Title
Ashford University Catalog

Section Eight: Course Descriptions

Course Descriptions

Not all courses are offered in all modalities or with the same frequency. Please reference the academic programs sections of this Catalog to find a list of courses offered and/or required in each degree program. Course prerequisites may also be listed in the individual program sections.

Course descriptions that reference “successful completion” of a prerequisite course assume the student will have earned a grade of “C-” or higher, unless otherwise noted in the program requirements. Term offerings are subject to change.

Course Numbering System

While many courses cross lines between class levels, the following offers a general correlation between course numbers and grade levels:

                    Grade Level                          Course Number Range

                    Lower Division                        100–299
                    Upper Division                        300–499
                    Graduate Level                        500–699

Ashford University awards semester credit hours.

ABS Applied Behavioral Science

ABS 200 Introduction to Applied Behavioral Science         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction and overview of the application and use of applied behavioral science. Basic terms and definitions are reviewed, and students are introduced to the varied components of applied behavioral science. Topics covered include definition of the field, sub-specialties, and real world applications, and aspects of the field.

ABS 300 Psychological Assessment         3 Credits
This course will survey instruments of psychometric assessment that are frequently used in education and clinical practice. Fundamental theory and research pertaining to the quantitative measurement of human traits will be reviewed. Psychometric instruments will include standardized neuropsychological tests, intelligence tests, and personality tests. Strengths and limitations of these instruments will be carefully examined. Prerequisite: PSY 101.

ABS 310 Research Methods & Statistics I         3 Credits
Research Methods and Statistics I is the first of a two-course sequence that integrates statistical and research design methodologies with the goal of offering useful applications to real-life settings. The course introduces students to the basics of research design and data organization. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of General Education Mathematical Competency.

ABS 311 Research Methods & Statistics II         3 Credits
Research Methods and Statistics II is the second of a two-course sequence that integrates statistical and research design methodologies with the goal of offering useful applications to real-life settings. The course focuses on hypothesis testing, data analysis, and evaluation of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of General Education Mathematical Competency and ABS 310.

ABS 415 Leadership & Ethics in a Changing World         3 Credits
This course examines leadership and ethics from a broad perspective, and includes an overview of key leadership theories. Students explore leadership characteristics and values as applied to ethical decision making, and challenges, as well as in regard to their own lives. Also included is an exploration of future leadership trends in a dynamic evolving world.

ABS 417 Community Organizing & Development         3 Credits
This course examines methods, techniques, and theories involved in working with people to solve problems in community-based settings.

ABS 497 Applied Behavioral Sciences Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides the opportunity for the synthesis and application of content learned throughout the degree program. Students complete a project that demonstrates application of concepts presented throughout the degree coursework. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ACC Accounting

ACC 201 Principles of Financial Accounting         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to financial accounting for non-accounting business majors. Emphasis is on accrual accounting procedures and the development and use of financial statements. Students who successfully complete ACC 201 may waive ACC 205, in approved circumstances. 

ACC 202 Principles of Managerial Accounting         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to managerial and cost accounting concepts for the non-accounting business major. Emphasis is placed on managerial planning and control, cost behaviors, budgeting, and performance analysis. (Equivalent to ACC 208). Students who successfully complete ACC 202 may waive ACC 206, in approved circumstances.

ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I         3 Credits
Introduction to the principles and procedures of general financial accounting with an emphasis on reporting to individuals outside the organization. Development of accounting reports on an accrual basis.

ACC 206 Principles of Accounting II         3 Credits
Primarily covers the principles of managerial accounting. Emphasis on reporting to individuals inside the organization. Major concepts include job order costing, process costing, budgets and standards, and statement analysis. Prerequisite: ACC 205.

ACC 208 Accounting for Managers         3 Credits
This course is designed to explain how data can be interpreted and used by managers in making decisions. Additionally, this course introduces the student to the analysis and interpretation of financial reports. (Equivalent to ACC 202).

ACC 281 Accounting Concepts for Health Care Professionals         3 Credits
This course is designed as an applied managerial and financial accounting course, designed to provide health care decision-makers with fundamental concepts of health care accounting practices and procedures. Prerequisites: Successful completion of Mathematical and Information Technology competencies. (Cross-listed as HCA 281.)

ACC 305 Intermediate Accounting I         3 Credits
Covers the corporate balance sheet and its related problems. Balance sheet items examined in detail explaining the theory behind various methods of application to accounts: cash, temporary investments, receivables, inventories, plant and intangible assets, and long-term investments. Prerequisite: ACC 206.

ACC 306 Intermediate Accounting II         3 Credits
A continuation of ACC 305. Covers the rest of the balance sheet: current liabilities, long-term liabilities, leases, pensions, and contributed capital retained earnings. Other topics include non-operating income, earnings per share, statement of changes in financial position, and impact of changing prices. Prerequisite: ACC 305.

