Ashford University Catalog
Applicants seeking admission to a Clinton, Iowa bachelor's degree program must meet the following admission requirements prior to the start of the first course at Ashford University:
- Be a resident of Iowa or Illinois;
- Have the ability to attend one 4.5 hour weekday evening session per week at the Ashford campus;
- Have access to a computer with an Internet connection and meet the minimum technology and minimum computer skills, abilities, features, system configurations, hardware, and software outlined in the General Academic Information & Policies section of this Catalog;
- Have the ability to study in English indicated by one of the following**:
- Achieved a recognized high school diploma or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English^;
- Received a GED that was taken in English^;
- A minimum of 30 transferable credits have been earned from regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/universities in the United States or equivalent in which the primary language of instruction was English; or
- Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) examination taken within the past two (2) years. For the TOEFL, a minimum score of 500 paper-based or 61 Internet-based is required. For the IELTS, a minimum score of 6 is required. Copies of official scores must be submitted prior to provisional enrollment, and official scores must be submitted for full admission; and
- Completion of admissions interview with Clinton Campus President or designee.
**Satisfying the English Language Requirement does not exempt a student who earned his/her high school diploma outside of the United States from the additional admission requirements for applicants with international academic credentials.
^If satisfying the English Language Requirement through a high school diploma, GED, or equivalent was not completed in the United States, additional documentation may be required. Please contact the Registrar’s Office for further information
Conditionally admitted students who do not achieve provisional or full admission status after one attempt in the Ashford Promise, are allowed a second period of conditional admission in order to be provisionally or fully admitted.
Attendance in the first course (online or face-to-face) is confirmation of a student’s intent to matriculate and, therefore, constitutes an attempt. Subsequent withdrawal from the course or institution, whether administrative or student-initiated, concludes an attempt.
Failing to meet Basic Academic Requirements (BAR) attaining a cumulative course grade of C- or better as of Day 6 of Week 3 in the first course(s) also concludes an attempt.
Students who fail to meet Basic Academic Requirements are denied admission.
Students who are administratively withdrawn for failing to submit required Financial Aid documents during the conditional admission period are required to submit the required documents as a prerequisite to a subsequent attempt.
Ashford University reserves the right to deny admission or re-admission to any applicant. Ashford University does not admit students based on an “ability-to-benefit” test. Ashford University recognizes the importance of protecting student privacy and reserves the right to request documentation to establish or verify any student’s identity at any time, for administrative or compliance purposes. Students are expected to provide such documentation, and failure to do so may be considered a violation of the Student Community Standards. The University may deny or rescind admission to any student for failure to authenticate his or her identity.
Applicants are conditionally admitted to a Bachelor's degree program when they submit a completed application indicating that they meet admission requirements outlined for that program and are approved by the Registrar’s Office. Applicants in a conditional admission status are not eligible for Title IV funds and are not considered regular students until granted provisional or full admission.
Provisional admission status must be attained by the end of the second (2nd) attempt of the Ashford Promise, while a student is in conditional standing. Students who fail to attain provisional admission by the end of their second (2nd) attempt of the Ashford Promise must wait six months from the date they were denied admission to re-apply, or they may appeal the University’s decision using the process outlined subsequently to request a third (3rd) consecutive attempt of conditional admission in the Ashford Promise. Students that fail their third (3rd) consecutive attempt of conditional admission in the Ashford Promise will not be provided a fourth (4th) attempt.
Disagreements over academic quality will not be considered as an appropriate basis for such appeals. In cases of appropriate cause, the Ashford University Admission Appeals Committee reviews the appeals and renders a decision to the student. The decision will be communicated to the student via email from the Registrar's Office. Appeals must include an explanation of the event that occurred, which caused the student to not attain provisional admission to the University after two attempts.
Students must appeal in writing to the University Registrar. The appeal must be submitted to [email protected] and approved prior to enrollment in any future courses. Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include:
- A reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in the undue hardship to the student;
- Compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of college level credits during their period of absence; and,
- A plan for completion of the coursework required to meet basic academic requirements during their coursework at Ashford University.
