Sociology
Sports and Recreation Management
Visual Art

Accounting Minor (18 credits):
ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II (3 credits)
ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I (3 credits)
ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II (3 credits)
ACC 310 Cost Accounting I (3 credits)
Choose one course (3 credits) from the following:
ACC 311 Cost Accounting II (3 credits)
ACC 380 Non-for-Profit Accounting (3 credits)
ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes (3 credits)
ACC 407 Advanced Accounting (3 credits)

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Advanced Science Minor (18 credits):

To earn an Advanced Science Minor, you must:

  • Be pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree within the College of Health, Human Services, and Science.
  • Complete a total of 18 credits in BIO, CHE, MAT, and PHY courses above general education and competencies, of which at least 9 credits must be upper-level courses.

No more than 9 credits may be applied toward both the minor and the major coursework.

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Art Therapy Minor (36 credits):

Please note: This minor is recommended for Psychology and Social Science majors only. Psychology coursework may be applied to both to the Art Therapy minor and the Psychology or Social Science major requirements. The Art Therapy minor entails 18 credits of coursework when applied outside major requirements for Psychology majors.

Psychology courses (12 credits):
PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development (3 credits)
PSY 304 Lifespan Development (3 credits)
PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology (3 credits)
Choose two courses (6 credits) from the following:
PSY 301 Social Psychology (3 credits)
PSY 330 Theories of Personality (3 credits)
PSY 311 Counseling Psychology (3 credits)
PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly (3 credits)
PSY 360 Survey of Mental Health (3 credits)
Art courses (12 credits):
ART 103 Two Dimensional Design (3 credits)
ART 105 Drawing I (3 credits)
ART 207 Painting I (3 credits)
ART 350 Advanced Art Seminar (2 credits)
ART 403 Art Therapy Practicum (1 credit) 
Choose one course (3 credits) from the following:
ART 204 Three-Dimensional Design/Sculptor (3 credits) 
ART 211/311 Ceramics I/II (3 credits) 
Choose one course (3 credits) from the following:
ART 215/315 Computer Art I/II (3 credits) 
ART 205 Drawing II (3 credits) 
ART 307 Painting II (3 credits)

 

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Arts Administration Minor (26 credits):
Required Courses (24 credits):
ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
ART 101 Art Appreciation (3 credits)
ART 103 Two-Dimensional Design (3 credits) OR
ART 105 Drawing I (3 credits)
MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
ENG 315 Business and Professional Writing (3 credits)
LIB 420 Applied Liberal Arts (3 credits)
MUS 101 Masterpieces of Music (3 credits)
Additional music requirement:
MUS 103 AU Concert Choir (1 credits) OR
MUS 125 AU Wind Ensemble (1 credits) OR
Recommended Electives:
LIB 301 Liberal Arts Seminar (3 credits)

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Biology Minor (20-22 credits):
Required Courses (12 credits):
BIO 103 Principles of General Biology I (4 credits)
BIO 105 General Zoology II (4 credits) OR
BOT 105 General Botany (4 credits)
CHE 151 General Chemistry I (4 credits)
8-10 credits of additional biology (BIO prefix) courses numbered 200 or higher

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Botany Minor (20-22 credits): 
Required Courses: 
BIO 103 Principles of General Biology I (4 credits) 
BOT 105 General Botany (4 credits)
12-14 credits of additional botany (BOT prefix) courses numbered 200 or higher

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Business Administration Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses (15 credits):
ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
Choose one course (3 credits) from the following:
ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)

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Business Economics Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits) OR
MAT 332 Applied Statistics (3 credits)
ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits)
ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)
ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth (3 credits)

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Chemistry Minor (21-22 credits):
Required Courses (18 credits):
CHE 151 General Chemistry I (4 credits)
CHE 152 General Chemistry II (4 credits)
CHE 301 Organic Chemistry I (5 credits)
CHE 302 Organic Chemistry II (5 credits)
Choose one additional course of at least 3 credits of CHE 300-level and above.

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Child and Adolescent Learning and Development Minor (24 credits):
Required Courses:
Choose 12 credits from the following, including one field-based course:
ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education (3 credits)*
ECE 212 Administration of Early Childhood Education Programs (3 credits)
EDU 200 Introduction to Education (Elementary and Secondary) and Field Experience (1 credit)*
EDU 203 Child and Adolescent Literature (3 credits)
EDU 215 Educational Psychology (3 credits)
EDU 230 Performing and Visual Arts
EDU 235 Health and Physical Education for Teachers
EDU 250 Foundations of American Education (2 credits)
EDU 270 Principles of Education (Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary) (2 credits)*
ERE 312 Secondary Content Reading (3 credits)
ERE 231 Techniques & Strategies for Corrective Reading (3 credits)
MAT 223 Math for Educators (3 credits)
MUS 225 Musical Skills for the Classroom Teacher (2 credits)
PED 205 Physical Education for the Elementary Teacher (2 credits)
PED 230 Health Education for the Elementary Teacher (2 credits)
PHI 205 Philosophy and Children (3 credits)
PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development
Choose 12 credits from the following:
EDU 300 Internship in Education (1-8 credits) OR
Another 300-level course as approved by faculty advisor and Education Division chair
EDU 310 Technology in the Classroom
EDU 370 Human Relation Skills for Educators
ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students (3 credits)
ESE 317 Mild/Moderate Disabilities (3 credits)
ESE 325 Behavior Management in the Classroom (3 credits)
SOC 312 Child, Family, and Society (3 credits)

