Minors

Whether you want to complete an online Bachelor's degree program for Early Childhood Education or pursue an online Health Care Administration Bachelor's degree, you can add value to your education. Pursue a minor, worth 18 credits (six courses), to expand your career options, prepare for graduate study, or simply to explore an area other than your major.

Minors:

Accounting

Earn a minor that adds up to success. Build a solid foundation of accounting concepts, skills and practical applications with a minor in Accounting. You will better understand the business environment through study of business administration, economics, and quantitative methods.

ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II
Primarily covers the principles of managerial accounting. Emphasis on reporting to individuals inside the organization. Major concepts include job order costing, process costing, budgets and standards, and statement analysis.

ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I
Covers the corporate balance sheet and its related problems. Balance sheet items examined in detail explaining the theory behind various methods of application to accounts: cash, temporary investments, receivables, inventories, plant and intangible assets, and long-term investments.

ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II
A continuation of ACC 305. Covers the rest of the balance sheet: current liabilities, long-term liabilities, leases, pensions, and contributed capital retained earnings. Other topics include non-operating income, earnings per share, statement of changes in financial position, and impact of changing prices.

ACC 310 Cost Accounting I
Covers traditional "cost" concepts: factory overhead, cost accumulation, job order cost system, process cost system, joint product and byproduct costing, standard costs and variances.

ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I
A study of federal income tax laws and their application to individuals, partnerships, and corporations.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Accounting degree program.

Business Administration

Customize your own degree! Receive a broad-based understanding of the field of business and competition in the free-market economy. Complete the minor for Business Administration, and accelerate your career.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

BUS 303 Human Resources Management
An introduction to the field of human resources management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

BUS 311 Business Law I
This course involves the study of contemporary issues of business law. The class will focus on how these legal issues influence traditional business operations, e-commerce and information technology. The course will address such topics as: business ethics, online commerce, contracts, business organizations, employment law and international law.

BUS 330 Principles of Marketing
The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics
Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration or Bachelor of Arts in Business Economics degree programs.

Business Economics

Plan for a successful future when you add the Business Economics minor to your Bachelor's degree program. By earning your minor in Business Economics, you will build both technical and business skills.

BUS 308 Statistics for Managers*
This course examines the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in business decision making. Additionally, the course focuses on the utilization of statistical methods as applied to business problems and operations.

ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics
Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed.

ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics
Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed.

ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets
A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the US economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments.

ECO 320 International Economics
This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade.

ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth
Topics include analysis of economic fluctuations and their impact on corporations and consumers; different explanations for business cycles; monetary and fiscal policy for stabilizing economic fluctuations; effects of public debt, investment, employment and trade policy on economic growth.

* Math competency must be met before taking this course.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Business Economics degree program.

Child Development

Cultivate your understanding of children and families by adding a minor in Child Development to your Bachelor's degree. If you are pursuing your Bachelor's degree in a related field like education, psychology, health, or social work, then you will benefit from understanding the issues that affect children's growth. You will explore multiple stages of child development, as well as how to work with children.

PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development
This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through adolescence. Students are provided the opportunity to explore the "what," "how," and "when" of physical motor, cognitive, emotional, moral, aesthetic, and language development. Exploration is emphasized through activities that allow students to understand and appreciate both typical and atypical development within the context of the family and society and to recognize the impact of individual, cultural, and linguistic differences on development.

SOC 312 Child, Family, & Society
This course provides an overview of the child (infant through elementary) and the reciprocal relationships children develop with their family, their school, and the world in which they live. Theories pertaining to the roles and relationships within and between families, schools, and communities are introduced with an emphasis on enabling students to identify family needs and concerns and to use a variety of collaborative communication and problem-solving skills to assist families in finding the best available community resources to meet these needs. Students themselves explore various community resources that further the development of the child's potential.

ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children
This course provides an introduction to the developmental stages of language acquisition in young children from birth to the age of 6. The focus of the course is on the facilitation of language acquisition in young children.

ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children
Gain knowledge of cognitive and brain development in children from birth to eight years of age. The variations in rates of cognitive development and the impact on development in other areas will be explored throughout the course. Students will apply this knowledge to designing programs to meet the needs of children with varying needs and abilities.

ECE 354 Assessment & Intervention During Early Childhood
This course explores the issues around early assessment and intervention with young children. Specific developmental concerns will be identified and intervention programs will be examined.

ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics
This course explores developmental theory and the relationship to the socialization and education of young children in child rearing, caring, and education. Special emphasis will be placed upon exploring how the child is viewed in the context of his or her family and the community at large.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Child Development degree program.

Cultural Anthropology

Examine how people organize themselves and create meaning with your minor in Cultural Anthropology. Study religious belief systems, family structures, and the nature of war. For this minor, the following three courses are required. The remaining three courses may be chosen from the second list of elective courses.

ANT 234 Family, Kin, & Groups 
The course explores kinship systems, ethnicity, neighborhood and other social arrangements in various cultural settings through the reading of selected ethnographic materials. Students will study the kinship on a cross-cultural and worldwide basis, beginning with immediate social ties in familial contexts to broad connotations in ethnic, national, and universal domains.

ANT 307 Anthropology of War
An examination of the nature of war, as it occurs in societies from the pre-industrial to the postmodern. The course surveys anthropological explanations regarding the phenomenon of war. Emphasis is on understanding the complexity, variability, and cultural embeddedness of war as it occurs around the world.

ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual
This course examines the nature of religious belief systems, myth and ritual, witchcraft, and magic and sorcery in various societies of the world. These behavioral and symbolic forms exist or have existed in virtually all human societies and cultures. In this course, students will study many different belief systems, define these entities; and develop an understanding of how they work in societies. The differences among traditions in nation states on cultures and political systems will be explored.

Choose three of the following courses:

ANT 340 Anthropological Theory
This course explores anthropological theory in a historical perspective focusing on the rise of a distinct anthropological perspective on the comparative study of human societies and cultures. The course will detail various theoretical models developed in the 19th and 20th centuries to explain the similarities and differences in cultural systems.

ANT343 Language, Culture, and Communication
This course is an introduction to the study of the relationship of language and culture, including examination of the characteristics and structural principles of natural language. After exploring the basic characteristics of sound, word formation, and sentence structure, these principles are applied to such topics as: language variation, language change, psycholinguistics, and pragmatics.

ANT 347 Urban Anthropology 
This course is an introduction to urban anthropology, with an emphasis on rural-urban migrations, adjustment and assimilation of urban migrants, urban kinship and family structure, poverty culture, rural-urban typologies, and the application of anthropological methods to the study of urban societies.

ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender 
This course examines cross-cultural analysis of gender roles, while focusing on non-Western societies, using data from other societies to better understand the gender system of our own culture. Issues include status of women and men, the meaning of "femaleness" and "maleness" historically and in contemporary society. Gender roles, transnational migrations, social movements, international relations and religion are explored.

ANT 348 Native American Anthropology 
This course examines the nature and distribution of North American Indian cultures from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Through the use of archaeological, anthropological, and contemporary community studies, this course will explore the diversity of traditional North American Indian and Inuit cultures and the adaptation of indigenous peoples to America.

ANT 464 Applied Anthropology 
This course introduces the use of anthropology and its application to problem solving in the areas of cultural dynamics, public policy, and contemporary social problems such as health, housing, nutrition, and education. Students will learn how anthropologists conduct research to address issues and solve problems facing living communities across the globe.
Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Cultural Anthropology degree program.

Entrepreneurship

Prepare to launch and manage entrepreneurial enterprises. You will increase your business and your technical skills when you add the Entrepreneurship minor to your Bachelor's degree.

BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship
This course introduces students to the opportunities and challenges associated with the creation and management of entrepreneurial organizations. The course focuses on the issues associated with starting and managing a new venture including recognizing opportunity, basic business planning, essential human resource management, introductory marketing, legal issues, location selection, funding, buying a business as well as discussing various exit strategies.

BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation
This course focuses on creativity and innovation as a process in organizations. The course also examines how individuals can be innovative in organizations and the challenge of building innovative organizations.

BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking
This course examines financing the start-up of a new venture, from bootstrapping with personal resources or bank debt to equity investment by angel investors or venture capitalists. The course also covers the four main aspects of venture capital: valuation, deal structuring, governance, and harvesting.

BUS 433 New Business Strategy
This course is intended to provide prospective entrepreneurs with information and tools for evaluating opportunities for starting a new firm, how to choose markets for entry, when to enter, and what resources and capabilities it will take to enter and provide a platform for future growth.