ACC 308 Accounting Information Systems         3 Credits
This course serves to advance the knowledge of computerized accounting for service and merchandising businesses, the underlying differences between manual and computerized accounting, and build students’ understanding of the accounting cycle and business processes including bookkeeping, invoicing, billing, and business trends.

ACC 310 Cost Accounting I         3 Credits
Covers traditional “cost” concepts: factory overhead, cost accumulation, job order cost system, process cost system, joint product and byproduct costing, standard costs and variances. Prerequisite: ACC 206.

ACC 380 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations         3 Credits
Examines the differences in accounting between not-for-profit and for-profit organizations. Accounting for funds including general funds, special revenue funds, capital projects funds, debts service funds, special assessment funds, internal service funds, enterprise funds, fiduciary funds, the general fixed asset group of accounts, and the general long-term debt group of accounts. Prerequisite: ACC 206.

ACC 401 Federal Income Taxes I         3 Credits
A study of federal income tax laws and their application to individuals, partnerships, and corporations. Prerequisite: ACC 205.

ACC 407 Advanced Accounting         3 Credits
Primarily a course dealing with combined business entities. Topics include mergers, acquisitions and combinations, consolidated financial statements, intercompany profit, changes in equity, international operations, and partnerships. Prerequisite: ACC 306 and ACC 310.

ACC 410 Auditing         3 Credits
Principles, procedures, and standards of public accounting. Emphasis on auditor’s working papers and submission of audit statements. Prerequisites: ACC 306 and ACC 310 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ACC 610 Advanced Federal Taxation         3 Credits

This course is an introduction to federal taxation for entities other than individuals. Topics include structure, regulations, administration and compliance of federal taxation in the U.S. from the perspective of corporations, partnerships, S corporations, trusts and estates.

ACC 611 Advanced Tax Research         3 Credits
This course is designed with an emphasis on developing research skills related to complex tax issues. The focus is on interpretation of tax law and finding support for various positions on difficult tax issues related to a variety of business, personal and estate tax issues.

ACC 612 Advanced Financial Accounting         3 Credits
This course expands on the basic financial reporting concept with a focus on business combination reporting for corporations and partnerships, foreign currency transaction reporting and financial statement translation, and financial statement note disclosure.

ACC 614 Auditing & Fraud Detection         3 Credits
This course will cover the components of the auditing process with a strong emphasis on planning, risk assessment and gathering audit evidence. The course will provide a foundation in the fundamentals of assurance, attestation and auditing.

ACC 615 Current Issues in Advanced Taxation         3 Credits
This course is designed to focus on selected taxation issues relevant to today’s economic climate. Topics will vary based on changing tax law and current political climate with an emphasis on interpretation of new tax regulations and pronouncements.

ACC 616 Forensic Accounting         3 Credits
This course will cover the basic concepts of forensic accounting including identifying, detecting, and preventing fraud. There will be an emphasis on investigating documentary evidence, interviewing witnesses and potential suspects, writing investigative reports and testifying to findings.

ACC 617 Current Issues in Advanced Auditing         3 Credits
This course will examine current and advanced issues affecting the auditing profession. Topics will include the study of audit risk, corporate governance, audit planning and execution, special reports and assurance engagements.

ACC 618 Professional Ethics for the Accountant         3 Credits
This course will provide an understanding of the ethics and code of professional conduct provided by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). In addition, ethic guidelines and codes of conduct endorsed by other professional accounting organizations such as the Institute of Managerial Accountants will be introduced.

ACC 622 Accounting Information Systems         3 Credits
This course will include a review of accounting information systems application controls and internal control. Topics include hardware and software concepts, application internal controls, internal control procedures, integrated audit software, generalized general ledger software, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) internal control requirements and required company and audit documentation.

ACC 623 Advanced Topics in Excel & Access         3 Credits
This course utilizes the Microsoft Access database management system and Excel spreadsheet tools to build the accounting system elements for each of the four main transaction cycles: revenue, purchase, payroll, and production. Access topics include creating and maintaining tables; designing, maintaining and querying a database; creating forms and reports; and using VBA procedures on a database. Excel topics include the use of functions and formulas of Excel with emphasis on accounting as a financial analysis tool.

ACC 624 Current Issues in Accounting Information Systems        3 Credits
This advanced course provides an in-depth study of Accounting Information System concepts including business intelligence solutions, computerized accounting, enterprise resource planning, information technology strategy, data integrity, security techniques, user interface design, and internal controls. Emphasis is placed on understanding how accounting information systems can ensure the accuracy and reliability of financial information and aid in the decision-making process of an organization.

ACC 626 Accounting in a Global Environment         3 Credits
This course will include the study of an entity reported as either a multinational company or an entity whose reporting obligations to stakeholders are located in a country other than that of the reporting entity. Conceptual and practical applications of accounting are investigated from a global perspective. Special emphasis is placed on managing multinational enterprises with respect to how accounting applies to global strategies and the key accounting issues that influence multinational decision making. In addition, a detailed investigation on the convergence of U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are covered in this course. Also discussed are the effects of financial reporting, international taxation, and international financial statement analysis on a multinational reporting entity.

