Minors

Whether you want to complete an online Bachelor's degree program for Early Childhood Education or pursue an online Health Care Administration Bachelor's degree, you can add value to your education. Pursue a minor, worth 18 credits (six courses), to expand your career options, prepare for graduate study, or simply to explore an area other than your major.

Minors:

  • Accounting
  • Business Administration
  • Business Economics
  • Child Development
  • Communication Studies
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Educational Psychology
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Environmental Studies
  • Finance
  • Global Studies
  • Health and Wellness
  • Health Care Administration
  • Health Psychology
  • Homeland Security & Emergency Management
  • Human Resources Management
  • Humanities
  • Information Systems
  • International Management
  • International Security and Military Studies
  • Journalism and Mass Communication
  • Law Enforcement Administration
  • Literature
  • Logistics Management
  • Long Term Care Administration
  • Marketing
  • Operations Management
  • Organizational Management
  • Political Science & Government
  • Project Management
  • Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Social and Criminal Justice
  • Sociology
  • Social Science
  • Speech and Language Disorders
  • Sports and Recreation Management
  • World History
  • Writing

    Accounting

    Earn a minor that adds up to success. Build a solid foundation of accounting concepts, skills and practical applications with a minor in Accounting. You will better understand the business environment through study of business administration, economics, and quantitative methods.

    ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
    Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

    ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II
    Primarily covers the principles of managerial accounting. Emphasis on reporting to individuals inside the organization. Major concepts include job order costing, process costing, budgets and standards, and statement analysis. Prerequisite: ACC 205  

    ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I
    Covers the corporate balance sheet and its related problems. Balance sheet items examined in detail explaining the theory behind various methods of application to accounts: cash, temporary investments, receivables, inventories, plant and intangible assets, and long-term investments. Prerequisite: ACC 206

    ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II
    A continuation of ACC 305. Covers the rest of the balance sheet: current liabilities, long-term liabilities, leases, pensions, and contributed capital retained earnings. Other topics include non-operating income, earnings per share, statement of changes in financial position, and impact of changing prices. Prerequisite: ACC 305 

    ACC 310 Cost Accounting I
    Covers traditional "cost" concepts: factory overhead, cost accumulation, job order cost system, process cost system, joint product and byproduct costing, standard costs and variances. Prerequisite: ACC 206

    ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I
    A study of federal income tax laws and their application to individuals, partnerships, and corporations. Prerequisite: ACC 205 

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Accounting degree program.

    Business Administration

    Customize your own degree! Receive a broad-based understanding of the field of business and competition in the free-market economy. Complete the minor for Business Administration, and accelerate your career.

    MGT 330 Management for Organizations
    This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

    ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
    Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

    BUS 303 Human Resources Management
    An introduction to the field of human resources management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

    BUS 311 Business Law I
    This course involves the study of contemporary issues of business law. The class will focus on how these legal issues influence traditional business operations, e-commerce and information technology. The course will address such topics as: business ethics, online commerce, contracts, business organizations, employment law and international law.

    BUS 330 Principles of Marketing
    The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

    ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics
    Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed. Prerequisite: Critical thinking competency

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration or Bachelor of Arts in Business Economics degree programs.

    Business Economics

    Plan for a successful future when you add the Business Economics minor to your Bachelor's degree program. By earning your minor in Business Economics, you will build both technical and business skills.

    BUS 308 Statistics for Managers*
    This course examines the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in business decision making. Additionally, the course focuses on the utilization of statistical methods as applied to business problems and operations. Prerequisite: Mathematical competency 

    ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics
    Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed. Prerequisite: Critical thinking competency

    ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics
    Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed.

    ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets
    A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the US economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments. Prerequisite: ECO 100 and ECO 203 

    ECO 320 International Economics
    This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade.

    ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth
    Topics include analysis of economic fluctuations and their impact on corporations and consumers; different explanations for business cycles; monetary and fiscal policy for stabilizing economic fluctuations; effects of public debt, investment, employment and trade policy on economic growth. Prerequisite: ECO 203

    * Math competency must be met before taking this course.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Business Economics degree program.

    Child Development

    Cultivate your understanding of children and families by adding a minor in Child Development to your Bachelor's degree. If you are pursuing your Bachelor's degree in a related field like education, psychology, health, or social work, then you will benefit from understanding the issues that affect children's growth. You will explore multiple stages of child development, as well as how to work with children.

    PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development
    This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through adolescence. Students are provided the opportunity to explore the "what," "how," and "when" of physical motor, cognitive, emotional, moral, aesthetic, and language development. Exploration is emphasized through activities that allow students to understand and appreciate both typical and atypical development within the context of the family and society and to recognize the impact of individual, cultural, and linguistic differences on development.

    SOC 312 Child, Family, & Society
    This course provides an overview of the child (infant through elementary) and the reciprocal relationships children develop with their family, their school, and the world in which they live. Theories pertaining to the roles and relationships within and between families, schools, and communities are introduced with an emphasis on enabling students to identify family needs and concerns and to use a variety of collaborative communication and problem-solving skills to assist families in finding the best available community resources to meet these needs. Students themselves explore various community resources that further the development of the child's potential.

    ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children
    This course provides an introduction to the developmental stages of language acquisition in young children from birth to the age of 6. The focus of the course is on the facilitation of language acquisition in young children.

    ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children
    Students examine the theoretical frameworks related to cognitive development in children providing them with a foundational understanding of the theories of brain development. Using that foundation, students evaluate the relationship between cognitive development and the developmental domains in children and the influences on brain development. Additionally, students analyze how environment and genetics impact brain development and cognitive functioning and evaluate the educational and societal implications for children in the context of cognitive development and functioning. Throughout the course, students also synthesize their learning from the course to develop strategies and techniques in their work with children in a variety of educational settings to promote optimal cognitive development.

    ECE 354 Assessment & Intervention During Early Childhood
    Throughout this course, students analyze the purpose of assessment in supporting children across all developmental domains. Using this foundation, students examine the practical application of assessment tools and utilize assessment strategies to enhance the growth and development of children. Finally, students synthesize their learning by developing an assessment portfolio that contains intervention strategies for meeting the developmental needs of children.

    ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics
    This course explores developmental theory and the relationship to the socialization and education of young children in child rearing, caring, and education. Special emphasis will be placed upon exploring how the child is viewed in the context of his or her family and the community at large.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Child Development degree program.

    Communication Studies
    Enhance your communications skills – verbal, virtual, and written – while learning how to win over difficult people through persuasive arguments and conflict resolution. The Communication Studies minor helps you develop your skills on an academic (rather than casual) level and is designed to strengthen your skills so that you may succeed in multiple fields.

    COM 101 Introduction to Communication
    This course serves as an introduction to the study of human communication. Students will examine classic and modern views of communication as well as theories and research relating to various sub-disciplines of communication such as interpersonal, group, organizational, mass and public communication. They will discuss and evaluate these theories and research findings and assess the impact of technology on the communication process. Relationship stages, theories, and contemporary views of “family” are examined, as well as the impact of family, culture, and gender on communication patterns. Types of groups and organizations are identified, as well as concepts of power and interaction in group, organizational, and public settings. Mass communication and its impact on individuals and society will be explored. In this class, students will also have an opportunity to examine the practical implications of these concepts in building their own communication skills as well as future career path.

    COM 323 Persuasion & Argumentation
    Students will learn critical thinking methods to enable them to analyze and evaluate arguments and understand which contribute to effective and non-effective persuasion. They will formulate persuasive arguments and learn to deliver those arguments effectively, both in oral and written forms. This course examines the purpose and function of research in supporting elements of argument and persuasion and the need to understand receiver variables.

    COM 325 Communication & Conflict
    The course provides students with conflict resolution techniques through communication. Students will analyze the purpose of conflict, learn to work with difficult people, and understand communication as a significant factor in the development, management, and resolution of conflict at the interpersonal, small group, organization, and societal levels. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents

    COM 345 Media Writing for Communication
    This course is an introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication.

    COM 360 Advanced Communication in Society
    This course integrates the use of advanced communication techniques into a variety of contexts shaped by socially and culturally constructed distinctions between and among individuals and groups. Topics include intercultural, multicultural, international, and inter-gender communications.

    COM 425 Communication in Organizations
    This course investigates the role of communication in creating an effective and ethical organizational environment. Students will be assisted in developing and strengthening such communication skills as self- awareness, intrapersonal efficacy, interpersonal competence, and leadership and team skills.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Communication Studies degree program.

    Cultural Anthropology

    Examine how people organize themselves and create meaning with your minor in Cultural Anthropology. Study religious belief systems, family structures, and the nature of war. For this minor, the following three courses are required. The remaining three courses may be chosen from the second list of elective courses.

    ANT 234 Family, Kin, & Groups 
    The course explores kinship systems, ethnicity, neighborhood and other social arrangements in various cultural settings through the reading of selected ethnographic materials. Students will study the kinship on a cross-cultural and worldwide basis, beginning with immediate social ties in familial contexts to broad connotations in ethnic, national, and universal domains.