*Field-based course

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Computer Graphic Design Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
ART 103 Two-Dimensional Design (3 credits)
ART 215 Computer Art I (3 credits)
CGD 217 Survey of Graphic Communications (3 credits)
CGD 240 Media Writing & Editing (3 credits)
CGD 253 Web Publishing (3 credits)
CGD 303 Publication Design (3 credits)

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Computer Science Minor (22-23 credits): 
Required Courses (19 credits):
INF 231 Programming Concepts (3 credits)
INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits)
INF 331 IS Programming (3 credits)
INF 431Advanced IS Programming (3 credits)
MAT 351 Calculus I with Analytic Geometry (4 credits)
MAT 320 Discrete Mathematics (3 credits)
Choose one course (3-4 credits) of the following:
MAT 352 Calculus II & Analytic Geometry (4 credits)
MAT 270 Linear Algebra (3 credits)
INF 322 Database Management Systems (3 credits)

A student may be required to demonstrate competency in programming if previous programming coursework is more than four years prior to enrollment at Ashford University. At least two programming courses, 200 level or above, must be taken at Ashford University.

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Criminal Justice Minor (18 credits):
Required courses (9 credits):
CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice (3 credits)
CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice (3 credits)
CRJ 303 Corrections (3 credits)
Choose three courses (9 credits) from the following (at least one of which must be a CRJ course):
CRJ 305 Crime Prevention (3 credits)
CRJ 311 Forensics (3 credits)
CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure (3 credits)
CRJ 320 Families & Domestic Violence (3 credits)
HIS 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution (INTD) (3 credits)
PSY 301 Social Psychology (3 credits)
PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology (3 credits)
POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits)
SOC 203 Social Problems (3 credits)
SOC 305 Crime & Society (3 credits)
SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups (3 credits)
SOC 312 Child, Family, & Society (3 credits)
SOC 320 Public Policy & Social Services (3 credits)

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e-Business Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
BUS 352 e-Business (3 credits)
CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business (3 credits)
CGD 253 Web Publishing (3 credits)

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English and Communication Minor (21 credits):

This minor allows students in other majors an opportunity to minor in the English and Communication area. The minor has been consciously structured to allow considerable latitude in selecting courses. This way, students desiring a more literature-based program can pattern the minor accordingly, while those seeking a program emphasizing a more applied approach stressing communication skills can do likewise by taking a different array of courses.

Required courses (3 credits):
ENG 325 Intermediate Composition (3 credits)
Choose one upper-level speech course (3 credits):
SPE 301 Oral Interpretation (3 credits) OR
SPE 315 Business and Professional Speaking (3 credits)
Choose 15 credits (12 credits at 300-level or higher) from any of the courses that satisfy track requirements in the English and Communication major.

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English as a Second Language Minor
(18 credits):
ELL 240 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners (3 credits)
ELL 242 Understanding & Teaching English Language (3 credits)
ELL 361 Language Learning in a Global Context (3 credits)
ELL 420 Testing & Assessment for ELL Students (3 credits)
ESL 100 Intermediate Grammar (2 credits)
ESL 106 Intermediate Writing (1 credit)
ENG 321 Introductory Linguistics (3 credits)

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Environmental Studies Minor
(24 credits): 
Required Courses:
ENV/BIO 300 Environmental Biology (3 credits) 
ENV/BUS 345 Business and the Environment (3 credits) 
ENV/POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits) 
LIB 301 Divisional Seminar* (3 credits) OR
LIB 303 Concentration Seminar (3 credits) 
LIB 315 Environment and the Human Spirit (INTD) (3 credits) 
Choose 9 credits from the following:
ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (3 credits) 
BIO 201 Microbiology (4 credits) 
BIO 210/310 Field Techniques Laboratory (4 credits) 
CHE 301 Organic Chemistry I (5 credits) 
ENV/BIO 101 Humanity and the Environment (4 credits) 
ENV/CHE 108 Introductory Environmental Chemistry (4 credits) 
ENV 420 Environmental Internship (3 credits) 
LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution (INTD) (3 credits) 
LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (INTD) (3 credits) 
MAT 332 Applied Statistics (3 credits) 
PHI 310 Concentration Seminar (3 credits) 
LIB 315 Franciscanism Yesterday and Today (3 credits) 
PHY 105 Introduction to Physical Science (4 credits) OR
Any 100 level physical science course

* Division Seminars other than the Concentration Seminar must be approved by the Program Chair.
**Special topics must be approved by the Program Chair.