ACC 630 Advanced Government & Non-Profit Accounting         3 Credits
This course introduces specialized accounting principles applicable to state and local governments and other non-profit organizations. Emphasis will be on fund accounting and students will gain an understanding of the differences between private and public sector accounting.

ACC 640 Advanced Managerial & Cost Accounting         3 Credits
This course explores advanced managerial and cost accounting topics as they relate to problem solving skills for managers. Topics include activity based costing, activity based management, cost of quality, theory of constraints related to capacity planning and new emerging practices that support management decision making.

ACC 695 Accounting Capstone         3 Credits
This course is designed to bring together knowledge gained from the previous program courses and allow the student to demonstrate how the various components of an accounting system work together. Broadly the course encompasses complex accounting concepts, financial statement reporting, taxes, risks, information systems, auditing, business law, and ethics.

ACC 696 Tax Capstone         3 Credits
This Capstone course will integrate the knowledge learned from prior courses using comprehensive business/individual taxation problems. The course will examine principles and policies that underlie the tax systems and rules. Students will research complicated tax issues involving a variety of tax topics,
including businesses, financial tax planning, estates and wills. The culmination of the course involves a complex comprehensive tax research case.

ACC 697 Audit Capstone         3 Credits
This course is designed to bring together knowledge gained from the previous program courses. Broadly the course emphasizes complex auditing concepts and will also encompass accounting concepts, financial statement reporting, taxes, risks, information systems, business law, and ethics.

ACC 698 Accounting Information Systems Capstone         3 Credits
This course requires students to use all of the skills and knowledge gained during completion of the program by applying them to contemporary information systems issues and problems facing the profession. Students will be required to apply accounting information systems to complex areas of accounting and taxation. The course emphasizes both the practical and ethical issues of the practice of accounting.

ANT Anthropology

ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology         3 Credits
Students explore culture in its role of guiding human behavior and providing social order, structure, and stability for individuals and groups of people. Culture is presented as a system of adaptation involving beliefs, behavior, language, customs, socio/political strategies, traditions, and technology that evolve over time. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122.

ANT 202 Human Origins & Prehistory         4 Credits
This course will introduce students to the anthropological study of human evolution and prehistory. Students will be introduced to the theory of natural selection and to humanity as a member of the primate order. Topics covered will be the human ancestors, the Neolithic revolution, and how humans both differ and are similar to other primates.

ANT 234 Family, Kin, & Groups         3 Credits
The course explores kinship systems, ethnicity, neighborhood and other social arrangements in various cultural settings through the reading of selected ethnographic materials. Students will study the kinship on a cross-cultural and worldwide basis, beginning with immediate social ties in familial contexts to broad connotations in ethnic, national, and universal domains. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122.

ANT 307 Anthropology of War         3 Credits
An examination of the nature of war, primarily as it occurs in pre-industrial societies, and a survey of the anthropological explanations regarding this phenomenon. Emphasis is on understanding the complexity, variability, and cultural embeddedness of war as it occurs around the world. Prerequisite: ANT 101.

ANT 315 Material Culture: Archaeology & the Human Condition     3 Credits
This course examines the anthropological sub-discipline of archaeology, the study of the human past, looking specifically at the theories and methods used by archaeologists. Students will learn how archaeologists gather and use data, and how this information is relevant to contemporary society. Students will explore the history and background of archaeology, as well as how archaeologists approach such topics as the origins of inequality, gender roles, complex societies, and ethical issues such as who owns the past. Prerequisite: ANT 202.

ANT 340 Anthropological Theory         3 Credits
This course explores anthropological theory in a historical perspective focusing on the rise of a distinct anthropological perspective on the comparative study of human societies and cultures. The course will detail various theoretical models developed in the 19th and 20th centuries to explain the similarities and differences in cultural systems. Prerequisite: ANT 101.

ANT 343 Language, Culture, & Communication         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the study of the relationship of language and culture, including examination of the characteristics and structural principles of natural language. After exploring the basic characteristics of sound, word formation, and sentence structure, these principles are applied to such topics as: language variation, language change, psycholinguistics, and pragmatics. Prerequisite: ANT 101.

ANT 347 Urban Anthropology         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to urban anthropology, with an emphasis on rural-urban migrations, adjustment and assimilation of urban migrants, urban kinship and family structure, poverty culture, rural-urban typologies, and the application of anthropological methods to the study of urban societies. Prerequisite: ANT 340 or SOC 315.

ANT 348 Native American Anthropology         3 Credits
This course examines the nature and distribution of North American Indian cultures from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Through the use of archeological, anthropological, and contemporary community studies, this course will explore the diversity of traditional North American Indian and Inuit cultures and the adaptation of indigenous peoples to America. Prerequisite: ANT 340.