Appeal decisions will be communicated from the Registrar’s Office to students via email.
Additional Conditional Admission Requirements for Applicants with International Academic Credentials for Bachelor's Degree Programs
The following admission requirements are applicable to applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States. Please note that visa services are not provided and that the University will not vouch for a nonimmigrant alien student’s status or associated charges. In addition to the conditional admission requirements outlined in the admission policy for Clinton, Iowa Bachelor's degree programs, copies of documentation indicating that the student meets the following admission requirements are required for conditional admission:
- Submit copies of an official evaluation from an approved evaluation service indicating that the student has met one of the following requirements:
- Completion of a two-year program from an appropriately accredited post-secondary institution, as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies.
- Achievement of equivalency of a United States high school diploma.
- All academic records from countries other than the United States must have been evaluated by one of the following evaluation services:
- Educational Credentials Evaluators, Inc. (ECE); or
- World Education Services (WES).
Note: Applicants who have already had their international credentials evaluated prior to applying to Ashford University may petition the Registrar's Office for acceptance of evaluations from other credible agencies.
Students must meet the following requirements in order to be provisionally admitted to a Clinton, Iowa Bachelor's degree program at Ashford University:
- Attain a cumulative course grade of C- or better by Day 6 of Week 3 in their first online course; and
- Attend Week 4 of their first online or face-to-face course.
Attendance in Week 4 constitutes a student’s confirmation of their intention to continue the program as a regular student. Upon attendance in Week 4, students are considered matriculated, regular students in their degree program. Students who meet the requirements for Full Admission will be fully admitted into the degree program.
Upon being granted conditional admission to an undergraduate degree program, the Ashford University Registrar’s Office staff will begin requesting transcripts of a student’s prior postsecondary education using the signed Transcript Request form.
The Registrar’s Office will request official transcripts of all prior postsecondary education, as provided by the student in the application for admission, as well as any school appearing in the student’s National Student Clearinghouse record. This includes:
- College or university transcripts from any regionally or approved nationally accredited postsecondary educational institution attended.
- Military credits evaluated for equivalency to college credits.
Students are responsible for submitting official documentation of any postsecondary credit previously earned through examination or credit earned through non-collegiate instruction to be evaluated for applicability to Ashford University program requirements.
Once transcripts of all prior postsecondary education have been received, the Registrar’s Office staff will complete the student’s transfer credit evaluation.
At the conclusion of the second (2nd) attempted Ashford University face-to-face course in a degree seeking program, if any transcripts of prior postsecondary education have not yet been received, the Registrar’s Office staff will proceed with the transfer credit evaluation of any transcripts of postsecondary education received to date. The student is then admitted on Academic Watch due to failure to provide confirmation of a combined cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher in all prior postsecondary education. Additional transcripts may be submitted for evaluation at a later date, should they become available.
If it is determined prior to the conclusion of the second (2nd) attempted Ashford University face-to-face course that certain transcripts are unable to be provided, students may sign and submit an Authorization to Close File form thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools, in order to expedite the transfer credit evaluation process. Any student who signs an Authorization to Close File form, thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools, is admitted on Academic Watch due to failure to provide confirmation of a combined cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher in all prior postsecondary education. These transcripts may be submitted for evaluation at a later date, should they become available.
Students are responsible for reviewing their transfer credit evaluation as well as their scheduled courses with their Academic Advisor and informing them of any courses that they feel are duplicative or equivalent in content to previously completed coursework or non-traditional learning.
Students may submit official transcripts to Ashford University for review of transfer credits at any time.
The following requirements must be met prior to the conclusion of the second (2nd) attempted Ashford University face-to-face course in a degree seeking program. To start the third (3rd) face-to-face course, students must complete all the requirements subsequently outlined.
- Official TOEFL or IELTS scores, if required for admission.
- Students that meet the English Language requirement with 30 transferable credits must submit the official transcript(s) where these credits were earned.
- Students who were provisionally admitted with completion of a two-year program from an appropriately accredited postsecondary institution as defined by Ashford University transfer credit policies must have official transcripts of those credits on file to meet full admissions requirements.