BUS 435 Small Business Ventures
This course explores the strategic planning, operating, financing, legal, career and other business issues found in launching a small business or operating family-owned and managed companies or privately-held firms. Other course topics include the challenge of identifying viable business opportunities, gaining the appropriate business skills and tools to be successful, and defining the capital requirements to operate the business.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Entrepreneurship degree program.

Finance

Add to your Bachelor's degree with a minor in Finance. You will bridge the fields of finance and business to gain an understanding of the theoretical and practical approaches of financial management.

ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

BUS 215 Personal Financial Management
This course provides an introduction to the field of personal financial management and planning, focusing on the tools individuals and families employ to manage their financial affairs.

ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets
A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the US economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments.

BUS 401 Principles of Finance
Basic corporate finance is presented with the emphasis on risk and return, bond and equity markets, valuation of bonds and equities, present value analysis, internal rate of return analysis, and project analysis using the weighted average cost of capital.

BUS 405 Principles of Investments
The study and analysis of securities and other forms of investments. Emphasis is on investment principles from the manager's point of view.

BUS 430 Finance Seminar
Using readings and case studies, students gain understanding the types of analysis performed and decisions made by the financial managers of corporations, focusing on valuation concepts and managing for value. Students also explore specific financing and investing decisions made by the firm's management to mitigate corporate risk using insurance and financial derivatives; valuation of real options; real estate investment decision; issues and methods of corporate financial management in an international environment.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Finance degree program.

Health Care Administration

Prepare to be in high demand! Take care of your career with a minor in Health Care Administration and explore many facets of the rapidly expanding health care industry.

HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care
This is an introductory course that explores the historical evolution of health care in the United States, its financing sources, technology, delivery of care and the stakeholders who comprise the health care system. The structure of the health care system, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, better known as Obamacare, will be discussed along with the various components that influence health care such as legal, ethical, regulatory, and fiscal forces. Students will also explore other health care systems and examine the potential future of health care in the United States.

HCA 340 Managing in Health and Human Services: An Interdisciplinary Approach
An upper-level management course providing basic management theory for the beginning manager. Management challenges, human service environments, management theories, organizational design, program planning and implementing supervisory relations, managing finances program evaluation, leadership theories and teams in organizations are explored.

HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law
Ethics and Medical Law is a course presenting the ethical and legal implications of health care administration. The unique legal aspects encountered in the provision of health services are analyzed. Concepts of access, affordability, health care interventions and human rights are interfaced with legal and ethical issues challenging the provision of health care services. Concepts of risk management, continuous quality assurance, guardianship, Institutional Review Boards, and needs of special and diverse populations provide discussion points in the course. The overlapping domains of ethics and medical law are examined. Case studies and discussion of ethical and legal precedent setting decisions are used to link theory with reality.

HCA 415 Community & Public Health
Community and public health is an introductory course exploring community and public health services in the well-being of a population. Regulatory mandates promoting public and community health are explored. The interface among community and public health services and the overall health care industry is explored. Legal and ethical imperatives emergent in public health services are discussed. Financing options are explored recognizing the role of categorical fiscal resources. Health care promotion and prevention strategies are explored in concert with the role of health care institutions and the public sector. Health information data is utilized in the planning of a community and/or public health project.

HCA 421 Health Care Planning & Evaluation
Health Care Planning and Evaluation utilizes health care research data, research protocols, and information systems in the planning, implementation and evaluation of health care programs meeting the health care needs of a diverse population. Historical perspectives are discussed in tandem with current health programs and future challenges. The impact of public entities in controlling the demand aspects of health services is discussed in light of regulatory legislation. Planning strategies to meet the needs of a diverse population are explored from both the public and private sector. Discussion of the efficacy and efficiencies of past and current programs provide opportunities for analysis of past and on-going service demand and client outcomes. Development of a health care model applying the concepts of reimbursement, supply and demand, contractual adjustments and patient mix in to the planning and evaluation process.

HCA 430 Special Populations
Special Populations is a topics course exploring health care services for special populations. The populations include: mental health, substance addiction, rehabilitation, geriatrics and selected specialty services. The course is problem focused emphasizing access, cost-quality issues and financing considerations. Health information data is utilized as resources for the analysis of demand, quality and cost-efficiency. Historical perspectives are presented as shaping factors influencing the present models of health services for special populations. Government mandates, categorical services, legal, ethical, and reimbursement issues are presented as driving forces in the provision of special population health services. Multidisciplinary models of special population health service models are discussed. Learners will develop a model program for a self-selected special population.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Administration or the Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Studies degree programs.