ANT 351 Anthropology of Religion, Magic, & Ritual         3 Credits
This course examines the nature of religious belief systems, myth and ritual, witchcraft, and magic and sorcery in various societies of the world. These behavioral and symbolic forms exist or have existed in virtually all human societies and cultures. In this course, students will study many different belief systems, define these entities; and develop an understanding of how they work in societies. The differences among traditions in nation states on cultures and political systems will be explored. Prerequisite: ANT 101.

ANT 353 Anthropology of Gender         3 Credits
This course examines cross-cultural analysis of gender roles, while focusing on non-Western societies, using data from other societies to better understand the gender system of our own culture. Issues include status of women and men, the meaning of “femaleness” and “maleness” historically and in contemporary society. Gender roles, transnational migrations, social movements, international relations and religion are explored. Prerequisite: ANT 340.

ANT 462 Anthropological Research Methods         3 Credits
The course introduces students to the research methods of cultural anthropology. Students will learn such techniques as participant observation, informal and formal interviewing, ecological mapping, genealogy and oral history, social network analysis, use of archival documents, and photographic and audio documentation. The perspective guiding the course is ethnography as an empirical, scientific approach that describes social and cultural aspects of human life. Prerequisite: ANT 340.

ANT 464 Applied Anthropology        3 Credits
This course introduces the use of anthropology and its application to problem solving in the areas of cultural dynamics, public policy, and contemporary social problems such as health, housing, nutrition, and education. Students will learn how anthropologists conduct research to address issues and solve problems facing living communities across the globe. Prerequisite: ANT 340.

ANT 499 Ethnographic Study Capstone         3 Credits
This course will provide an overview of the ways in which anthropologists have studied and written about distinct cultural systems in numerous world regions. Using ethnographic case studies, the course explores how diverse cultural groups confront such issues as gender roles, political organization, economic strategies, and colonial systems. Particularly attentive to the problems of conducting ethnographic research in a changing world characterized by transnational ties, the course is meant to form the capstone experience for anthropology majors. Prerequisite: ANT 462 and Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ART Art

ART 101 Art Appreciation         3 Credits
A survey course providing an overview of the history of Western Art and the principles of art as they relate to society. Students are encouraged to discover personal interests through their own research on historical or contemporary styles and themes in art.

BUS Business

BUS 114 Principles of Supervision         3 Credits
This course studies the principles and activities of supervising and motivating personnel in a variety of organizational contexts. Emphasis will be placed on the human interaction in supervision.

BUS 117 Introduction to Organizational Dynamics         3 Credits
This course is a study of group behavior and how group functioning affects organizational effectiveness. Emphasis is placed on decision-making and resolving conflict in groups. Adult learners develop strategies for efficient and productive group management and determine which tasks are handled by groups or individuals.

BUS 119 Principles of Personal & Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This is a leadership skills development course. This course provides an overview and introduction to leadership principles and leadership applications in various organizational settings. It examines the concept of leadership, leadership styles, traits, and types, and the evolution of leadership behaviors observed during recent generations.

BUS 201 Principles of Management         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the nature and problems of management and organizations, leadership and control. The
relationships between the needs of the individual, the organization and society are examined. (Equivalent to MGT 330.)

BUS 215 Personal Financial Management         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the field of personal financial management and planning, focusing on the tools individuals and families employ to manage their financial affairs.

BUS 226 Introduction to Personnel Administration         3 Credits
This course examines relationships and issues in personnel administration within a broad range of organizations. Students study personnel management, organizational development, recruitment and selection, performance management systems, discipline, and collective bargaining.

BUS 235 Introduction to Marketing         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to marketing principles, concepts and theories that define the marketing discipline. Basic marketing strategies relating to product, price, promotion and distribution, cultural trends, societal behavior, technology, and legal environments that influence effective marketing decisions are examined.

BUS 250 Corporate & Social Responsibility         3 Credits
This course explores philosophic perspectives for understanding the meaning of corporate responsibility in society, and considers the leadership roles of managers in implementing corporate and social responsibilities. Topics include uses of power, government regulations, environmental issues, employee rights and responsibilities, consumer protection, and ethical integrity.

BUS 303 Human Resource Management         3 Credits
An introduction to the field of human resource management. Topics to be discussed include communication, motivation, and management of personnel. The course will include a review of current standards and practices as well as the legal environment as it pertains to the human resource field. (Equivalent to MGT 445.)

BUS 307 Operations Management & Quantitative Techniques         3 Credits
A survey of relevant quantitative techniques commonly used in accounting, business, and information systems. Topics will vary but, typically, elementary probability theory and applications, decision theory, and linear programming are included. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency.

BUS 308 Statistics for Managers         3 Credits
This course examines the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in business decision making. Additionally, the course focuses on the utilization of statistical methods as applied to business problems and operations. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency.