Students who do not meet all requirements will not be fully admitted and will be withdrawn from the program. Students may be readmitted to Ashford University at such time that all requirements for full admission have been met.
Students for whom the aforementioned required documentation does not apply, are fully admitted at the time of their transfer credit evaluation, in accordance with the Transfer Credit Evaluation policy. Students with no history of postsecondary education are fully admitted upon successful completion of the Conditional Admission Period.
The student is responsible for all eligibility-related assertions, attestations, and verifications relied upon by the institution during the admissions process. Should any of the student’s information be subsequently established as inaccurate, resulting in the student’s disqualification for full admission, the student will remain responsible for any and all financial obligations incurred while at the institution, including, but not limited to, financial aid funds that were consequently returned by the University.
If at any time it is determined that the student does not meet admission requirements outlined for the program as indicated on the application for admission, provisional and/or full admission will be rescinded and the student will be withdrawn from the University.
Undergraduate degree-seeking transfer students must provide official documentation of an undergraduate cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 2.0 in all combined undergraduate coursework attempted at regionally or approved nationally accredited colleges/ universities since high school, or he or she is admitted on Academic Watch. Any student who signs an Authorization to Close File form, thereby waiving potential transfer credits from previously attended schools and failing to provide confirmation of a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher, is admitted on Academic Watch. Students on Academic Watch are required to have achieved a cumulative Ashford University GPA of 2.0 and successfully complete 67% of credits attempted at the conclusion of the first Satisfactory Academic Progress increment. Students who have not met the requirements at the conclusion of the Academic Watch period will be dismissed from the University. Please refer to the Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) Requirements in this section to review all related satisfactory academic progress guidelines.
Graduates of an Ashford University undergraduate degree program who subsequently enroll in another undergraduate degree program will not be placed on Academic Watch. Students who change programs in the same degree level who have successfully completed one (1) SAP increment and are in good academic standing with the University will not be placed on Academic Watch.
A student who has been dismissed for not meeting satisfactory academic progress requirements following Academic Watch may appeal to the University Registrar for re-admission. Appeals are evaluated by a committee comprised of the University Registrar or designee, and a representative from Academic Affairs. The decision of the committee will be communicated in writing to the student by the Registrar’s Office.
Additionally, the student’s appeal letter must include the following:
- A reasonable explanation for the student’s academic performance to date, which includes mitigating circumstances such as student injury/illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in undue hardship to the student;
- Compelling evidence that the student has the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of graduate-level credits during the period of absence; and
- A plan for completion of the coursework required to meet satisfactory academic progress during the following payment period.
The passage of time does not substantiate eligibility for readmission or appeal for readmission, however, students who have experienced mitigating circumstances and have been dismissed from the University for failure to meet satisfactory academic progress requirements and have been denied re-admission after an appeal, may submit another appeal to be readmitted after six months have elapsed since their last appeal was received by the University. The appeal must meet the criteria outlined above and the student must present compelling evidence that they have the ability to succeed in an academic program due to changed circumstances, experience, and/or successful completion of graduate level credits since the last appeal was submitted.
Note: See the Satisfactory Academic Progress Requirements in this section to review all related Satisfactory Academic Progress guidelines.
Additional Full Admission Requirements for Applicants with International Academic Credentials for Bachelor's Degree Programs
In addition to meeting requirements for full admission outlined in the admission policy for Clinton, Iowa Bachelor's degree programs, applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States must submit an official evaluation sent directly from an approved evaluation service indicating that the student meets full admission requirements (student copies are not accepted) prior to the conclusion of the fourth (4th) attempted Ashford University course (equivalent to one academic term). To start the fifth (5th) course, applicants relying on academic credentials earned outside the United States must complete this requirement or they will be withdrawn from the program.
Students enrolled in a Clinton, Iowa undergraduate program are eligible for the Clinton, Iowa Undergraduate Program Grant as long as they remain continuously enrolled (or on an approved Academic Leave), attend the in-person instructional requirements for each required face-to-face course, and maintain satisfactory academic progress. Grants are applicable to courses for which tuition is in excess of $149 per credit hour.