Human Resources Management

Elevate your Bachelor's degree by adding a specialization in Human Resources Management. You will develop the skills and knowledge critical to effectiveness in this essential organizational function.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations
The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

BUS 303 Human Resources Management
An introduction to the field of human resources management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

BUS 370 Organizational Development
The course overviews how, why, and when to integrate the behavioral sciences with human resource management principles to increase individual and organizational effectiveness. Students will also be introduced to many types of interpersonal, intra-group, inter-group, and organizational interventions that are used to effect comprehensive and lasting changes.

BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations
The course provides students with both the common and complex issues related to human behavior in the workplace as it relates to employee relations, and an examination of relationships among unions, workers, management, laws and government regulation.

BUS 375 Employee Training
This course provides essential managerial-level comprehension of training theory and its practical applications in the business and management environment. Students learn the functions and duties of training: trainer/developer, the identification and assessment of training needs, program design and development, selection of delivery methods and means of instruction, the implementation of training programs, and evaluation.

BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management
This course reviews the fundamentals of wage and salary programs, including conducting salary surveys, defining compensable factors, adjusting pay structures, evaluating pay differentials, and relating pay to performance. Benefit programs and related employee incentive and service programs are also covered.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Human Resources Management or Organizational Management degree programs.

Information Systems

Take advantage of a wide range of opportunities in one of the fastest growing areas in business organizations. You will increase both business and technical skills with an Information Systems minor added to your Bachelor's degree.

INF 220 IS Principles
An introduction to the systems designed to support the information needs of the business functions of an organization. Topics include basic computer architecture, computer communications, models of information systems, information security, organizing and managing the information systems department, software and hardware acquisition, and the ethics involved in the management of information.

INF 231 Programming Concepts
An introduction to the methodology of programming and the construction of graphical user interfaces. Students are introduced to programming through the use of current programming languages(s). Emphasis is on structured design, coding, graphical user interfaces, event-driven programming, and documentation. A variety of programming problems develop skills in algorithm design, file processing data structures, and event handling.

INF 340 Business Systems Analysis
This course studies the problems and needs of organizations and how business functions, staff, data, business processes, and technology can be used to achieve organizational goals and objectives. The focus is on assessment for improvement of the business and its functions.

INF 322 Database Management Systems
This course provides an introduction to the concepts of database processing. An understanding of the physical and logical organization of data and the meaningful representation of data relationships are evaluated. Operational requirements of database management systems are also discussed.

INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts
A study of real-time and distributed-processing computer networks including telecommunications, data transmission techniques (protocols), design, and implementation considerations.

INF 410 Project Management
This course provides the foundational principles and techniques to plan, execute, and manage complex projects. Topics include workflow analysis, quality control, and performance evaluation.

This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Business Information Systems degree program.

International Management

Broaden your Bachelor's degree with a minor in International Management. You will prepare to exercise leadership in a diverse array of international and multicultural scenarios.

ECO 320 International Economics
This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade.

BUS 343 International Marketing
Examination of cultural, economic, and political factors that affect marketing of goods and services worldwide. Emphasis is on adapting the marketing strategies of domestic marketers to international operations and the institutional structure that exists in international markets. Marketing strategies of firms' operations within these markets are also examined.

BUS 357 International Business
Students examine functional areas of business from an international perspective. The importance of differing cultural and political assumptions in business is also addressed.

BUS 378 International Business Law
This courses focuses on the legal environment associated with international commercial transactions, including an analysis of major Western and non-Western legal traditions and the supranational law of the European Community, a detailed analysis of the negotiation, formation, enforcement, and financing of international sales contracts, an analysis of international trade regulation, analysis of methods of regulating global competition, and of the protection of business property rights in international transactions.

BUS 439 International Human Resources Management
In this course, students will examine human resources practices in an international business environment. The course also addresses HR strategies and practices to increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency as well as international compliance problems faced by HR professionals.

BUS 450 International Finance
An examination of the international aspects of corporate finance and investing, the course covers balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international banking.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in International Business degree program.

Logistics Management

Coordinate your career for success by earning your minor in Logistics Management. You will learn how to distribute products, services, and material while preparing for a career managing transportation, warehouses, and supply chains.

BUS 445 Total Quality Management
This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control.