BUS 311 Business Law I         3 Credits
Introduction to the legal environment of business in the United States. Examination of the Constitution, administrative law, contracts, agency, and the protection of competition, consumers, employees, investors, the environment, and international trade.

BUS 317 Introduction to Advertising         3 Credits
This course is designed to introduce students to the field of advertising as a promotional force with emphasis on institutions, planning, strategic practices, and tactical decisions made by advertising executives. It will also explore the various career opportunities including account executive, media buying, copywriting, production, and research.

BUS 318 Organizational Behavior         3 Credits
This course is designed to develop the student’s skills in the understanding of factors that affect how individuals and groups act and interact with one another and with management. It also looks at how organizations manage their internal environment with the aim of improving productivity, efficiency, and communications among members. Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330.

BUS 323 Risk Management & Insurance         3 Credits
In this course, students study identification and quantification of risk, the span of methods of handling risk, and common contracts for managing risk. Common commercial/industrial situations and personal risk management situations are addressed.

BUS 330 Principles of Marketing         3 Credits
The methods used by producers of goods and services to determine and satisfy the wants of society. An examination of external and internal environments that impact marketing decisions, the basic elements of a marketing program, and issues in ethics and social responsibility. (Equivalent to MGT 350.)

BUS 336 Marketing Strategy         3 Credits
The objective of this course is to advance the students ability to develop, implement, and critically evaluate the marketing strategy for a product or service. It will provide the conceptual frameworks and hone the analytical and creative skills that are necessary to define and develop superior value, persuasively communicate that value, profitably deliver it to a carefully selected target market, and sustain both the value and the profitability in the face of ever-changing customer needs and competitive offerings.

BUS 337 Principles of Retail Management         3 Credits
Principles and practices used in management of retail businesses. The course covers topics such as site selection, layout, organization, staffing, positioning, customer service, promotional techniques, and all aspects of the critical buying function.

BUS 339 Marketing Research         3 Credits
Study and analysis of the marketing information system. Includes the organizational characteristics of marketing research, basic tools and procedures, and management science applications.

BUS 340 Business Communications         3 Credits
Every aspect of contemporary business communications — from determining what information to communicate to processing information and sharing it — depends on technology. Students will learn to compose, format, and manage business letters, memos, reports, email, and resumes. Students will use software to access information and to evaluate the quality of the information they receive. Students will create electronic presentations to communicate information.

BUS 342 Financial Planning & Practice         3 Credits
This course is a study of the various aspects of family financial planning from the perspective of the financial planning professional. It introduces the legal and regulatory issues affecting financial planners, defines the client-planner relationship, and prepares the planner to conduct family financial analysis. Emphasis is on providing the student with the knowledge and tools necessary to help families make informed financial decisions.

BUS 343 International Marketing         3 Credits
Examination of cultural, economic, and political factors that affect marketing of goods and services worldwide. Emphasis is on adapting the marketing strategies of domestic marketers to international operations and the institutional structure that exists in international markets. Marketing strategies of firms operation within these markets are also examined.

BUS 350 Consumer Behavior         3 Credits
This course illustrates the psychological, socio-cultural, and decision-making aspects of consumer behavior. Students study behavioral concepts, motivation, and the role of consumer behavior in our society.

BUS 352 e-Business         3 Credits
An introduction to the fundamental concepts used in e-business and e-commerce. This course identifies and describes the wide range of applications in business. It explains what the Internet is and how it can be used for business applications in a competitive environment. Through Internet labs, this course will compare various Web strategies of current businesses. Students need to be proficient in using the Internet to find information.

BUS 357 International Business         3 Credits
Students examine functional areas of business from an international perspective. The importance of differing cultural and political assumptions in business is also addressed. (Equivalent to BUS 403.)

BUS 362 Introduction to Entrepreneurship         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the opportunities and challenges associated with the creation and management of entrepreneurial organizations. The course focuses on the issues associated with starting and managing a new venture including recognizing opportunity, basic business planning, essential human resources management, introductory marketing, legal issues, location selection, funding, buying a business as well as discussing various exit strategies.

BUS 365 Creativity & Innovation         3 Credits
This course focuses on creativity and innovation as a process in organizations. The course also examines how individuals can be innovative in organizations and the challenge of building innovative organizations. Prerequisite: BUS 362.

BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking         3 Credits
This course examines financing the start-up of a new venture, from bootstrapping with personal resources or bank debt to equity investment by angel investors or venture capitalists. The course also covers the four main aspects of venture capital: valuation, deal structuring, governance, and harvesting. Prerequisite: BUS 362.

BUS 370 Organizational Development         3 Credits
The course overviews how, why, and when to integrate the behavioral sciences with human resources management principles to increase individual and organizational effectiveness. Students will also be introduced to many types of interpersonal, intra-group, inter-group, and organizational interventions that are used to effect comprehensive and lasting changes. Prerequisite: BUS 201 or MGT 330 or HCA 459.