    ANT 307 Anthropology of War
    An examination of the nature of war, as it occurs in societies from the pre-industrial to the postmodern. The course surveys anthropological explanations regarding the phenomenon of war. Emphasis is on understanding the complexity, variability, and cultural embeddedness of war as it occurs around the world. Prerequisite: ANT 101

    ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual
    This course examines the nature of religious belief systems, myth and ritual, witchcraft, and magic and sorcery in various societies of the world. These behavioral and symbolic forms exist or have existed in virtually all human societies and cultures. In this course, students will study many different belief systems, define these entities; and develop an understanding of how they work in societies. The differences among traditions in nation states on cultures and political systems will be explored. Prerequisite: ANT 101 

    In addition to the 3 courses listed above, choose three of the six course options noted below:

    ANT 340 Anthropological Theory
    This course explores anthropological theory in a historical perspective focusing on the rise of a distinct anthropological perspective on the comparative study of human societies and cultures. The course will detail various theoretical models developed in the 19th and 20th centuries to explain the similarities and differences in cultural systems. Prerequisite: ANT 101

    ANT343 Language, Culture, and Communication
    This course is an introduction to the study of the relationship of language and culture, including examination of the characteristics and structural principles of natural language. After exploring the basic characteristics of sound, word formation, and sentence structure, these principles are applied to such topics as: language variation, language change, psycholinguistics, and pragmatics. Prerequisite: ANT 101

    ANT 347 Urban Anthropology 
    This course is an introduction to urban anthropology, with an emphasis on rural-urban migrations, adjustment and assimilation of urban migrants, urban kinship and family structure, poverty culture, rural-urban typologies, and the application of anthropological methods to the study of urban societies. Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 315

    ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender 
    This course examines cross-cultural analysis of gender roles, while focusing on non-Western societies, using data from other societies to better understand the gender system of our own culture. Issues include status of women and men, the meaning of "femaleness" and "maleness" historically and in contemporary society. Gender roles, transnational migrations, social movements, international relations and religion are explored. Prerequisite: ANT 340

    ANT 348 Native American Anthropology 
    This course examines the nature and distribution of North American Indian cultures from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Through the use of archaeological, anthropological, and contemporary community studies, this course will explore the diversity of traditional North American Indian and Inuit cultures and the adaptation of indigenous peoples to America. Prerequisite: ANT 340

    ANT 464 Applied Anthropology 
    This course introduces the use of anthropology and its application to problem solving in the areas of cultural dynamics, public policy, and contemporary social problems such as health, housing, nutrition, and education. Students will learn how anthropologists conduct research to address issues and solve problems facing living communities across the globe. Prerequisite: ANT 340

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Cultural Anthropology degree program.

    Educational Psychology

    How do we learn? Investigate the science behind the way people acquire and retain knowledge with a minor in Educational Psychology. The curriculum covers topics such as learning theory, perception, physiological psychology, the neuroscience of brain development, and cognition at various stages of life.

    PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology
    This course is a survey of selected topics in psychology, including research methods, physiological psychology, sensation, perception, consciousness, learning, memory, motivation, gender roles, abnormal behavior, psychotherapy, and social psychology.

    PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
    Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes resulting from experience. This course consists of the application of learning theory and research in a wide range of settings where learning takes place. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    PSY 323 Perception, Learning, & Cognition
    Students will study research and theory about mental processes that go between experience and the human mind. Students will gather and interpret data for several simple experiments that demonstrate classic research findings in perception, learning, and cognition. Perception entails the mental processes involved in the organization and interpretation of sensory experience. Learning entails relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from experience. Cognition explains how the mind processes information, how we encode, store, and retrieve memories, and how we use information to form beliefs, make decisions, and solve problems. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    EDU 338 Human Development & Learning
    Brain development as related to human development and the capacity for learning will be explored throughout this course. The neuroscience of brain development and how this information translates into education, as well as the implications of this information for maximizing learning, memory, behavior and overall functioning, are topics that will be addressed.

    PSY 352 Cognitive Psychology
    Cognitive psychology takes a scientific approach to understanding the fundamental mental processes involved in everyday cognition. This course covers the topics of perception, attention, memory, and language by examining both classic and contemporary cognitive psychology methods and experimental results. Prerequisites: PSY 101, and PSY 326 (may be taken concurrently with PSY 326) or ABS 311.

    In addition to the 5 courses listed above, choose one of the two course options noted below:

    ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children
    Students examine the theoretical frameworks related to cognitive development in children providing them with a foundational understanding of the theories of brain development. Using that foundation, students evaluate the relationship between cognitive development and the developmental domains in children and the influences on brain development. Additionally, students analyze how environment and genetics impact brain development and cognitive functioning and evaluate the educational and societal implications for children in the context of cognitive development and functioning. Throughout the course, students also synthesize their learning from the course to develop strategies and techniques in their work with children in a variety of educational settings to promote optimal cognitive development.

    PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly
    This course explores cognitive functioning in later life including biological, socioeconomic, environmental, cognitive adaptation, and life history factors influencing cognitive function as an individual progresses along a developmental continuum. The major psychological constructs of self concept, socialization, and thinking processes are presented. Etiology, interventions, education, and support systems are discussed. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology.

    Entrepreneurship

    Prepare to launch and manage entrepreneurial enterprises. You will increase your business and your technical skills when you add the Entrepreneurship minor to your Bachelor's degree.

    BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship
    This course introduces students to the opportunities and challenges associated with the creation and management of entrepreneurial organizations. The course focuses on the issues associated with starting and managing a new venture including recognizing opportunity, basic business planning, essential human resource management, introductory marketing, legal issues, location selection, funding, buying a business as well as discussing various exit strategies.

    BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation
    This course focuses on creativity and innovation as a process in organizations. The course also examines how individuals can be innovative in organizations and the challenge of building innovative organizations. Prerequisite: BUS 362 

    BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking
    This course examines financing the start-up of a new venture, from bootstrapping with personal resources or bank debt to equity investment by angel investors or venture capitalists. The course also covers the four main aspects of venture capital: valuation, deal structuring, governance, and harvesting. Prerequisite: BUS 362 

    BUS 433 New Business Strategy
    This course is intended to provide prospective entrepreneurs with information and tools for evaluating opportunities for starting a new firm, how to choose markets for entry, when to enter, and what resources and capabilities it will take to enter and provide a platform for future growth. Prerequisite: BUS 362 

    BUS 435 Small Business Ventures
    This course explores the strategic planning, operating, financing, legal, career and other business issues found in launching a small business or operating family-owned and managed companies or privately-held firms. Other course topics include the challenge of identifying viable business opportunities, gaining the appropriate business skills and tools to be successful, and defining the capital requirements to operate the business. Prerequisite: BUS 362

    MGT 330 Management for Organizations
    This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Entrepreneurship degree program.

    Environmental Studies

    A minor in environmental studies offers students an opportunity to develop knowledge of environmental topics in order to enhance their career opportunities and prepare them for further study. For this minor, the following three courses are required. The remaining three courses may be chosen from the second list of elective courses.

    ENV 230 Concepts of Sustainability
    This course is designed to provide a sound understanding of the ecological, technological, economic, political, and ethical dimensions of environmental sustainability. Through the study of selected incidents and current projects, students will examine food systems, transportation, energy, urbanization, rainforests and global climate change, and defend a position in sustainability.

    ENV 322 Energy & Environmental Systems
    This course is designed to provide knowledge relative to the relationship between energy consumption, energy generation, their related externalities, and conservation in the context of diminishing reserves of fossil fuels and increasing availability of renewable resources. Students will defend a position related to a particular energy source and its effect on the environment.

    ENV 325 Environmental Management
    This course examines the issues in the urban environment and the interactions between theory and policy relating to urbanization, industrialization and the impact of population growth on the environment.

    Choose three of the following courses:

    ENV 300 Environmental Biology
    A study of biodiversity. The origin and evolutionary history of biodiversity, including the geological forces that shaped its course, will be discussed. This course will be made pertinent through discussions of the impact of human activity on biodiversity and subsequent impact on the human population. (cross-listed as BIO 300) Prerequisite: SCI 207

    ENV 330 Environmental Ethics
    This course is a study of the ethical dimensions of selected contemporary environmental controversies. Students will examine the major theoretical approaches to environmental ethics, value systems, and specific issues including biodiversity and wilderness preservation.

    ENV 333 Environmental Impact
    Following the guidelines set by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its subsequent modifications, students will learn the fundamental methods of analysis required for conducting a robust Environment Impact Statement (EIS). Students will learn the fundamental elements of an EIS through the examination of contemporary cases.

    ENV 345 Business & the Environment
    An environmental economics approach is used to illustrate the impact of the firm on the environment and environmental policy on the firm. Cost-benefits analysis is developed in student-driven research projects.

    ENV 495 Environmental Research
    This course introduces students to the various stages in the environmental research process. Course design focuses intensely on scientific journal article construction as well as research design, data collection, and statistical analysis.

    POL 310 Environmental Policies
    Examines political, social, and economic policies and their impact on the global environment. Also explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Studies degree program.

 

    Finance

    Add to your Bachelor's degree with a minor in Finance. You will bridge the fields of finance and business to gain an understanding of the theoretical and practical approaches of financial management.

    ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
    Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

    BUS 215 Personal Financial Management
    This course provides an introduction to the field of personal financial management and planning, focusing on the tools individuals and families employ to manage their financial affairs.

    ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets
    A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the US economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments. Prerequisite: ECO 100 and ECO 203 

    BUS 401 Principles of Finance
    Basic corporate finance is presented with the emphasis on risk and return, bond and equity markets, valuation of bonds and equities, present value analysis, internal rate of return analysis, and project analysis using the weighted average cost of capital. Prerequisites: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 and Mathematical competency

    BUS 405 Principles of Investments
    The study and analysis of securities and other forms of investments. Emphasis is on investment principles from the manager's point of view. Prerequisite: BUS 401 

    BUS 430 Finance Seminar
    Using readings and case studies, students gain understanding the types of analysis performed and decisions made by the financial managers of corporations, focusing on valuation concepts and managing for value. Students also explore specific financing and investing decisions made by the firm's management to mitigate corporate risk using insurance and financial derivatives; valuation of real options; real estate investment decision; issues and methods of corporate financial management in an international environment. Prerequisite: BUS 405 

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Finance degree program.

    Global Studies

    Take a cosmopolitan approach. Add a minor in Global Studies to your degree. This minor prepares you to think holistically about globalization’s effects on human beings around the world.

    SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives
    Culture and politics in Europe, Latin America, the Arab world, India, East Asia, and other areas are examined. Emphasis is on viewing the world from the diverse perspectives of other cultures and political systems. Topics and regions vary.

    ENG 317 International Voices
    An introduction to recent international writing in its cultural context. Students read fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and interviews, and are introduced to music, art, film, and cuisine of cultures beyond US borders.

    POL 255 Introduction to International Relations
    This course in International Relations is an introductory study of the interactions and interconnectivity of the countries of the world. The course emphasizes the need to think critically about international politics and foreign policy. Consequently, this course focuses topically on how and why wars begin, balances of power between states, international institutions, collective security, international communications, human rights, globalization, regime types, international trade, environmental change, imperialism, injustice, inequality, and other issues relevant to the changing world.

    POL 353 Comparative Politics
    This course introduces the basic concepts and theories of comparative politics through an analysis of selected political systems and governments from various regions and societies across the world. Topical analysis in the course includes an emphasis on key political institutions, political culture, ideology, globalization, conflict and stability, various state and non-state actors, and on issues associated with economic development and underdevelopment.

    ANT 347 Urban Anthropology
    This course is an introduction to urban anthropology, with an emphasis on rural-urban migrations, adjustment and assimilation of urban migrants, urban kinship and family structure, poverty culture, rural-urban typologies, and the application of anthropological methods to the study of urban societies. Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 315

    ECO 320 International Economics
    This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade.

    Health and Wellness

    The Health and Wellness minor will complement other health-related program coursework by allowing you to get an in-depth understanding of common nutritional and physical activity challenges of clients, the benefits of living a healthy lifestyle, body functions and chronic disease, as well as the special needs of clients in regards to exercise and nutrition.

    HWE 200 Introduction to Health & Wellness
    This course provides students with a holistic overview of the multi-faceted dimensions of health and wellness across the lifespan. The seven dimensions of health: Physical, social, intellectual, emotional, occupational, spiritual, and environmental are explored within the context of a wellness lifestyle.

    HCS 308 Introduction to Nutrition Concepts
    This introductory course provides an overview of the basic principles of nutrition including the basic functions, needs, and sources of micro and macronutrients. Students apply nutrition principles to personal needs, as well as needs of individuals across the lifespan. Nutrition controversies are explored in addition to learning about the anatomical and physiological impacts of inadequate/improper nutrition practices and the risk for disease. Note: This course is designed for students with no previous and/or a limited science background. Prerequisite: HWE 200.

    HCS 334 Personal Fitness & Wellness for Optimal Living
    Students will compare their own physical activity habits to national guidelines and explore the benefits of physical activity as well as the consequences of physical inactivity. Written assignments, case studies, and discussion forums provide students with an opportunity to design exercise and wellness plans for themselves and potential clients. Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 200.

    HWE 330 Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Physiology
    In this course, students study the structure and function of muscular and skeletal systems within the human body using a regional approach. Students are given the opportunity to learn about anatomical variation, the functional importance of this variation, and common pathologies of the upper and lower extremities and trunk. This course expands upon the anatomical concepts provided in the prerequisite, The Human Body, Health, and Disease. Prerequisite: HPR 205.

    HWE 340 Exercise & Physiology
    This course introduces students to physiological responses to exercise in the human body. Students compare the major physiological systems (energy transfer, cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, etc.) at rest, explain the systemic adaptations that occur with acute and long-term exercise, and evaluate how these activities affect health and human performance. Students also analyze how nutrition and pharmacological aids impact athletic performance. Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 330.

    HWE 420 Wellness for Special Populations
    This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to enhance their understanding of nutritional concepts and designing exercise programs for special populations. Students will learn how to apply knowledge to develop and modify exercise plans for individuals with special conditions. Special populations that will be covered in this course will include but not limited to: the elderly, pregnant women, individuals at risk for disease (i.e. elderly, obese), and individuals living with health conditions (i.e. cardiovascular disease, arthritis, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, etc.). Risks, contraindications, and benefits of exercise for these special populations also will be covered. Prerequisites: HWE 200, HWE 330, HWE 340, and HCS 334.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Health and Wellness degree program.

    Health Care Administration

    Prepare to be in high demand! Take care of your career with a minor in Health Care Administration and explore many facets of the rapidly expanding health care industry.

    HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care
    This is an introductory course that explores the historical evolution of health care in the United States, its financing sources, technology, delivery of care and the stakeholders who comprise the health care system. The structure of the health care system, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, better known as Obamacare, will be discussed along with the various components that influence health care such as legal, ethical, regulatory, and fiscal forces. Students will also explore other health care systems and examine the potential future of health care in the United States.

    HCA 340 Managing in Health and Human Services
    An upper-level management course providing basic management theory for the beginning manager. Management challenges, human service environments, management theories, organizational design, program planning and implementing supervisory relations, managing finances program evaluation, leadership theories and teams in organizations are explored. Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205

    HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law
    Ethics and Medical Law is a course presenting the ethical and legal implications of health care administration. The unique legal aspects encountered in the provision of health services are analyzed. Concepts of access, affordability, health care interventions and human rights are interfaced with legal and ethical issues challenging the provision of health care services. Concepts of risk management, continuous quality assurance, guardianship, Institutional Review Boards, and needs of special and diverse populations provide discussion points in the course. The overlapping domains of ethics and medical law are examined. Case studies and discussion of ethical and legal precedent setting decisions are used to link theory with reality. Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205 

    HCA 415 Community & Public Health
    Community and public health is an introductory course exploring community and public health services in the well-being of a population. Regulatory mandates promoting public and community health are explored. The interface among community and public health services and the overall health care industry is explored. Legal and ethical imperatives emergent in public health services are discussed. Financing options are explored recognizing the role of categorical fiscal resources. Health care promotion and prevention strategies are explored in concert with the role of health care institutions and the public sector. Health information data is utilized in the planning of a community and/or public health project.

    HCA 421 Health Care Planning & Evaluation
    Health Care Planning and Evaluation utilizes health care research data, research protocols, and information systems in the planning, implementation and evaluation of health care programs meeting the health care needs of a diverse population. Historical perspectives are discussed in tandem with current health programs and future challenges. The impact of public entities in controlling the demand aspects of health services is discussed in light of regulatory legislation. Planning strategies to meet the needs of a diverse population are explored from both the public and private sector. Discussion of the efficacy and efficiencies of past and current programs provide opportunities for analysis of past and on-going service demand and client outcomes. Development of a health care model applying the concepts of reimbursement, supply and demand, contractual adjustments and patient mix in to the planning and evaluation process. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework 

    HCA 430 Special Populations
    Special Populations is a topics course exploring health care services for special populations. The populations include: mental health, substance addiction, rehabilitation, geriatrics and selected specialty services. The course is problem focused emphasizing access, cost-quality issues and financing considerations. Health information data is utilized as resources for the analysis of demand, quality and cost-efficiency. Historical perspectives are presented as shaping factors influencing the present models of health services for special populations. Government mandates, categorical services, legal, ethical, and reimbursement issues are presented as driving forces in the provision of special population health services. Multidisciplinary models of special population health service models are discussed. Learners will develop a model program for a self-selected special population. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Administration or the Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Studies degree programs.

    Health Psychology

    The minor in Health Psychology has been designed to prepare students in their knowledge development in the areas of promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness.

    PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology
    This course is a survey of selected topics in psychology, including research methods, physiological psychology, sensation, perception, consciousness, learning, memory, motivation, gender roles, abnormal behavior, psychotherapy, and social psychology.

    GRO 202 Psychology of Aging
    This course covers normal aging from a cognitive perspective as well as various forms of dementia, including signs and symptoms, risk factors, and neuropathology. Students learn about cognitive changes that occur with normal aging as well as risk factors for transient cognitive impairments. Alzheimer’s disease is discussed in detail as well as non-Alzheimer’s forms of dementia, including frontotemporal dementia syndromes, Parkinson’s disease dementia, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, and Creutzfeld Jakob disease. The course also includes a section on evidence-based factors related to successful aging and the future of aging research.

    HCS 316 Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness
    This course explores the complexities and dimensions of health and illness through diverse cultural perspectives. Traditional health beliefs and practices among selected populations are presented along with the influences of social, political, and demographic changes impacting issues and perceptions of health and illness in a multi-cultural society.