INF 220 IS Principles
An introduction to the systems designed to support the information needs of the business functions of an organization. Topics include basic computer architecture, computer communications, models of information systems, information security, organizing and managing the information systems department, software and hardware acquisition, and the ethics involved in the management of information.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management
This course introduces logistics/physical distribution and supply, and the related costs. It provides a systematic overview and analysis of the elements of logistics functions in widely varying types of industries and agencies, including handling, warehousing, inventory control, and financial controls.

MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management
This course focuses on intermodal transportation as part of supply chain management. The course addresses the development of the global transportation system, transportation regulation, the modes of transportation and how they interface, shipper issues, intermodal transportation management, and the future in transportation.

MGT 401 Hazardous Materials Management
This course addresses the significant issues associated with handling hazardous materials in a logistical system. The course also provides a firm foundation on basic hazardous materials management principles. Topics include definitions of hazardous materials, regulatory overview, technology to treat different hazardous materials, and tracking and manifest rules.

Marketing

Explore different ways in which marketing and advertising shape our modern business world by adding a minor in Marketing to your Bachelor's degree. You will expand your experience with branding, research, and consumer behavior.

BUS 330 Principles of Marketing
The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising
This course is designed to introduce students to the field of advertising as a promotional force with emphasis on institutions, planning, strategic practices, and tactical decisions made by advertising executives. It will also explore the various career opportunities including account executive, media buying, copywriting, production, and research.

BUS 336 Marketing Strategy
The objective of this course is to advance the students' ability to develop, implement, and critically evaluate the marketing strategy for a product or service. It will provide the conceptual frameworks and hone the analytical and creative skills that are necessary to define and develop superior value, persuasively communicate that value, profitably deliver it to a carefully selected target market, and sustain both the value and the profitability in the face of ever-changing customer needs and competitive offerings.

BUS 339 Marketing Research
Study and analysis of the marketing information system. Includes the organizational characteristics of marketing research, basic tools and procedures, and management science applications.

BUS 343 International Marketing
Examination of cultural, economic, and political factors that affect marketing of goods and services worldwide. Emphasis is on adapting the marketing strategies of domestic marketers to international operations and the institutional structure that exists in international markets. Marketing strategies of firms' operations within these markets are also examined.

BUS 350 Consumer Behavior
This course illustrates the psychological, socio-cultural, and decision-making aspects of consumer behavior. Students study behavioral concepts, motivation, and the role of consumer behavior in our society.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Public Relations and Marketing degree program.

Operations Management

Steer your career toward success by earning your minor in Operations Management. You will learn how to plan and implement best practices that build efficiency and productivity.

BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques
A survey of relevant quantitative techniques commonly used in accounting, business, and information systems. Topics will vary but, typically, elementary probability theory and applications, decision theory, and linear programming are included.

BUS 308 Statistics for Managers*
This course examines the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in business decision making. Additionally, the course focuses on the utilization of statistical methods as applied to business problems and operations.

INF 336 Project Procurement Management
Designed to develop the basic knowledge base of project managers and project procurement managers, this course emphasizes partnering between buyers and sellers to create a single culture with one set of goals and objectives. Students will discover the key areas in procuring outside services and products - from the initial decision to buy through final contract closeout. They will recognize what must be done for success in the six key project procurement management processes: procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout. They will also formulate the make-or-buy decision, prepare an effective procurement management plan to guide the team, and use outsourcing for maximum benefit. Lessons and best practices from procurement theory and experience are also presented.

INF 340 Business Systems Analysis
This course studies the problems and needs of organizations and how business functions, staff, data, business processes, and technology can be used to achieve organizational goals and objectives. The focus is on assessment for improvement of the business and its functions.

BUS 445 Total Quality Management
This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control.

BUS 446 Production Operations Control
Students analyze production control requirements as applied to both "push" and "pull" production environments. Students further learn to capture data and prepare for product changes in a variety of manufacturing environments.

* Math competency must be met before taking this course.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Operations Management and Analysis degree program.

Organizational Management

Explore the human side of organizations, improve your understanding of how they function, and develop effective skills in management and leadership when you pursue your minor in Organizational Management.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations
Several leadership styles are examined in this course. Emphasis is placed on developing effective leadership in organizations and personal enterprises, and on developing ethical leadership perspectives in personal and professional decision-making.

BUS 303 Human Resources Management
An introduction to the field of human resources management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations
Theory and research are applied to the study of group dynamics, processes encountered in the small-group setting, and how organizational effectiveness is impacted by small-group and team functioning. The course focuses on group productivity, decision-making, diversity, group communication, resolving group conflict and building effective teams.