BUS 372 Employee & Labor Relations         3 Credits
The course provides students with both the common and complex issues related to human behavior in the workplace as it relates to employee relations, and an examination of relationships among unions, workers, management, laws and government regulation. Prerequisite: BUS 303.

BUS 375 Employee Training         3 Credits
This course provides essential managerial-level comprehension of training theory and its practical applications in the business and management environment. Students learn the functions and duties of training: trainer/developer, the identification and assessment of training needs, program design and development, selection of delivery methods and means of instruction, the implementation of training programs, and evaluation. Prerequisite: BUS 303.

BUS 378 International Business Law         3 Credits
This courses focuses on the legal environment associated with international commercial transactions, including an analysis of major Western and non-Western legal traditions and the supranational law of the European Community, a detailed analysis of the negotiation, formation, enforcement, and financing of international sales contracts, an analysis of international trade regulation, analysis of methods of regulating global competition, and of the protection of business property rights in international transactions.

BUS 401 Principles of Finance         3 Credits
Basic corporate finance is presented with the emphasis on risk and return, bond and equity markets, valuation of bonds and equities, present value analysis, internal rate of return analysis, and project analysis using the weighted average cost of capital. Prerequisites: ACC 205 or ACC 208 or ACC 281 and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency. (Equivalent to BUS 320.)

BUS 402 Strategic Management & Business Policy         3 Credits
A case-based course that discusses the set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a company. The course includes environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation and control. Prerequisites: BUS 201 or MGT 330, ACC 205, and ECO 203 or ECO 204 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

BUS 405 Principles of Investments         3 Credits
The study and analysis of securities and other forms of investments. Emphasis is on investment principles from the manager’s point of view. Prerequisite: BUS 401.

BUS 421 PR/Marketing Capstone         3 Credits
This course is designed to bring together the knowledge gained through the entire program and permits the student to demonstrate mastery in the various course competencies. Students are expected to apply and integrate a variety of skills, tools, and knowledge to assess real-world problems offering realistic solutions. Students will analyze, design, implement, and document an appropriate solution for a capstone project. The project should exemplify the student’s ability to apply program outcomes. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

BUS 427 Sustainable Business Practices         3 Credits
Using readings and cases, students examine business strategies in response to and anticipation of opportunities resulting from shifting economic, political, and environmental conditions including social change, market failures, or interruption of business operations. Compliance and risk management strategies will be emphasized while emphasis focuses on business innovation and business sustainability.

BUS 430 Finance Seminar         3 Credits
Using readings and case studies, students gain understanding the types of analysis performed and decisions made by the financial managers of corporations, focusing on valuation concepts and managing for value. Students also explore specific financing and investing decisions made by the firm’s management to mitigate corporate risk using insurance and financial derivatives; valuation of real options; real estate investment decision; issues and methods of corporate financial management in an international environment. Prerequisite: BUS 405.

BUS 433 New Business Strategy         3 Credits
This course is intended to provide prospective entrepreneurs with information and tools for evaluating opportunities for starting a new firm—how to choose markets for entry, when to enter, and what resources and capabilities it will take to enter and provide a platform for future growth. Prerequisite: BUS 362.

BUS 434 Compensation & Benefits Management         3 Credits
This course reviews the fundamentals of wage and salary programs, including conducting salary surveys, defining compensable factors, adjusting pay structures, evaluating pay differentials, and relating pay to performance. Benefit programs and related employee incentive and service programs are also covered. Prerequisite: BUS 303.

BUS 435 Small Business Ventures         3 Credits
This course explores the strategic planning, operating, financing, legal, career and other business issues found in launching a small business or operating family-owned and managed companies or privately-held firms. Other course topics include the challenge of identifying viable business opportunities, gaining the appropriate business skills and tools to be successful, and defining the capital requirements to operate the business. Prerequisite: BUS 362.

BUS 437 Business Plan Development         3 Credits
This course gives students the opportunity to study the elements of a successful business plan and to put that knowledge to work in creating a comprehensive business plan for a new venture. Prerequisites: BUS 362 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

BUS 439 International Human Resources Management         3 Credits
In this course, students will examine human resources practices in an international business environment. The course also addresses HR strategies and practices to increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency as well as international compliance problems faced by HR professionals.

BUS 441 Retail Pricing Management         3 Credits
The purpose of this course is to provide an in-depth understanding of the issues and considerations in the pricing of retail products, illustrate the role of pricing and product management in achieving strategic retail business goals, and demonstrate the link between pricing and product management within the context of the marketing mix within the marketing management process. Prerequisites: ECO 204 and SRV 340.

BUS 442 Retail Merchandising         3 Credits
This course addresses the central issues of retailing business while emphasizing issues related to channel options available to the final consumer. The course features concepts applied to both store based (e.g., specialty store, department store, multi-unit retail) and non-store based (e.g., Internet and catalog) retailing channels.