The academic calendar is continuous (also known as non-term), rather than defined by semesters. In Clinton, Iowa undergraduate programs, students begin one five-week online course at the same time as one 10-week face-to-face course. Each 10-week course begins at the end of the preceding one. Students will typically take one five-week online course concurrent with each 10-week face-to-face course throughout the program, although exceptions may occur. Opportunities to enroll and begin courses in a Clinton, Iowa undergraduate degree program may be as frequent as five times per year.
There is an annual two-week Winter Break when courses are not scheduled. The Winter Break for 2019-2020 occurs from December 24, 2019 to January 6, 2020.
Initial enrollment in Ashford University undergraduate programs is arranged through a University Enrollment Services Advisor. New students should contact an Enrollment Services Advisor to register. It is the student’s responsibility to officially register for the program course of study. After initial enrollment, students will work with their Academic Advisors to register, add courses, or change their course schedule. Any change in the original registration must be communicated to the student’s Academic Advisor.
Students have the right to cancel the Enrollment Agreement and obtain a full refund of charges through attendance in Week 3 (day 21 of the first course). Applicants who want to cancel an enrollment agreement must contact their Enrollment Services Advisor prior to attending in Week 4 of their first online or face-to-face course. Applicants who cancel enrollment will be allowed one more period of conditional admission at Ashford University. Individuals who cancel their enrollment two times while in conditional standing may re-apply to Ashford University no earlier than six months from their last date of attendance.
Ashford University reserves the right to cancel or terminate the agreement if the applicant fails to meet basic academic requirements during conditional admission, violate the Student Community Standards, fail to make satisfactory academic progress, fail to make payment in accordance with the terms of his or her student finance agreement, and/or fail to meet attendance requirements as outlined in this Catalog. Applicants who are denied admission may be allowed one more period of conditional admission at Ashford University. Individuals who are denied admission two times while in conditional standing may re-apply to Ashford University no earlier than six months from their last date of attendance.
Students who receive federal student financial aid funds are entitled to a refund of money not paid from federal student financial aid program funds.
Students who obtain loan(s) to pay for an educational program will have the responsibility to repay the full amount of the loan plus interest, less the amount of any refund.
Students are expected to attend each week of a course. Attendance is defined as attending an in-person class session or participating in an academic activity within the online classroom such as posting in a graded discussion forum, submitting a written assignment or journal entry or submitting a quiz or exam. Postings not related to graded discussion forums or written assignments or journal entries not related to the actual assignment may be reviewed and disqualified for attendance purposes. Attendance on the basis of submitting a quiz or exam is determined by submission status at the conclusion of the calendar day (11:59 pm Mountain Time).
Each instructional week begins on a Tuesday and concludes on the following Monday. A student is recorded either absent or present each day based on participation in an academic activity. All recorded time stamps for assignment submissions, discussion board posts, and attendance records will reflect Mountain Time Zone.
Students enrolled in non-introductory courses who do not attend at least once in any seven consecutive day period will be issued an attendance warning. Students who do not attend at least once in any 14 consecutive day period will be dropped from the course(s) and administratively withdrawn from the University retroactive to the last date of recorded attendance. Students who attend on the first day following 14 consecutive days of non-attendance will not be dropped from their course or administratively withdrawn.
Students who participate in an academic activity in a course prior to its official start date will not be dropped from their course during Week 1 for non-attendance as long as they subsequently attend at least once during Week 1 of the course.
Students are required to attend the weekly in-person class sessions with Clinton, Iowa Bachelor’s Programs. Exceptions for mitigating circumstances such as student injury/ illness, death of a student’s family member, or other reasons resulting in undue hardship to the student must be approved by the Clinton Campus President or designee.
Please refer to drop policies for grade implications when not meeting attendance requirements. Students who drop a course or are dropped for not meeting attendance requirements and do not attend within 14 days of their last date of attendance will be administratively withdrawn from the University. A student’s last date of attendance following successful completion of a course is the end date of that course. The University may schedule periods of non-enrollment during which no courses are scheduled. When this occurs, such as during the annual Winter Break, the non-enrollment period may extend the 14 day limit to include the break. No approved Academic Leave can exceed 45 days including University scheduled periods of non-enrollment.