    PSY 350 Physiological Psychology
    Students study the anatomy and physiology of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and endocrine system. Study of the biological systems promotes better understanding of mind-body relationships important to hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, emotion, learning, and memory. Students also examine medical theories, assessment, and treatments of psychological disorders including new imaging technologies and drug therapy. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent.

    PSY 361 Health Psychology
    Students explore the mind/body relationship as it pertains to health, stress, and the person’s response to medical treatment. This course includes a review of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, the endocrine system, the immune system, and other organ systems. Students explore new strategies of applied psychology for sustaining health, managing stress, and recovering successfully from disease, injury, and medical treatment.

    PSY 380 Counseling and Behavior Change
    This course is designed for students entering into human service fields. Students compare and contrast behavior change theories and models, determine client needs, apply motivational strategies and counseling skills, and evaluate moral and ethical issues. Cultural competency and cultural sensitivity concepts are also discussed. Prerequisites: HWE 200 and PSY 361.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology degree program.

    Homeland Security and Emergency Management

    Protect America with your minor in Homeland Security and Emergency Management. This minor prepares you to respond to the potential threats of terrorism and natural disasters. Gain knowledge of the history of homeland security, counterterrorism tactics, emergency planning, the rising threat of cyber crime, and the ethical implications of war and terrorism.

    HSM 305 Survey of Homeland Security & Emergency Management
    This course is a broad overview of Homeland Security from its emergence in America’s first century to the 9/11 attacks. Areas of study include the rise of modern terrorism, domestic terrorism, cyberterrorism, Homeland Security organization, strategies, programs and principles, emergency management, the media, and the issues of civil liberties.

    HSM 311 Ethics & Homeland Security
    This course provides a foundation of classical ethical theories and explores the ethical implications of war and terrorism in the 21st century. Students will be challenged to analyze the controversial issues of the practice of torture, bombing of civilians, assassination and targeted killing, and humanitarian intervention. Civil Liberties and the Patriot Act will be examined. Case studies will offer students the opportunity to examine their own moral stance on selected issues, and study the traditional ethical rules and practices in war, even when engaging with international terrorist groups.

    HSM 315 Emergency Planning
    This course will provide students with the skills to develop a comprehensive plan for risk analysis, threat assessment, staffing an emergency operations center, coordinating with supporting agencies, and the creation of a continuing testing program. Actual case studies are used to teach students how to plan for natural disasters as well as terrorism at the federal, state and local levels.

    HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis
    Students in this course study and analyze counterterrorism including the evolution of counterterrorism, and the specifics of the typology and anatomy of terrorist operations. The course includes an overview of the intelligence community, collection, analysis, requirements and dissemination.

    HSM 435 Psychology of Disaster
    Utilizing case studies and clinical research, the course will focus on the psychological and physiological response to natural disasters, terrorism, and other manmade disasters. Students will examine psychological reactions, the recovery process and mental health care for victims, disaster recovery teams, and first responders.

    HSM 438 Introduction to Cyber Crime
    This course focuses on the technical aspects of digital crime as well as behavioral aspects of computer hackers, virus writers, terrorists and other offenders. Using real life examples and case studies, students will examine the history, development, extent and types of digital crime and digital terrorism as well as current legislation and law enforcement practices designed to prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Homeland Security and Emergency Management.

    Human Resources Management

    Elevate your Bachelor's degree by adding a specialization in Human Resources Management. You will develop the skills and knowledge critical to effectiveness in this essential organizational function.

    MGT 330 Management for Organizations
    The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

    BUS 303 Human Resource Management
    An introduction to the field of human resources management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

    BUS 370 Organizational Development
    The course overviews how, why, and when to integrate the behavioral sciences with human resource management principles to increase individual and organizational effectiveness. Students will also be introduced to many types of interpersonal, intra-group, inter-group, and organizational interventions that are used to effect comprehensive and lasting changes. Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459 

    BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations
    The course provides students with both the common and complex issues related to human behavior in the workplace as it relates to employee relations, and an examination of relationships among unions, workers, management, laws and government regulation. Prerequisite: BUS 303 

    BUS 375 Employee Training
    This course provides essential managerial-level comprehension of training theory and its practical applications in the business and management environment. Students learn the functions and duties of training: trainer/developer, the identification and assessment of training needs, program design and development, selection of delivery methods and means of instruction, the implementation of training programs, and evaluation. Prerequisite: BUS 303 

    BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management
    This course reviews the fundamentals of wage and salary programs, including conducting salary surveys, defining compensable factors, adjusting pay structures, evaluating pay differentials, and relating pay to performance. Benefit programs and related employee incentive and service programs are also covered.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Human Resources Management or Organizational Management degree programs.

    Humanities

    Understand the human condition with your minor in the Humanities. Taking a broad view of the methods people have historically used to define their place in the world, the humanities cover topics such as art, philosophy, theology, mythology, religion, and science.

    LIB 101 The Art of Being Human
    An interdisciplinary introduction to the humanities, focusing especially on classic texts of the ancient and medieval period as a way to understand our lives today. The course will explore various ways human beings have expressed their understanding of the human condition through such cultural forms as mythology, religion, philosophy, and the arts.

    LIB 102 Human Questions
    An interdisciplinary introduction to the humanities, focusing especially on the period from the Renaissance through the present. The course will explore the various ways human beings have attempted to answer questions about the meaning of our world and existence through philosophy, art, and science.

    LIB 315 The Environment & the Human Spirit
    An interdisciplinary examination of humanity’s spiritual relationship with the natural world. The course will explore contemporary environmental issues in the context of theology, philosophy, literature, film, music, visual art, and other representations of the human imagination. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or equivalent.

    LIB 316 Historical Contexts & Literature
    In Historical Contexts in Literature, students will explore the ways in which literary works represent particular people, places, situations, and ideas through fiction. Further, by using a range of literary, political, and historical texts, the course will examine both the ways in which political and historical contexts shape literary production, and the ways in which fictional texts affect political, social, and moral discourse.

    LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution
    An interdisciplinary study of peacemaking with a focus on conflict resolution. Highlighting this course are guest presentations and discussions led by Ashford University faculty from diverse subject areas. Students examine thinking and behavior in response to social conflict such as aggression, threats, prejudice, avoidance, withdrawal, conformity, and obedience. Students study various strategies of peacemaking and negotiation and then apply these methods in class role-playing activities.

    LIB 332 Science & Culture
    This course explores Western science as a cultural artifact and its impact on other aspects of culture: art, literature, film, music, philosophy, and theology. In addition, the affects of these “other aspects of culture” on the development of science will also be investigated with emphasis on the need to make connections. The course will examine the ways in which scientific developments are articulated in other cultural artifacts.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts.

    Information Systems

    Take advantage of a wide range of opportunities in one of the fastest growing areas in business organizations. You will increase both business and technical skills with an Information Systems minor added to your Bachelor's degree.

    INF 220 IS Principles
    This course develops students’ understanding of information systems, foundational technologies, and organizational application to conduct business and solve problems. This course presents information systems principles and examines how they form an integral part of modern organizations. Topics include systems concepts; organizational processes; technological aspects of information systems; Internet applications; IT security; database management; systems development life cycle; and ethical and social responsibility issues. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor.

    INF 231 Programming Concepts
    An introduction to the methodology of programming and the construction of graphical user interfaces. Students are introduced to programming through the use of current programming languages(s). Emphasis is on structured design, coding, graphical user interfaces, event-driven programming, and documentation. A variety of programming problems develop skills in algorithm design, file processing data structures, and event handling. Prerequisite: INF 103 

    INF 340 Business Systems Analysis
    This course is a study of the business systems analysis and development processes for information systems in organizations. The course is focused on information concepts and methodologies associated with the development of business information systems, and their effective application in solving business problems. Students examine the major issues involved in managing information technology within the contemporary business environment and the relationship between organizational structures and information technology. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency

    INF 322 Database Management Systems
    This course provides an introduction to the concepts of database processing. An understanding of the physical and logical organization of data and the meaningful representation of data relationships are evaluated. Operational requirements of database management systems are also discussed. Prerequisite: INF 231 and Mathematical competency

    INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts
    This course introduces the fundamental concepts of computer networks and telecommunications in modern business contexts. The topics include the infrastructures, standards, and protocols in computer networks and business telecommunications. Prerequisite: INF 231

    INF 410 Project Management
    This course provides the foundational principles and techniques to plan, execute, and manage complex projects. Topics include workflow analysis, quality control, and performance evaluation.

    This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Business Information Systems degree program.

    International Management

    Broaden your Bachelor's degree with a minor in International Management. You will prepare to exercise leadership in a diverse array of international and multicultural scenarios.

    ECO 320 International Economics
    This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade.

    BUS 343 International Marketing
    Examination of cultural, economic, and political factors that affect marketing of goods and services worldwide. Emphasis is on adapting the marketing strategies of domestic marketers to international operations and the institutional structure that exists in international markets. Marketing strategies of firms' operations within these markets are also examined.

    BUS 357 International Business
    Students examine functional areas of business from an international perspective. The importance of differing cultural and political assumptions in business is also addressed.