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Finance Minor
(18 credits): 
Required Courses:
ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits) 
BUS 215 Personal Financial Management (3 credits) 
ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets (3 credits) 
BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits) 
BUS 405 Principles of Investments (3 credits) 
BUS 430 Finance Seminar (3 credits) 

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Health Care Administration Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses (9 credits):
HCA 305 US Health Care System (3 credits)
HCA 340 Human Managing Health and Human Services: An Interdisciplinary Approach (3 credits)
HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law (3 credits)
Choose three courses (9 credits) from the following:
HCA 421 Health Care Planning (3 credits)
HCA 281 Accounting Concepts for Health Care Professionals (3 credits)
HCA 311 Health Care Financing & Information Systems (3 credits)
BUS 303 Human Resources Management (3 credits)
SOC 313 Social Implications of Medical Issues (3 credits)
HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring and Accreditation (3 credits)
HCA 415 Community & Public Health (3 credits)
HCA 430 Special Populations (3 credits)

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History Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
HIS 103 World Civilizations I (3 credits) OR
HIS 104 World Civilizations II (3 credits)
HIS 203 American History to 1865 (3 credits) OR
HIS 204 American History Since 1865 (3 credits)
HIS 303 The American Constitution (3 credits )
HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe (3 credits)
HIS 379 The Atlantic World (3 credits)
HIS 340 Recent American History (3 credits)

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Human Resources Management Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
BUS 303 Human Resources Management (3 credits)
BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits)
BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations (3 credits)
BUS 375 Employee Training (3 credits)
BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management (3 credits)

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Information Systems Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits)
INF 231 Programming Concepts (3 credits)
INF 340 Business Systems Analysis (3 credits)
INF 322 Database Management Systems (3 credits)
INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts (3 credits)
INF 410 Project Management (3 credits)

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International Management Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
ECO 320 International Economics (3 credits)
BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
BUS 378 International Business Law (3 credits)
BUS 357 International Business (3 credits)
BUS 439 International Human Resources Management (3 credits)
BUS 450 International Finance (3 credits)

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Liberal Arts Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
One Liberal Arts Seminar (3 credits) from the following Liberal Arts areas: fine arts, humanities, science, or social science.
Two interdisciplinary (LIB) courses (6 credits)
Three Liberal Arts courses (9 credits) beyond the General Education requirements including at least two upper-division (300+) courses, and courses from at least two Liberal Arts areas (e.g., fine arts, humanities, science, and social science). 

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Marketing Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
BUS 336 Marketing Strategy (3 credits)
BUS 339 Marketing Research (3 credits)
BUS 343 International Marketing (3 credits)
BUS 350 Consumer Behavior (3 credits)

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Mathematics Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
MAT 351 Calculus I with Analytic Geometry (4 credits)
MAT 352 Calculus II with Analytic Geometry (4 credits)
MAT 353 Calculus III (4 credits)
MAT 270 Linear Algebra (3 credits)
Choose one course (3 credits) from the following:
MAT 320 Discrete Mathematics (3 credits)
MAT 300 History of Mathematics (3 credits)
MAT 362 Modern Algebras (3 credits)
MAT 364 Modern Geometries (3 credits)

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Music Minor (24 credits):
Required Courses (21 credits):
MUS 101 Masterpieces of Music (3 credits)
MUS 105 Music Theory I (3 credits)
MUS 106 Music Theory II (3 credits)
MUS 107 Ear Training/Sight Singing I (1 credit)
MUS 108 Ear Training/Sight Singing II (3 credits)
MUS 250 Conducting I (2 credits)
Ensemble (4 semesters, 1 credit each)
Applied Music (4 semesters, 1 credit each)
Choose one course (3 credits) from the following:
MUS 255/355 Music in the United States (3 credits)
MUS 257 The American Musical Theater (3 credits)
MUS 350 Music in Western Civilization I (3 credits)
MUS 351 Music in Western Civilization II (3 credits)
LIB 327 World Music (INTD) (3 credits)

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Organizational Leadership Minor (18 credits):
Required courses (15 credits):
LIB 125 Contemporary Issues in Leadership (3 credits)
BUS 250 Corporate & Social Responsibility (3 credits)
MGT 321 Assessing Leadership Skills (3 credits)
MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations (3 credits)
MGT 425 Leadership & Motivation (3 credits)
Elective (3 credits):
SRV 220 Service Learning: Values & Actions (3 credits) OR
BUS 420 Internship (3 credits)