BUS 445 Total Quality Management         3 Credits
This course presents quality procedures and concepts for enhancing goods, services and the entire business environment. Students learn various methods of process control and acceptance sampling, including using control charts and sampling plans. Quality planning, assurance and control are covered as parts of a total quality system. Probability and statistical concepts are further explored as related to process control.

BUS 446 Production Operations Control         3 Credits
Students analyze production control requirements as applied to both “push” and “pull” production environments. Students further learn to capture data and prepare for product changes in a variety of manufacturing environments.

BUS 450 International Finance         3 Credits
An examination of the international aspects of corporate finance and investing, the course covers balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international banking.

BUS 455 Internet & Social Media Marketing         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the use of the internet and social media applications as part of an integrated marketing strategy. Students will be exposed to a variety of alternative media as well as other online marketing tools and strategies. The course will also evaluate how these tools fit into the marketing theoretical framework. Prerequisite: BUS 330.

BUS 458 Consumer & Family Finance Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides a link between the traditional advisement services (finance, investment, tax, insurance, retirement planning, trust planning) and the client’s life plan to manage financial affairs. As a final exercise, students complete a model financial plan for a mock client. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

BUS 461 Decision Modeling & Analysis        3 Credits
An introduction to the application of management science techniques and statistical tools to business decisions. Students will learn the assumptions and techniques necessary to apply and to implement solutions from optimization and other decision science models. The focus of the course will be on problem solving, which includes problem definition, problem analysis, evaluation and choice of alternatives, and implementation and evaluation of the decision. Prerequisites: MGT 330, BUS 308 or MAT 332.

BUS 497 e-Marketing Capstone         3 Credits
This course discusses the elements of a marketing plan as they are applied in an internet marketing situation. Students will create an e-marketing plan, beginning with an environmental scan and progressing through product strategy, channel strategy, and marketing communication. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

BUS 590 General Cost Accounting         3 Credits
This course covers principles of planning, measuring, recording, and controlling costs in different types of organizations. Key concepts will include cost records, cost behavior and allocation, inventory valuation, product costing, standard costs, responsibility accounting, and cost planning and control. Emphasis is placed on costing analysis, evaluation, and reporting in order to assist management with the decision-making process.

BUS 591 Financial Accounting & Analysis         3 Credits
This course is a study of how the firm’s management captures and uses financial information for reporting and analysis to both internal and external stakeholders. Various course topics include the accounting cycle, sources of the information contained in financial statements, time value of money, ratio analysis, the preparation and analysis of income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows.

BUS 599 Introduction to Quantitative Principles         3 Credits
This course is an overview of the fundamentals of accounting, finance, and economics. Students will investigate the fundamental principles of accounting through the preparation of financial statements. The basics of managerial finance including the use of net present valuation models fundamental financial ratio analysis will be examined. Students will also explore modern economic philosophy including an understanding of basic supply and demand, and micro- and macroeconomics systems. Note: This course can be waived if the student has an undergraduate degree in business.

BUS 600 Management Communications with Technology Tools         3 Credits
This course is designed to introduce the student to the Ashford University Graduate Business programs, with emphases upon conceptualizing communication and communication processes in the contexts of organizations and leadership. Emphasis will be on technology, theories and models, qualitative communication research methodologies, and research writing.

BUS 604 New Business Venture Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on the important aspects of starting a new business enterprise with emphasis on the challenges faced by the entrepreneur in initiating a business venture and directing its early development. The course also addresses the process of forming business ventures, the identification and evaluation of new venture opportunities, and the development of appropriate entry strategies.

BUS 605 Venture Capital & Private Equity         3 Credits
This course will examine the role of finance and the formation of financial strategies needed to support each phase of the business start-up. Sources of equity and debt capital along with entry strategies such as franchising and acquisition are examined. Alternative working capital, capital structure, and investment strategies unique to the start-up are presented.

BUS 606 Global Comparative Management         3 Credits
This course reviews management systems within their political, social, and economic environments with a global perspective. This course also emphasizes the managerial processes in a global business environment and provides a strategic assessment of the fundamental issues involved in the management of multinational corporations. Topics include comparative studies of practices of management in foreign nations and examination of the influences of culture on business operations.

BUS 607 Business Law for the Accountant         3 Credits
This course involves in-depth study of specific laws and practices as related to contracts, the Uniform Commercial Code, commercial paper, secured transactions, real and personal property, estates, and bankruptcy.

BUS 610 Organizational Behavior         3 Credits
This course investigates behavioral factors that affect modern organizations and their management. Topics include group and team dynamics, organizational structure, motivation, leadership, power, and change management.

BUS 611 Project Planning & Management         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the art and science of project management as applied to different types of project situations. Topics such as project life-cycle management, project organizations and leadership, project team building, RFPs, proposals and contracts, techniques for project scope definition, work definition, estimating, scheduling, risk management, control and closeout, the project management methodology, and PM software are covered.