    BUS 378 International Business Law
    This courses focuses on the legal environment associated with international commercial transactions, including an analysis of major Western and non-Western legal traditions and the supranational law of the European Community, a detailed analysis of the negotiation, formation, enforcement, and financing of international sales contracts, an analysis of international trade regulation, analysis of methods of regulating global competition, and of the protection of business property rights in international transactions.

    BUS 439 International Human Resources Management
    In this course, students will examine human resources practices in an international business environment. The course also addresses HR strategies and practices to increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency as well as international compliance problems faced by HR professionals.

    BUS 450 International Finance
    An examination of the international aspects of corporate finance and investing, the course covers balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international banking.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in International Business degree program.

    International Security and Military Studies

    Add knowledge and moral perspective to your major with this deep-dive into the history of armed conflicts and study of military and counterterrorism strategies.

    MIL 208 Survey of the American Military since WWI
    Since World War I, the American Military has expanded and transformed into a modern military machine. This course will focus on the reasons and ways in which the versatile American Military has been utilized throughout the world, at different times. This course will focus on a selection of significant battles fought by air, land and sea, during World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Persian Gulf War.

    MIL 212 The Military as a Peace Keeping Force
    This course will examine ways in which militaries are utilized during peace times and in times of conflict. It will focus on NATO, the United Nations, Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Recovery. It will investigate the role external factors such as, international and local politics, geography, media, terrorism, and economics have on a military’s ability to be a peace keeping force.

    MIL 275 Military Ethics
    Ethical issues faced in the modern world will be examined including the ethics of leadership, just war theory, and the moral status of the rules of war. Students will use critical thinking to determine the ethical implications and solutions for complex issues that are relevant to the current day military. The course will make use of case studies to illustrate moral and ethical dilemmas.

    ANT 307 Anthropology of War
    An examination of the nature of war, primarily as it occurs in pre-industrial societies, and a survey of the anthropological explanations regarding this phenomenon. Emphasis is on understanding the complexity, variability, and cultural embeddedness of war as it occurs around the world.

    HIS 331 World War II
    A study of the causes, course, and consequences of World War II. Topics covered include the war’s major campaigns, its impact on the societies of the nations involved, the Holocaust, and the war’s influence in shaping the contemporary world. Through readings in various primary and secondary sources, students will also develop an understanding of how historians reconstruct and interpret the past.

    HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis
    Students in this course study and analyze counterterrorism including the evolution of counterterrorism, and the specifics of the typology and anatomy of terrorist operations. The course includes an overview of the intelligence community, collection, analysis, requirements and dissemination.

    Journalism and Mass Communication
    Enhance your knowledge of today’s media landscape and the newsgathering skills necessary to perform at a professional level. With a focus on your writing and reporting skills, the Journalism and Mass Communication minor will explore the evolution of mass media, the emergence of multi-platform newsgathering, the rule of law, and the ethical challenges facing modern journalists.

    JRN 200 Elements of Journalism
    Elements of Journalism provides students with an understanding of the field of journalism. The course focuses on developing the students’ skills in the areas of grammar, spelling, punctuation, Associated Press (AP) style writing, the inverted pyramid, news gathering, interviewing and other elements of journalism. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and 122.

    JRN 201 Multimedia News Writing & Editing
    This course is designed to provide the principles and techniques of effective writing and editing for news in various platforms. There will be an emphasis on accuracy of information, presentation, clarity, precision, and efficiency in the use of language. Students will also begin to discover the various career opportunities and the field and begin to develop their goals through the Career Services Integration pieces built into the course.

    JRN 301 Newsgathering & Reporting
    This course focuses on gathering, evaluating, writing, and editing information for news stories tailored to various forms of media.

    JRN 341 Specialized Journalism
    This course introduces students to the various genres of journalistic writing. Students learn to employ skills acquired from previous journalism courses to specific types of news reporting. Genres include the following: investigative journalism, sports journalism, entertainment journalism, business journalism, and environmental journalism.

    JRN 333 Ethics in Journalism
    Ethics in journalism begins with an overview of ethical foundations and philosophy with a focus on case studies in the media and the application of ethical standards and decision making to issues faced by journalists on a daily basis.

    JRN 410 Journalism Law
    The study of the law of journalism and mass communication is a vast field. This course provides a broad overview of the rule of law, the First Amendment, disruptive speech, libel, protecting privacy, reporter’s privilege and electronic media regulation.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Journalism and Mass Communication degree program.

    Law Enforcement Administration

    Broaden your Bachelor's degree with a minor in Law Enforcement Administration. Prepare to focus on skills associated with management and leadership in Law Enforcement organizations.

    LEA 201 Introduction to Law Enforcement Administration
    This course focuses on the elements of law enforcement administration and the factors influencing successful organizations through effective hiring, training, and support of employees. The course examines organizational theory, design and communication, along with the processes of planning and decision making. The effects of stress and adverse behavior are reviewed with relation to the organization and requirements of the administration. Politics, labor relations, and fiscal management are addressed in correlation with the effects on law enforcement administration process.

    LEA 328 Leadership & Supervision in Law Enforcement
    This course focuses on the comparisons between leadership, management, and supervision and the traits and theories surrounding effective application. The course will analyze the impacts of crime on successful leadership and the ability to motivate in order to maximize work effort.

    LEA 339 Law Enforcement Personnel Management
    This course examines the issues involved with maintaining qualified and capable officers available for deployment by a law enforcement administration. The course delves into employee assistance, medical issues and concerns that can significantly affect law enforcement organizations. Federal, state, and local certification and training requirements are discussed regarding continued employment and the impact on staffing. Applicable case law will be reviewed regarding Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA).

    LEA 408 Technological Management in Law Enforcement
    This course will assess the implementation and application of modern technological hardware and software in assisting law enforcement administration in addressing crime concerns. The course will explore the use of facial-recognition software, closed circuit television, and automatic vehicle monitoring systems in influencing crime issues. Terminology and applications are explained to provide insight to students regarding available resources and usage.

    LEA 432 Fiscal Administration in Law Enforcement
    This course focuses on the principles of budgeting in the public sector and provides the student with an understanding of the methods used in making financial decisions. The course compares and contrasts the public and private sector and addresses the responsibility of efficient use of funds. Federal state, and local perspectives in finance and budgeting are evaluated. Responsible and ethical financial principles are reinforced.

    LEA 444 Training Management
    The focus of this course surrounds the necessity of training and the effectiveness of methods employed to reduce agency liability while promoting employee safety. The course will address the liability assumed by both employee and agency when training standards are not adhered to or supervision and leadership allows for deviation from set standards.

    Literature

    Build an appreciation for and better understanding of other cultures, while acquiring knowledge and skills necessary to interpret nuanced rhetoric and analyze themes universal to the human experience. This minor explores historical works as varied as the Renaissance and Postmodernism, empowering you with the ability to create and sustain complex arguments, conduct research, focus your reasoning, and present ideas in an organized fashion. The Literature minor is especially appropriate for students majoring in Education, History, Political Science, Psychology, Health Administration, and Business.

    ENG 303 Survey of Shakespeare
    An in-depth study of eight of Shakespeare’s greatest works including significant films of productions. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing.

    ENG 317 International Voices
    An introduction to recent international writing in its cultural context. Students read fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and interview, and are introduced to music, art, film, and cuisine of cultures beyond U.S. borders. Prerequisites: English Proficiency

    ENG 380 Literary Research
    This course is designed to teach the techniques for conducting literary research. Students will focus on particular authors while focusing on the essential skills of literary research. In addition to short critical essays, students will produce a major research paper.

    In addition to the 3 courses listed above, choose three of the six course options noted below:

    ENG 201 American Literature to 1865
    This course will examine American literature from early colonization through 1865, including texts from the colonial, revolutionary, and antebellum periods. The focus will be upon literary analysis and literary movements contextualized by American history and culture.

    ENG 202 American Literature After 1865
    This course will examine American literature focusing on a selection of works published between 1865 and the present. We will explore the impact of social and cultural transformations on our national literature working through literary movements and paying close attention to the development of ideas about gender, race, region and nation as expressed in fiction, poetry, and drama.

    ENG 345 British Literature I
    This course examines writing by representative British authors in various genres from the Anglo-Saxon period through the mid-eighteenth century.

    ENG 346 British Literature II
    This course provides a survey of writing by representative British authors in various genres from the Romantic Period to the present.

    ENG 341 Studies in Literary Genres
    This course will introduce students to literary genres such as poetry, short fiction, creative non-fiction, drama, and the novel. Students will read, analyze, and write critically about representative selections in the various genres.

    ENG 438 Literary Theory
    This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and tools to develop an understanding the nature of literature, what functions it has, what the relation of the text is to the author, the reader, to language, to society and to history.

    Logistics Management

    Coordinate your career for success by earning your minor in Logistics Management. You will learn how to distribute products, services, and material while preparing for a career managing transportation, warehouses, and supply chains.

    BUS 445 Total Quality Management
    This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control.

    INF 220 IS Principles
    This course develops students’ understanding of information systems, foundational technologies, and organizational application to conduct business and solve problems. This course presents information systems principles and examines how they form an integral part of modern organizations. Topics include systems concepts; organizational processes; technological aspects of information systems; Internet applications; IT security; database management; systems development life cycle; and ethical and social responsibility issues. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor. 