MGT 435 Organizational Change
In this course, students will study and apply alternative theories, models and strategies for creating and managing organizational change. The effectiveness of management tools in initiating problem-solving and decision-making to bring about change within organizations is evaluated.

COM 425 Communication in Organizations
This course investigates the role of communication in creating an effective and ethical organizational environment. Students will be assisted in developing and strengthening such communication skills as self-awareness, intrapersonal efficacy, interpersonal competence, and leadership and team skills.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Management degree program.

Political Science & Government

Learn about the complex inner workings of the United States government and the global environment. Discover how your elected officials represent your interests by earning your Minor in Political Science & Government.

POL 201 American National Government
A survey of government at the national level. Emphasis is placed on the constitutional basis of American government, federalism, the sources and forms of political behavior, the operation of the three branches of government, and the making of national policy.

POL 303 The American Constitution
This course is a study of the Constitution of the United States and its role in American history and government. The study covers the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, its subsequent amendment and interpretation, and its contemporary role in American politics and government.

POL 310 Environmental Policies
Environmental Policies examines the political, social, and economic implications of environmental policy in the United States and the global environment. It, also, explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment.

POL 211 Introduction to Politics
This course is an introduction to selected institutions, processes, and political behaviors associated with the study of politics in the United States and globally.

POL 353 Comparative Politics
This course introduces the basic concepts and theories of comparative politics through an analysis of selected political systems and governments from various regions and societies across the world. Topical analysis in the course includes an emphasis on key political institutions, political culture, ideology, globalization, conflict and stability, various state and non-state actors, and on issues associated with economic development and underdevelopment.

POL 355 International Relations
The course in international relations is the study of relations between different nations of the world with an emphasis on understanding the political implications of international security matters and the international political economy. The topical emphasis on nationalism, diplomacy, conflict, international organizations and actors, human rights, political economy, and key global issues offers insights into the principles of identity, cooperation, and the use of power in an international context.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Government degree program.

Project Management

Build on your Bachelor's degree with a minor in Project Management. You will be well-equipped to seize new opportunities in this fast-growing field.

INF 338 Leadership & Communication Skills for Project Managers
This course enables students to develop the necessary skills to elicit maximum performance from every member of a team. Students will uncover the styles of leadership that are most appropriate for achieving project success and discover which forms of leadership and communication styles are best suited to their personalities. They will also learn techniques for resolving conflict and managing personnel issues and gain hands-on experience in analyzing stages of team development and maximizing project team effectiveness.

INF 342 Project Quality Assurance
This course will address topics as defining, planning, executing and closing projects. We will introduce an overall framework for managing projects, describe how to set up a project, and provide a forum for sharing practical techniques for managing projects. Several topics are discussed, including how to build a project plan, risk management, issue management, project marketing, communications, quality assurance, project measurements and the psychology of project management.

INF 336 Project Procurement Management
Designed to develop the basic knowledge base of project managers and project procurement managers, this course emphasizes partnering between buyers and sellers to create a single culture with one set of goals and objectives. Students will discover the key areas in procuring outside services and products from the initial decision to buy through final contract closeout. They will recognize what must be done for success in the six key project procurement management processes: procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout. They will also formulate the make-or-buy decision, prepare an effective procurement management plan to guide the team, and use outsourcing for maximum benefit. Lessons and best practices from procurement theory and experience are also presented.

INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control
Effective cost and schedule management are cornerstone activities of each project. Students will determine how best to plan the execution of a project scope, to consider stakeholder budget and schedule constraints, to use different methodologies, and to establish the performance measurement baseline. They will also discover keys to identify potential cost and schedule overruns and master the tools and techniques to compare actual work accomplished against established plans, as well as work accomplished against actual expenditures. By identifying early warning indicators, students will gain greater insight into potential risk areas and take the necessary corrective action to keep the project in control.

INF 410 Project Management
This course provides the foundational principles and techniques to plan, execute, and manage complex projects. Topics include workflow analysis, quality control, and performance evaluation.

MGT 435 Organizational Change
In this course, students will study and apply alternative theories, models and strategies for creating and managing organizational change. The effectiveness of management tools in initiating problem solving and decision making to bring about change within organizations is evaluated.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Project Management degree program.

Psychology

Explore the depths of human behavior. Learn to understand human beings, their motivations, emotions, and thought processes in a variety of contexts with your minor in Psychology.

PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology
This course is a survey of selected topics in psychology, including research methods, physiological psychology, sensation, perception, consciousness, learning, memory, motivation, gender roles, abnormal behavior, psychotherapy, and social psychology.

PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes resulting from experience. This course consists of the application of learning theory and research in a wide range of settings where learning takes place.

PSY 350 Physiological Psychology
Students study the anatomy and physiology of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and endocrine system. Study of the biological systems promotes better understanding of mind-body relationships important to hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, emotion, learning, and memory. Students also examine medical theories, assessment, and treatments of psychological disorders including new imaging technologies and drug therapy.

PSY 301 Social Psychology
Students explore how the thoughts, feelings and behavior of individuals are influenced by other human beings in a variety of social situations. This course also entails a survey and critical analysis of the various methods used by researchers in social psychology. Topics include: social cognition, aggression, prejudice, interpersonal attraction, altruistic behavior, conformity, group influences, and conflict resolution.

PSY 302 Industrial/Organizational Psychology
This course examines the influence of an organization upon the individual, as well as ways an individual can influence an organization. Topics include recruiting, personnel selection, organizational climate, group problem solving, and conflict resolution.

PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology
The course entails a study of the diagnosis, causes, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders. Problems with the reliability and validity of the American Psychiatric Association system for diagnosing psychological disorders will be discussed and various alternative systems will be introduced.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology degree program.

Public Administration

Promote civil society and social justice by adding a minor in Public Administration to your Bachelor's degree. You will enhance the management skills you need to perform effectively within public, government, or not-for-profit organizations.

PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration
An introductory examination of the characteristics of the public organization and its impact on society including analysis of the principles of public administration, personnel issues, budgetary activities, legal dynamics, as well as historical development of the field are included. 

PPA 405 Personnel Management  
An examination of the essential processes, policies, and laws pertaining to public personnel including an analysis of issues concerning public personnel administrators, employee protection, motivation, and effectiveness. 

PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators 
This is an introductory course in government budgeting dealing with public revenue, expenditure policies, and politics of the budgetary process while addressing current issues and challenges in this field. 

PPA 307 Intergovernmental Relations & Issues 
The theory and practice of intergovernmental relations and the various issues that accompany the daily operations and affect the overall efficiency of our system. This course will address both the legal and political perspectives of the interactions, relationships and public policy considerations throughout the various components and levels of government. 

PPA 401 Urban Management 
This course is an introduction to formal and informal elements of urban management systems addressing the exploration of alternative approaches to dealing with problems arising from rapid urban growth. 

PPA 403 Administrative Law 
A study of the nature and the law of the administrative procedure, of separation and delegation of powers, and of the scope of judicial review and other remedies against administrative actions. 

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Public Administration degree program.

 

Social and Criminal Justice

Do your part for a just society while gaining a wide breadth of knowledge within the world of criminal and social justice with a minor in Social and Criminal Justice.

CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice
This course provides an analysis of the criminal justice system focusing on the police, courts, and corrections.

CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice
This course describes prevalent patterns of juvenile delinquency, relates these patterns to theories of child and adolescent development, and examines various theories pertaining to the causes of criminal behavior among juveniles. In addition, this course surveys the roles of police, courts and delinquency intervention programs in the administration of juvenile justice. Emphasis will be given to strategies of prevention and early intervention.

CRJ 303 Corrections
An analysis of correctional procedures and institutions, especially jails, prisons, parole and probation is the focus of this course. Other topics include inmate subcultures, rehabilitation and prisonization.

CRJ 305 Crime Prevention
This course explores strategies of crime prevention including programs designed to reduce opportunities to commit crime; programs to alleviate demoralizing community social and economic conditions that foster criminal behavior; programs to improve police/community cooperation; and, programs to educate young people as to likely consequences of criminal behavior.

CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure
A survey of constitutional rights, police compliance to constitutional rights, and constitutional amendments that specifically apply to the individual. The course examines the application of these rights in the enforcement, investigation, and adjudication of specific crimes.

CRJ 311 Forensics
Forensic science applies scientific methodology to crime scene investigation and crime solving. This course analyzes techniques of crime scene investigation and the lawful gathering of evidence. Emphasis is placed upon the Federal Rules of Evidence, including the admissibility of physical evidence at trial, as well as the role of forensic science in the criminal justice system and the identification, collection and preservation of physical evidence (chain of custody issues).