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Organizational Management Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations (3 credits)
MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
Choose one course (3 credits) in leadership:
LIB 125 Contemporary Issues in Organizational Leadership (3 credits)
MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
Choose one course (3 credits) in communication:
SPE 315 Business and Professional Speaking (3 credits)
ENG 315 Business and Professional Communication (3 credits)
COM 425 Communication in Organizations (3 credits)

 

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Physical Education Minor
 (23 credits):
Required courses:

PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development (3 credits)

PED 104 Personal Health & Wellness (2 credits)

PED 212 Foundation of Movement & Motor Activities (3 credits)

ECE 214 Nutrition & Health of Children & Families (3 credits)

PED 335 Curriculum & Administration of Physical Education (3 credits)
PED 240 Applied Kinesiology & Biomechanics (3 credits)

Select one course (3 credits) from the following:
PED 217 Individual & Team Sports Skills (3 credits)

ESE/PED 340 Adapted Physical Education (3 credits)

Select three courses (3 credits) from the Strategies courses:
PED 170 Teaching Baseball Strategies (1 credit)

PED 171 Teaching Basketball Strategies (1 credit)

PED 172 Teaching Football Strategies (1 credit)

PED 173 Teaching Golf Strategies (1 credit)

PED 174 Teaching Wrestling Strategies (1 credit)

PED 175 Teaching Soccer Strategies (1 credit)

PED 176 Teaching Cheerleading Strategies (1 credit)

PED 177 Teaching Softball Strategies (1 credit)

PED 178 Teaching Volleyball Strategies (1 credit)

PED 179 Teaching Track & Field Strategies (1 credit)

PED 180 Teaching Swimming Strategies (1 credit)

PED 181 Teaching Tennis Strategies (1 credit)

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Political Science and Government Minor
(18 credits): 
Required Courses:
POL 201 American National Government (3 credits) 
POL 303 The American Constitution (3 credits) 
POL 310 Environmental Policies (3 credits) 
POL 211 Introduction to Politics (3 credits) 
POL 353 Comparative Politics (3 credits) 
POL 355 International Relations (3 credits)

 

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Psychology Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses (9 credits):
PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology (3 credits)
PSY 325 Statistics for Behavioral & Social Sciences (3 credits)
PSY 326 Research Methods (3 credits)
Select three (9 credits) additional upper-level (300-level or above) Psychology courses

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Religious Studies Minor
(18 credits): 
Required Courses:
REL 113 Comparative Religions (3 credits)
REL 114 Comparative Religions II (3 credits)
Choose four courses (12 credits) from the following:
ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual (3 credits)
REL 301 Person & Faith (3 credits)
REL 303 Contemporary Human Problems (3 credits)
REL 125/325 Christianity (3 credits)
PHI 310 Franciscanism Yesterday & Today (3 credits)

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Social Science Minor (21 credits):

The Social Science minor provides an opportunity for students in other majors to pattern their electives in such a way as to demonstrate a basic familiarity with the social sciences. This will allow them to present themselves to prospective employers or graduate programs as having pursued a well-rounded undergraduate education and as having a familiarity with disciplines that help to explain the human condition.

Required courses:

LIB 307 Social Science Seminar: Race Relations in America (3 credits)
Interdisciplinary (LIB) course from the multidisciplinary Social Science block of the Social Science major.
Five Social Science courses that include coursework in at least three Social Science disciplines (ANT, ECO, HIS, POL, PSY, SOC).

Courses may also apply to General Education requirements, but at least 15 of the 21 credits must be at the 300-level or above.

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Sociology Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology (3 credits)
SOC 203 Social Problems (3 credits)
SOC 304 Social Gerontology (3 credits)
SOC 305 Crime & Society (3 credits)
SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups (3 credits)
SOC 312 Child, Family, & Society (3 credits)

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Sports and Recreation Management Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses:
ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I (3 credits)
MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits) OR
BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
SOC 318 Sociology of Sport (3 credits)
SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports & Recreation Management (3 credits)

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Visual Art Minor (18 credits):
Required Courses (12 credits):
ART 101 Art Appreciation (3 credits) OR
ART 200/300 Art Appreciation II: Modern Art (3 credits)
ART 103 Two-Dimensional Design (3 credits)
ART 105 Drawing I (3 credits)
ART 207 Painting I (3 credits)
Choose two courses (6 credits) from the following:
ART 204 Three-Dimensional Design/Sculpture (3 credits)
ART 205 Drawing II (3 credits)
ART 211/311 Ceramics I/II (3 credits)
ART 215/315 Computer Art I/II (3 credits)
ART 225 Photography I (3 credits)
ART 307 Painting II (3 credits)
ART 320 Printmaking II (3 credits)
ART 325 Photography II (3 credits)
CGD 217 Survey of Graphic Communications (3 credits)
CGD 303 Publication Design (3 credits)

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