    MGT 330 Management for Organizations
    This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

    MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management
    This course introduces logistics/physical distribution and supply, and the related costs. It provides a systematic overview and analysis of the elements of logistics functions in widely varying types of industries and agencies, including handling, warehousing, inventory control, and financial controls. Prerequisite: MGT 330 

    MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management
    This course focuses on intermodal transportation as part of supply chain management. The course addresses the development of the global transportation system, transportation regulation, the modes of transportation and how they interface, shipper issues, intermodal transportation management, and the future in transportation.

    MGT 401 Hazardous Materials Management
    This course addresses the significant issues associated with handling hazardous materials in a logistical system. The course also provides a firm foundation on basic hazardous materials management principles. Topics include definitions of hazardous materials, regulatory overview, technology to treat different hazardous materials, and tracking and manifest rules. Prerequisite: MGT 330 

    Long Term Care Administration

    A minor in Long Term Care Administration can add value and specialized knowledge to improve your career options and meet current job market demands in an ever growing field of aging.

    HCA 333 Introduction to Long Term Care
    This course provides an overview of the long-term service delivery continuum. Course topics include: the concept of patient-family-centered services, introduction to theories of adult development and aging, modalities of the long term care delivery system, organizational culture, introduction to regulatory agencies, financial resources, and assurance of quality.

    BUS 303 Human Resource Management
    An introduction to the field of human resource management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

    HCA 417 Electronic Health Records
    This course begins with an exploration of the evolution of electronic health records (EHRs,) and then delves into the current forces driving the adoption of electronic health records. The components of EHR’s are reviewed and the core functionalities of the EHR are examined. Major consideration is given to HIPAA and confidentiality regulatory requirements in terms of EHR management. In addition, the different methods of data capture and recording of data are reviewed, as well as a comparison of contents for an inpatient versus an outpatient EHR.

    HCA 312 Health Care Finance
    This course provides an introduction to health care’s fundamental financing concepts. The interaction of funding resources among government agencies and the private sector in the funding of health services is explored. Political and social policies contributing to the demand for health services are discussed. Cost control strategies such as managed care, fee for service and specified contractual arrangements provide the foundation for analyzing health care financing. Health services financing and disbursement systems are presented across the domains of for-profit, non-profit, public, grant funding and managed care. Focused attention is given to discussion of government financing of health services including, Medicare, Medicaid, and specific entities such as veterans administration and other categorical funding. Prerequisites: HCA 281 and HCA 305 or HCA 205.

    HCA 322 Healthcare Ethics and Medical
    This course presents the ethical and legal implications of health care administration. The unique legal aspects encountered in the provision of health services are analyzed. Concepts of access, affordability, health care interventions and human rights are interfaced with legal and ethical issues challenging the provision of health care services. Concepts of risk management, continuous quality assurance, guardianship, Institutional Review Boards, and needs of special and diverse populations provide discussion points in the course. The overlapping domains of ethics and medical law are examined. Case studies and discussion of ethical and legal precedent setting decisions are used to link theory with reality. Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205.

    HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring & Accreditation
    This course provides a foundational exploration of the concepts of health care accreditation and continuous quality monitoring. The concept of quality assurance is explored from a perspective of selected accreditation, regulatory, licensing and certification programs. The interface of accreditation and reimbursement is explored. Health information systems are used in the analysis of health care accreditation, government mandates, and regulatory activities as they impact consumer outcomes. Legal implications of quality monitoring are analyzed. Social, political, professional and organizational influences upon health services delivery are explored from a perspective of demand, special populations, financing and service delivery.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Health Care Administration degree program.

    Marketing

    Explore different ways in which marketing and advertising shape our modern business world by adding a minor in Marketing to your Bachelor's degree. You will expand your experience with branding, research, and consumer behavior.

    BUS 330 Principles of Marketing
    The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

    BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising
    This course is designed to introduce students to the field of advertising as a promotional force with emphasis on institutions, planning, strategic practices, and tactical decisions made by advertising executives. It will also explore the various career opportunities including account executive, media buying, copywriting, production, and research.

    BUS 336 Marketing Strategy
    The objective of this course is to advance the students' ability to develop, implement, and critically evaluate the marketing strategy for a product or service. It will provide the conceptual frameworks and hone the analytical and creative skills that are necessary to define and develop superior value, persuasively communicate that value, profitably deliver it to a carefully selected target market, and sustain both the value and the profitability in the face of ever-changing customer needs and competitive offerings.

    BUS 339 Marketing Research
    Study and analysis of the marketing information system. Includes the organizational characteristics of marketing research, basic tools and procedures, and management science applications.

    BUS 343 International Marketing
    Examination of cultural, economic, and political factors that affect marketing of goods and services worldwide. Emphasis is on adapting the marketing strategies of domestic marketers to international operations and the institutional structure that exists in international markets. Marketing strategies of firms' operations within these markets are also examined.

    BUS 350 Consumer Behavior
    This course illustrates the psychological, socio-cultural, and decision-making aspects of consumer behavior. Students study behavioral concepts, motivation, and the role of consumer behavior in our society.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Public Relations and Marketing degree program.

    Operations Management

    Steer your career toward success by earning your minor in Operations Management. You will learn how to plan and implement best practices that build efficiency and productivity.

    BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques
    A survey of relevant quantitative techniques commonly used in accounting, business, and information systems. Topics will vary but, typically, elementary probability theory and applications, decision theory, and linear programming are included. Prerequisite: Mathematical competency 

    BUS 308 Statistics for Managers*
    This course examines the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in business decision making. Additionally, the course focuses on the utilization of statistical methods as applied to business problems and operations. Prerequisite: Mathematical competency

    INF 336 Project Procurement Management
    Designed to develop the basic knowledge base of project managers and project procurement managers, this course emphasizes partnering between buyers and sellers to create a single culture with one set of goals and objectives. Students will discover the key areas in procuring outside services and products - from the initial decision to buy through final contract closeout. They will recognize what must be done for success in the six key project procurement management processes: procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout. They will also formulate the make-or-buy decision, prepare an effective procurement management plan to guide the team, and use outsourcing for maximum benefit. Lessons and best practices from procurement theory and experience are also presented. Prerequisite: INF 103

    INF 340 Business Systems Analysis
    This course is a study of the business systems analysis and development processes for information systems in organizations. The course is focused on information concepts and methodologies associated with the development of business information systems, and their effective application in solving business problems. Students examine the major issues involved in managing information technology within the contemporary business environment and the relationship between organizational structures and information technology. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency

    BUS 445 Total Quality Management
    This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control.

    BUS 446 Production Operations Control
    Students analyze production control requirements as applied to both "push" and "pull" production environments. Students further learn to capture data and prepare for product changes in a variety of manufacturing environments.

    * Math competency must be met before taking this course.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Operations Management and Analysis degree program.

    Organizational Management

    Explore the human side of organizations, improve your understanding of how they function, and develop effective skills in management and leadership when you pursue your minor in Organizational Management.

    MGT 330 Management for Organizations
    This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

    MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations
    Several leadership styles are examined in this course. Emphasis is placed on developing effective leadership in organizations and personal enterprises, and on developing ethical leadership perspectives in personal and professional decision-making.

    BUS 303 Human Resources Management
    An introduction to the field of human resources management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

    MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations
    Theory and research are applied to the study of group dynamics, processes encountered in the small-group setting, and how organizational effectiveness is impacted by small-group and team functioning. The course focuses on group productivity, decision-making, diversity, group communication, resolving group conflict and building effective teams.

    MGT 435 Organizational Change
    In this course, students will study and apply alternative theories, models and strategies for creating and managing organizational change. The effectiveness of management tools in initiating problem-solving and decision-making to bring about change within organizations is evaluated.

    COM 425 Communication in Organizations
    This course investigates the role of communication in creating an effective and ethical organizational environment. Students will be assisted in developing and strengthening such communication skills as self-awareness, intrapersonal efficacy, interpersonal competence, and leadership and team skills.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Management degree program.

    Political Science & Government

    Learn about the complex inner workings of the United States government and the global environment. Discover how your elected officials represent your interests by earning your Minor in Political Science & Government.

    POL 201 American National Government
    A survey of government at the national level. Emphasis is placed on the constitutional basis of American government, federalism, the sources and forms of political behavior, the operation of the three branches of government, and the making of national policy.

    POL 303 The American Constitution
    This course is a study of the Constitution of the United States and its role in American history and government. The study covers the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, its subsequent amendment and interpretation, and its contemporary role in American politics and government.

    POL 255 Introduction to International Relations
    This course in International Relations is an introductory study of the interactions and interconnectivity of the countries of the world. The course emphasizes the need to think critically about international politics and foreign policy. Consequently, this course focuses topically on how and why wars begin, balances of power between states, international institutions, collective security, international communications, human rights, globalization, regime types, international trade, environmental change, imperialism, injustice, inequality, and other issues relevant to the changing world.

    POL 310 Environmental Policies
    Environmental Policies examines the political, social, and economic implications of environmental policy in the United States and the global environment. It, also, explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment.

    POL 211 Introduction to Politics
    This course is an introduction to selected institutions, processes, and political behaviors associated with the study of politics in the United States and globally.

    POL 353 Comparative Politics
    This course introduces the basic concepts and theories of comparative politics through an analysis of selected political systems and governments from various regions and societies across the world. Topical analysis in the course includes an emphasis on key political institutions, political culture, ideology, globalization, conflict and stability, various state and non-state actors, and on issues associated with economic development and underdevelopment.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Government degree program.