For information regarding the determination of withdrawal date, please see the Withdrawal from the University policy in the General Academic Information and Policies section in this Catalog.
Note: New students who do not meet attendance requirements for, or do not complete, their first course will be administratively withdrawn from the University and must work with their Enrollment Services Advisor to reschedule their enrollment in the program.
In addition to meeting attendance requirements, students are expected to participate in their courses by actively engaging in weekly discussion forums with substantial posts and completing the required assignments for each week. A list of all assignments can be found within the course calendar in each class and also by week in the weekly instructional units.
Failure to meet academic participation requirements may negatively impact an assignment and/or course grade. All recorded time stamps for assignment submissions, discussion board posts, and attendance records will reflect Mountain Time Zone.
Students who anticipate being absent for an entire week of a course should contact the instructor in advance and make arrangements to complete the required assignments. While students cannot be tardy in an asynchronous learning environment, nor can they cut class in a traditional sense, acceptance of late or make-up work is at the discretion of the instructor and does not waive attendance requirements.
Students who need to take a break in attendance must complete the Clinton, Iowa Undergraduate Program Academic Leave Request form. Academic Leave requests will be reviewed for consideration by the Clinton Campus President.
Students may be required to enroll in additional online courses concurrently within the Clinton, Iowa Undergraduate Program if a core course is not successfully completed at the time it is scheduled.
Students who do not return from Academic Leave on their scheduled return date may be withdrawn from the program. Exceptions may be made at the discretion of the Campus President.
At least 30 credits included in the degree must be Ashford University credits. Credits earned through Prior Learning Assessment are not included in the 30-credit calculation. Students are not required to complete their final course toward degree completion at Ashford University.
All Bachelor’s program students are required to successfully complete EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education as their first course. Unsuccessful completion of EXP 105 will result in the rescheduling of the course and revision of future course sequence. A minimum grade of C- is required to successfully complete the course. EXP 105 cannot be replaced or waived by credit in transfer, unless a student provides proof of one of the following:
- 90 credits of lower-division transfer credits that are applicable to the student’s chosen degree program prior to initial program enrollment;
- A previously earned Bachelor’s degree at Ashford University, or from a regionally or approved nationally accredited institution; or
- A Bachelor’s degree from a country other than the United States that has been evaluated by an approved evaluation service, and accepted by Ashford University as equivalent to a Bachelor’s degree in the United States.
- Earned nine (9) credits or more at Ashford University with a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher.
Students may request changes to course registration by contacting their Enrollment Services Advisor, or Academic Advisor and should include any appropriate supporting documentation. It is the student’s responsibility to inform his or her Enrollment Services Advisor and Academic Advisor of potential equivalent transfer courses and to provide appropriate supporting documentation prior to each course start date.
The following General Education course sequence is the standard for the University. On occasion, courses may be substituted to satisfy specific General Education requirements.
- EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education (3 credits)
- GEN 102 Digital Literacy for Life & the Workplace (3 credits)
- ENG 121 English Composition I (3 credits)
- GEN 103 Information Literacy (3 credits)
- ENG 122 English Composition II (3 credits)
- COM 200 Interpersonal Communication (3 credits)
- ENG 225 Introduction to Film (3 credits)
- PHI 103 Informal Logic (3 credits)
- PHI 208 Ethics & Moral Reasoning (3 credits)
- POL 201 American National Government (3 credits)
- ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (3 credits)
- SCI 207 Our Dependence upon Environment (4 credits)
- MAT 222 Intermediate Algebra (3 credits)
- GEN 499 General Education Capstone (3 credits)Capstone prerequisite: Completion of a minimum of 75 credits
To be eligible for a Bachelor’s degree, a student must successfully accomplish the following:
- Completion of a minimum of 120 total credits; including:
- Minimum of 30 credits completed at the University as a matriculated student (residency requirement); and
- Minimum of 30 credits of upper-division coursework, including 18 credits of upper-division coursework in the chosen major (upper-division requirement).