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Social and Criminal Justice degree program.

Sociology

Discern the broad framework of society and the people who make it up with your minor in Sociology. When you add the Sociology minor to your Bachelor's degree, you broaden the scope of your education to include insights into relations between people, groups, organizations, and cultures.

SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology
This introductory course presents basic concepts, theories, and research in sociology. Group organization, sex and gender, marriage and the family, sports as a social institution, and collective behavior are among the topics considered.

SOC 203 Social Problems
Drugs, poverty, illiteracy, homelessness, AIDS, undocumented aliens, single-parent families, urban and farm crises, and racial and environmental issues are examined. Possible causes and remedies are scrutinized.

SOC 304 Social Gerontology
The course focuses on social stereotypes and prejudice against the aged, discrimination, friends and family, care giving, living environments, demography, senior political power, legislation, elder abuse, and death and dying.

SOC 305 Crime & Society
This course considers the basic sociological theories and research findings concerning crime. The punishment and corrections process, organized and corporate crime, the police, the courts and the impact of crime on the victim are examined.

SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups
The course considers major racial and ethnic groups, especially African Americans, Asian Americans, ethnic Whites, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The focus is on the traits of each group and its pattern of adaptation to the larger society.

SOC 312 Child, Family, & Society
This course is a study of the psychological and sociological foundations of traditional and nontraditional family structures within different subcultures of our society and their impact on individuals and groups within the context of the school. It includes a focus on analyzing the issues in this area and on strategies parents, teachers and school staff can use to better understand and counter family situations that adversely affect student behavior and academic performance.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Sociology degree program.

Sports and Recreation Management

Win big with your minor in Sports and Recreation Management. With this minor added to your Bachelor's degree, you will train for a career in the sports and recreation industry.

ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

BUS 303 Human Resource Management
An introduction to the field of human resource management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

BUS 330 Principles of Marketing
The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

SOC 318 Sociology of Sport
The social institution of sport is examined as a microcosm of society. Consideration is given to the different levels of sport and sports in relation to social stratification and mobility, big business, mass media, religion, race, gender, and social discrimination.

SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management
Sport has become a major business enterprise in the United States and in much of the world. This course helps students understand the scope of the sport industry, to include identifying career opportunities in various segments of the sport industry. The course also examines the managerial process to include the functions of management, as well as the roles, skills, and attributes required of sport managers. Special attention is given to examining the unique characteristics of sport and the resulting social and ethical responsibilities of sport managers.

Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Sports and Recreation Management degree program.


World History

Dive in to the past, and prepare for your future. By earning your Minor in World History, you will explore multiple regions and cultures and build an intellectual toolkit for addressing complex global issues.

HIS 104 World Civilizations II
This course is a study of the development of and interactions among the world's major civilizations from the seventeenth century to the present. Emphasis is placed on the rise and decline of European global dominance.

HIS 378 Historiography & Historical Methodologies
This course provides students with an introduction to the practice of the discipline of history. It provides them with an overview of the ways historians have approached the study of the past since classical antiquity, acquaints them with the major approaches that characterize the discipline today, and equips them to use appropriate practices in historical research and writing.

HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe
The history of Europe since 1900. Emphasis is placed on the changing nature of European society, the confrontation between totalitarianism and democracy, the origins and consequences of the two world wars, and Europe's evolving role in world affairs.

HIS 342 The Middle East
This course is intended to introduce students to the complex history of the Middle East, focusing on the development of the core region in the 19th and 20th centuries. Among the most important topics covered are the origins and nature of Islam, the expansion of the Islamic world, the nature and impact of the region's relationship with Western countries, the impact of the discovery of oil in the region, the causes and course of the Israeli-Arab struggle, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism.

HIS 351 Asia in the Age of Decolonization & Globalization
Covering major developments in Asia since the early twentieth century, this course focuses on China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. The course traces the rise of Asian nationalism, the decline of western imperialism, and the region's rise to economic prominence.

HIS 379 The Atlantic World
The history of the Atlantic basin from the late fifteenth century through the early nineteenth, including the interactions of Africans, Europeans, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the societies their interactions produced. Themes covered include the Columbian exchange, migrations (forced and voluntary), empire-building, strategies of resistance, identity formation, and the transatlantic dimensions of the American and French Revolutions.


Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in History degree program.

Contact Ashford University at 866.711.1700 or request additional information.