    Project Management

    Build on your Bachelor's degree with a minor in Project Management. You will be well-equipped to seize new opportunities in this fast-growing field.

    INF 338 Leadership & Communication Skills for Project Managers
    This course enables students to develop the necessary skills to elicit maximum performance from every member of a team. Students will uncover the styles of leadership that are most appropriate for achieving project success and discover which forms of leadership and communication styles are best suited to their personalities. They will also learn techniques for resolving conflict and managing personnel issues and gain hands-on experience in analyzing stages of team development and maximizing project team effectiveness. Prerequisite: MGT 330 and writing competency 

    BUS 445 Total Quality Management
    This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control.

    INF 336 Project Procurement Management
    Designed to develop the basic knowledge base of project managers and project procurement managers, this course emphasizes partnering between buyers and sellers to create a single culture with one set of goals and objectives. Students will discover the key areas in procuring outside services and products from the initial decision to buy through final contract closeout. They will recognize what must be done for success in the six key project procurement management processes: procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout. They will also formulate the make-or-buy decision, prepare an effective procurement management plan to guide the team, and use outsourcing for maximum benefit. Lessons and best practices from procurement theory and experience are also presented. Prerequisite: INF 103 

    INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control
    Effective cost and schedule management are cornerstone activities of each project. Students will determine how best to plan the execution of a project scope, to consider stakeholder budget and schedule constraints, to use different methodologies, and to establish the performance measurement baseline. They will also discover keys to identify potential cost and schedule overruns and master the tools and techniques to compare actual work accomplished against established plans, as well as work accomplished against actual expenditures. By identifying early warning indicators, students will gain greater insight into potential risk areas and take the necessary corrective action to keep the project in control. Prerequisites: ACC 205, and MAT 332 or BUS 308

    INF 410 Project Management
    This course provides the foundational principles and techniques to plan, execute, and manage complex projects. Topics include workflow analysis, quality control, and performance evaluation.

    MGT 435 Organizational Change
    In this course, students will study and apply alternative theories, models and strategies for creating and managing organizational change. The effectiveness of management tools in initiating problem solving and decision making to bring about change within organizations is evaluated.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Project Management degree program.

    Psychology

    Explore the depths of human behavior. Learn to understand human beings, their motivations, emotions, and thought processes in a variety of contexts with your minor in Psychology.

    PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology
    This course is a survey of selected topics in psychology, including research methods, physiological psychology, sensation, perception, consciousness, learning, memory, motivation, gender roles, abnormal behavior, psychotherapy, and social psychology.

    PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
    Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes resulting from experience. This course consists of the application of learning theory and research in a wide range of settings where learning takes place. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    PSY 350 Physiological Psychology
    Students study the anatomy and physiology of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and endocrine system. Study of the biological systems promotes better understanding of mind-body relationships important to hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, emotion, learning, and memory. Students also examine medical theories, assessment, and treatments of psychological disorders including new imaging technologies and drug therapy. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    PSY 301 Social Psychology
    Students explore how the thoughts, feelings and behavior of individuals are influenced by other human beings in a variety of social situations. This course also entails a survey and critical analysis of the various methods used by researchers in social psychology. Topics include: social cognition, aggression, prejudice, interpersonal attraction, altruistic behavior, conformity, group influences, and conflict resolution. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    PSY 330 Theories of Personality
    This course reviews the basic concepts and principles of the major theories of personality. It also assesses the scientific worth and validity of these theories and includes case studies that show how these theories are applied to the treatment of psychological disorders. Detailed descriptions of healthy and unhealthy personality types will be stressed. Students will be challenged to evaluate their personality, as it relates to the theory being presented. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology
    The course entails a study of the diagnosis, causes, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders. Problems with the reliability and validity of the American Psychiatric Association system for diagnosing psychological disorders will be discussed and various alternative systems will be introduced. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology degree program.

    Public Administration

    Promote civil society and social justice by adding a minor in Public Administration to your Bachelor's degree. You will enhance the management skills you need to perform effectively within public, government, or not-for-profit organizations.

    PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration
    An introductory examination of the characteristics of the public organization and its impact on society including analysis of the principles of public administration, personnel issues, budgetary activities, legal dynamics, as well as historical development of the field are included. 

    PPA 303 Finance for Public Administrators  
    This course addresses the principles of state and local financing of government, sources of public revenue, objects of public expenditures, problems of fiscal administration, emerging policy issues involving land use and taxation, spending and budgeting, intergovernmental cooperation, debt financing, financing for economic development, and privatization. Prerequisite: ECO 203 

    PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators 
    This is an introductory course in government budgeting dealing with public revenue, expenditure policies, and politics of the budgetary process while addressing current issues and challenges in this field. 

    PPA 307 Intergovernmental Relations & Issues 
    The theory and practice of intergovernmental relations and the various issues that accompany the daily operations and affect the overall efficiency of our system. This course will address both the legal and political perspectives of the interactions, relationships and public policy considerations throughout the various components and levels of government. Prerequisite: PPA 301

    PPA 401 Urban Management 
    This course is an introduction to formal and informal elements of urban management systems addressing the exploration of alternative approaches to dealing with problems arising from rapid urban growth. Prerequisite: PPA 301 

    PPA 403 Administrative Law 
    A study of the nature and the law of the administrative procedure, of separation and delegation of powers, and of the scope of judicial review and other remedies against administrative actions. 

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Public Administration degree program.

     

    Social and Criminal Justice

    Do your part for a just society while gaining a wide breadth of knowledge within the world of criminal and social justice with a minor in Social and Criminal Justice.

    CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice
    This course provides an analysis of the criminal justice system focusing on the police, courts, and corrections.

    CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice
    This course describes prevalent patterns of juvenile delinquency, relates these patterns to theories of child and adolescent development, and examines various theories pertaining to the causes of criminal behavior among juveniles. In addition, this course surveys the roles of police, courts and delinquency intervention programs in the administration of juvenile justice. Emphasis will be given to strategies of prevention and early intervention.

    CRJ 303 Corrections
    An analysis of correctional procedures and institutions, especially jails, prisons, parole and probation is the focus of this course. Other topics include inmate subcultures, rehabilitation and prisonization.

    CRJ 305 Crime Prevention
    This course explores strategies of crime prevention including programs designed to reduce opportunities to commit crime; programs to alleviate demoralizing community social and economic conditions that foster criminal behavior; programs to improve police/community cooperation; and, programs to educate young people as to likely consequences of criminal behavior.

    CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure
    A survey of constitutional rights, police compliance to constitutional rights, and constitutional amendments that specifically apply to the individual. The course examines the application of these rights in the enforcement, investigation, and adjudication of specific crimes.

    CRJ 311 Forensics
    Forensic science applies scientific methodology to crime scene investigation and crime solving. This course analyzes techniques of crime scene investigation and the lawful gathering of evidence. Emphasis is placed upon the Federal Rules of Evidence, including the admissibility of physical evidence at trial, as well as the role of forensic science in the criminal justice system and the identification, collection and preservation of physical evidence (chain of custody issues).

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Social and Criminal Justice degree program.

    Social Science

    The Social Science minor provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the study of society, both at the individual and group level. Using the knowledge and methods of all the social science disciplines, a student minoring in Social Sciences develops the skills to think critically about social concepts and issues.

    SSC 101: Introduction to Social Sciences
    This course introduces students to the interdisciplinary field of social sciences and some of the disciplines that comprise this field, including anthropology, sociology, political science and history. These subject areas figure prominently in the Social Science major. In this course, students will learn important social science concepts and theoretical approaches, along with the research methods that social scientists use to study human behavior. Throughout the course and through a summative assignment, students will examine how social factors shape social behavior, and some of the consequences of current social problems.

    HIS 206: United States History II
    This course surveys American history from Reconstruction to the present. Emphasis is placed on the growing pluralism of American society, the effects of industrialization, the evolution of American political institutions, and the increasing importance of the United States in world affairs. Recommended Prerequisite: ENG 122

    SOC 315: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
    Culture and politics in Europe, Latin America, the Arab world, India, East Asia, and other areas are examined. Emphasis is on viewing the world from the diverse perspectives of other cultures and political systems. Topics and regions vary.

    POL 310: Environmental Policies
    Examines political, social, and economic policies and their impact on the global environment. Also explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment.

    LIB 320: Global Socioeconomic Perspectives
    This course is an examination of major socioeconomic developments in different countries including Japan, Germany, Sweden, the United States, and the developing nations. Topics include population, natural resources, energy, sustainable growth, and policies such as privatization and free trade agreements. Social and economic justice in the global economy is considered.

    ANT 353: Anthropology of Gender
    This course examines cross-cultural analysis of gender roles, while focusing on non-Western societies, using data from other societies to better understand the gender system of our own culture. Issues include status of women and men, the meaning of “femaleness” and “maleness” historically and in contemporary society. Gender roles, transnational migrations, social movements, international relations and religion are explored. Prerequisite: ANT 340

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Social Science degree program.

 

    Sociology

    Discern the broad framework of society and the people who make it up with your minor in Sociology. When you add the Sociology minor to your Bachelor's degree, you broaden the scope of your education to include insights into relations between people, groups, organizations, and cultures.

    SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology
    This introductory course presents basic concepts, theories, and research in sociology. Group organization, sex and gender, marriage and the family, sports as a social institution, and collective behavior are among the topics considered.

    SOC 203 Social Problems
    Drugs, poverty, illiteracy, homelessness, AIDS, undocumented aliens, single-parent families, urban and farm crises, and racial and environmental issues are examined. Possible causes and remedies are scrutinized.

    SOC 304 Social Gerontology
    The course focuses on social stereotypes and prejudice against the aged, discrimination, friends and family, care giving, living environments, demography, senior political power, legislation, elder abuse, and death and dying.

    SOC 305 Crime & Society
    This course considers the basic sociological theories and research findings concerning crime. The punishment and corrections process, organized and corporate crime, the police, the courts and the impact of crime on the victim are examined.

    SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups
    The course considers major racial and ethnic groups, especially African Americans, Asian Americans, ethnic Whites, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The focus is on the traits of each group and its pattern of adaptation to the larger society.

    SOC 312 Child, Family, & Society
    This course is a study of the psychological and sociological foundations of traditional and nontraditional family structures within different subcultures of our society and their impact on individuals and groups within the context of the school. It includes a focus on analyzing the issues in this area and on strategies parents, teachers and school staff can use to better understand and counter family situations that adversely affect student behavior and academic performance.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Sociology degree program.

    Speech and Language Disorders
    Increase your understanding of language; its origins, interpretation, and disorders. With a focus on the increased demand for speech pathologists and special education teachers, this minor will provide the knowledge needed for those seeking careers in language learning and teaching, translation, speech-language pathology, and computer-mediated communication. Students who successfully complete these courses may be able to fulfill prerequisites for enrolling in graduate programs accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and for obtaining ASHA’s Certificate of Clinical Competency.

    LNG 101 Introduction to Language
    Language is a central part of our daily lives. It is how we communicate our thoughts and desires to others. Yet, we usually take language for granted, using it effortlessly without stopping to think about how it works. So, what exactly is language, and how does it work? This course is an introduction to linguistics, the scientific study of language. At the end of this course, students should understand what linguists study and have a good understanding of the core concepts in phonology, phonetics, morphology, syntax, and semantics. The developmental stages of language acquisition and the variations of dialect and style observed in spoken and written English are also examined.

    LNG 222 Survey of Communicative Disorders
    This course provides an introduction to the field of speech and language pathology. Students will survey a variety of communicative disorders and their effect on language development as compared to clinically normal growth and development of speech and language. Students will also consider the effect of these disorders on various levels of society. Prerequisite: LNG 101

    LNG 310 Sounds of Language
    In this course, students begin to answer the questions: how do we speak, why do different languages sound distinct, and how does sound encode and convey meaning? Students will examine sounds and sound systems of languages by exploring the phonetic properties of language as well as various phonological systems that languages employ to organize these speech sounds into meaningful utterances. Students will also study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: LNG 101

    LNG 320 Structures of Language
    This course provides students an opportunity to explore the linguistic theories of morphology and syntax. Students will examine structure within language by describing and investigating the underlying principles and processes of word formation, as well as the rules that govern phrase and sentence structure. Basic concepts addressed include morpheme-based morphology and a generative grammar approach to syntax. Students will also study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: LNG 101

    LNG 360 Language & Society
    This course provides an introduction to language in its social context. In this course, students will explore how language embodies culture, and how society is impacted by language. Topics include linguistic variation in diverse social contexts; language and gender; language and ethnicity; language and socioeconomic class; and the language of law, politics, propaganda, and advertising. Prerequisite: LNG 101

    LNG 455 Language Development Disorders
    This course encompasses a study of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of selected language development disorders from a clinical perspective. In an online classroom setting, students will investigate the causes and characteristics of specific language disorders, as well as the current methods of clinical assessment and treatments. Using transcribed and recorded speech samples, students will simulate the clinical processes of diagnosis and treatment by applying these methods. Throughout the course, students will consider the professional conduct and ethical guidelines set for by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Note: This course does not result in licensure or certification of any kind. Prerequisite: LNG 101

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Applied Linguistics degree program.

    Sports and Recreation Management

    Win big with your minor in Sports and Recreation Management. With this minor added to your Bachelor's degree, you will train for a career in the sports and recreation industry.

    ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
    Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

    MGT 330 Management for Organizations
    This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace.

    BUS 303 Human Resource Management
    An introduction to the field of human resource management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field.

    BUS 330 Principles of Marketing
    The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility.

    SRM 401 Sport Finance
    The course examines the economic and financial environment in which the sport industry operates, with emphasis on financial decision-making, financial management, and current financial trends. The content identifies key stakeholders and their various interests in the financial success of sport operations and organizations. The students will explore sources of funding and revenue generation, financial controls and reporting, budgets, and the relationship between management principles and financial performance.

    SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management
    Sport has become a major business enterprise in the United States and in much of the world. This course helps students understand the scope of the sport industry, to include identifying career opportunities in various segments of the sport industry. The course also examines the managerial process to include the functions of management, as well as the roles, skills, and attributes required of sport managers. Special attention is given to examining the unique characteristics of sport and the resulting social and ethical responsibilities of sport managers.

    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in Sports and Recreation Management degree program.

    World History

    Dive in to the past, and prepare for your future. By earning your Minor in World History, you will explore multiple regions and cultures and build an intellectual toolkit for addressing complex global issues.

    HIS 104 World Civilizations II
    This course is a study of the development of and interactions among the world's major civilizations from the seventeenth century to the present. Emphasis is placed on the rise and decline of European global dominance.

    HIS 378 Historiography & Historical Methodologies
    This course provides students with an introduction to the practice of the discipline of history. It provides them with an overview of the ways historians have approached the study of the past since classical antiquity, acquaints them with the major approaches that characterize the discipline today, and equips them to use appropriate practices in historical research and writing.

    HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe
    The history of Europe since 1900. Emphasis is placed on the changing nature of European society, the confrontation between totalitarianism and democracy, the origins and consequences of the two world wars, and Europe's evolving role in world affairs.

    HIS 342 The Middle East
    This course is intended to introduce students to the complex history of the Middle East, focusing on the development of the core region in the 19th and 20th centuries. Among the most important topics covered are the origins and nature of Islam, the expansion of the Islamic world, the nature and impact of the region's relationship with Western countries, the impact of the discovery of oil in the region, the causes and course of the Israeli-Arab struggle, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism.

    HIS 351 Asia in the Age of Decolonization & Globalization
    Covering major developments in Asia since the early twentieth century, this course focuses on China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. The course traces the rise of Asian nationalism, the decline of western imperialism, and the region's rise to economic prominence.

    HIS 379 The Atlantic World
    The history of the Atlantic basin from the late fifteenth century through the early nineteenth, including the interactions of Africans, Europeans, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the societies their interactions produced. Themes covered include the Columbian exchange, migrations (forced and voluntary), empire-building, strategies of resistance, identity formation, and the transatlantic dimensions of the American and French Revolutions.


    Note: This minor may not be taken if you are in the Bachelor of Arts in History degree program.

    Writing
    Develop the communication skills needed to remain competitive in today’s job market. The Writing minor is designed to not only enhance your composition skills, but to also increase your ability to communicate with a variety of audiences in different contexts. Through your courses, you will learn to modulate your tone to suit a specific purpose, master the nuances of word choice in order to create persuasive and compelling content, and understand the importance of drafting and revision. The Writing minor is especially appropriate for students majoring in Business, Education, Health Administration, Political Science, History, and Psychology.

    ENG 315 Business & Professional Writing
    Instruction in the planning, organization, construction, style, and tone of several forms of business and professional correspondence: letters, interoffice communication, resumes, and formal reports. A review of grammar, punctuation, and usage is incorporated into the course. Prerequisite: ENG 122 and junior standing

    ENG 318 Creative Writing
    This course provides writing experiences in fiction, nonfiction, and poetry for students who have a strong interest in creative expression and have some experience in writing in one of these genres. Various aspects of the imaginative process are explored with separate application made to the genres of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. Students write in each genre, participate in workshops with instructors, join with instructors and writing practitioners in critiquing colleagues’ work, and make presentations of their own work.

    ENG 325 Intermediate Composition
    Intermediate Composition is designed for students who have some experience with college-level writing but want to develop their ability to write. The goal of this course is to help students learn techniques for writing effective narrative, reflective, analytical, and research essays. These techniques include the effective use of specific details to engage and persuade readers, methods of organization that enable readers to follow a line of thinking, and strategies for editing sentences for clarity and conciseness. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122

    ENG 328 Scientific & Technical Writing
    Students will develop the skills necessary for writing about scientific, environmental, medical, and technological topics. Emphasis is placed on making complex and technical information understandable to a variety of audiences. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and fulfillment of the General Education Science requirement.

    COM 345 Media Writing for Communication
    This course is an introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication.

    ENG 353 Evolution & History of the English Language
    Where did English come from, how has it evolved into the language that is used today, and why does American English behave differently than, for example, the English spoken in Ireland? Also, in what ways are different languages distinct, and how are they similar? Students will trace the historical origins and influences of the transformation of the English language. Students will also explore the major theories of the evolution of language.

    Contact Ashford University at 866.711.1700 or request additional information.