- Completion of the General Education requirements, including competencies;
- Completion of all required major, minor, and specialization course requirements; and
- Minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all coursework attempted at the University.
Note: The date of degree conferral recorded on the student’s transcript and diploma will reflect the date the student completes all academic degree requirements. However, release of transcripts, diplomas, and verifications for degrees awarded are contingent upon submission of the Petition to Graduate form, payment of the graduation fee, and payment of any outstanding balances with the University.
Program will be noted on the transcript as a Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration. Programs with transfer concentrations or specializations are also noted on the transcript.
The BA in Business Administration will provide students with the technical knowledge, critical thinking skills, and the ability to communicate ideas in a collaborative environment. Graduates will be equipped with a practical understanding of these and other important business concepts and skills. Ashford University takes great pride in ensuring that students are challenged to open their minds to new ways of thinking and problem solving. The BA in Business Administration degree will assist students in meeting both personal and professional goals.For more information about the educational debt, earnings, and completion rates of students who attended this program, and other important information, please visit www.ashford.edu/pd/obaba.
Special Terms and Conditions: Successful completion of this program by itself does not lead to licensure or certification in any state, regardless of concentration or specialization. Students seeking licensure or certification in a particular profession are strongly encouraged to carefully research the requirements prior to enrollment. Requirements may vary by state. Ashford University does not guarantee that any professional organization will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any exam for the purpose of professional certification.
Business Administration major graduates will be able to:
- Examine the role of competitive advantage in business environments using strategic and operational methods;
- Compare and contrast regional, national, and international business environments;
- Evaluate the legal, social, political, and economic environments of business;
- Analyze financial information and other business data to ensure effective managerial decision-making;
- Design effective solutions by diagnosing organizational problems; and
- Create a strategic business plan.
Total number of credits required: 120 credits
General Education Requirements: *43 credits
Major Course Requirements: *45 credits
Electives: 35 credits
Students must earn a minimum of 30 upper-division credits.
*In this program, 3 credits from the major may also satisfy General Education requirements.
Major Course Requirements (45 credits)
- MGT 330 Management for Organizations (3 credits)
- BUS 303 Human Resource Management (3 credits)
- ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)
- ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)
- *INF 220 IS Principles (3 credits) Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor
- ACC 201 Principles of Financial Accounting (3 credits)
- ACC 202 Principles of Managerial Accounting (3 credits)
- BUS 330 Principles of Marketing (3 credits)
- BUS 340 Business Communications (3 credits)
- BUS 311 Business Law I (3 credits)
- ^BUS 308 Statistics for Managers (3 credits)
- ^MGT 302 Foundations of Productions & Operations Management (3 credits) Prerequisites: ACC 206 or ACC 202, BUS 308 and MGT 330
- BUS 357 International Business (3 credits)
- ^BUS 401 Principles of Finance (3 credits) Prerequisite: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281
- BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy (3 credits) Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330; ACC 205, ECO 203 or ECO 204; GEN 499
* Satisfies General Education requirements.
^ Quantitative Reasoning Core Competency requirement must be met before taking these courses.
Major courses will be offered at the Clinton, Iowa Campus.
Elective Courses Offered at the Clinton, Iowa Campus (18 credits)
- BUS 250 Corporate & Social Responsibility (3 credits)
- BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising (3 credits)
- BUS 370 Organizational Development (3 credits) Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459
- MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations (3 credits)
- MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations (3 credits)
- MGT 435 Organizational Change (3 credits)
Transfer Concentration Option
Students may add a transfer concentration to the BA in Business Administration program by transferring in 12 applicable credits in one of the following areas:
- Business Management
- Hospitality Management
- Retail Management
- Computer Science Studies
Transfer concentrations are intended for students who have experience and/or extensive transfer credit coursework in a field of study at the time of admission to the program. The following major courses are designated for substitution with concentration coursework, where appropriate: ECO 203, INF 220, BUS 303 and BUS 340. For additional details, see Transfer Concentration Guidelines in the General Academic Information and Policies section of this Catalog.