BUS 612 Advanced Project Procurement         3 Credits
This course emphasizes a hands-on approach to using project management knowledge areas to facilitate scheduling, estimating, tracking and controlling the schedule and costs of the project. A project baseline will be set so that actual schedule and cost variances can be compared to the project baseline and corrective actions can be developed to address the variances. In this course students will learn about the legal, ethical, and fiscal considerations in procurement and contracts. Students will examine ways of identifying, evaluating and mitigating risk in scheduling, cost control, contracting and procurement.

BUS 616 International Business         3 Credits
This course studies the major functional business areas in a global context. Taking into consideration socio-political structural differences, the multinational corporation is investigated with applications in management, finance, marketing and operations.

BUS 620 Managerial Marketing         3 Credits
This course examines the marketing function, focusing on the managerial application of marketing tools and methodology. Emphasis is placed on marketing decisions associated with allocating organizational resources including: product development and design, pricing, promotional strategies, and distribution-based activities. Course coverage includes the marketing concept, buyer psychology, strategic planning and implementation of marketing plans.

BUS 630 Managerial Accounting         3 Credits
This course studies the role and major functions of the managerial accountant within the organization. Students of managerial accounting should not only be able to produce accounting information but also understand how managers are likely to use and react to that information. The goal of this course is to acquaint students of business with the fundamental tools of management accounting and to promote their understanding of the dramatic ways in which the field is changing. The emphasis through the text and course is on using account information to help manage an organization. Some topics covered in this course include: cost management, various budgeting theories and techniques, and decision-making processes. Prerequisite: BUS 591 or equivalent.

BUS 631 Integrated Supply Chain Management         3 Credits
Study and analysis of supply chain management for products/services and the dynamic interaction of companies within an integrated supply chain. Topics include factors guiding companies’ supply chain development and management; Technology as a supply chain tool; Positioning of a company in terms of its role as a valuable member of the supply chain; and, performance measures used across the supply chain.

BUS 632 Advanced Logistics         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of current logistics and distribution practices intended to advance current knowledge. Students should gain an understanding of the significant components of logistics management and the dynamics of what is considered best practice. Focuses on the complexities associated with the integrated flow of raw materials, in-process goods, finished goods, and information from point-of-origin through the production process to the end consumer.

BUS 635 Media Markets & Systems         3 Credits
The course examines the various segments of the market that utilize media resources for organizational growth and communication. Examination of the components of media, stakeholders, markets available and cultures impacted by media will include assessment of technological and economic drivers that establish a congruent approach to the marketplace.

BUS 636 Media Management & Innovation         3 Credits
Utilizing the key principles of organizational management, this course will focus on the media approach in an organization and providing systematic guidelines for oversight of the institutional media team. Creating a culture of innovation in the media team will be a strategic element in the course content.

BUS 640 Managerial Economics         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide a solid foundation of economic understanding for use in managerial decision-making. The course offers an intuitive non-calculus based treatment of economic theory and analysis. A variety of examples is used to illustrate the application of managerial economics to diverse practical situations. The role that economic analysis plays in that process is emphasized throughout this course. Prerequisite: MAT 540 or equivalent.

BUS 642 Business Research Methods & Tools         3 Credits
This course examines the use of quantitative techniques business decision-making. Using spreadsheet software, the course addresses managerial problem solving through the use descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, and correlation and regression (single and multiple) analysis. This course also provides a graduate foundation for conducting business research. Topic coverage includes: research methodology, literature review, hypothesis generation, data collection and summary techniques. Additional coverage includes study of qualitative and quantitative data as well as reviewing conceptual versus empirical research studies. Prerequisite: MAT 540 or equivalent.

BUS 644 Operations Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on the principles associated with the effective design, implementation and management of organizational processes and systems. With an emphasis on efficiency, course coverage includes: systems design for products and services, inventory management systems, distribution and supply chain management.

BUS 650 Managerial Finance         3 Credits
This course studies the role and major functions of corporate finance within the organization. Upon developing an understanding of the theoretical foundation of corporate finance, students will use financial tools in an applied case and problem format. Topics covered include: net present value analysis (time value of money), risk assessment, security valuation, decisions on capital structure and allocation, and the weighted average cost of capital. Prerequisite: BUS 591 or equivalent.

BUS 655 Financial Investment Management         3 Credits
The central focus of this course is to develop an understanding of how security markets function, factors that influence security valuation, differentiating between various investment types and understanding investment risk and return principles. This course covers security markets operations, investment information, portfolio asset allocation; financial environment analysis; and evaluation of equity and fixed income securities.

BUS 657 Corporate Managerial Finance         3 Credits
This course introduces the financial theory and practices firm managers use to attain their goal of maximizing corporate shareholder wealth. Topics covered are: analysis techniques of financial statement and cash flows; working capital management and financial forecasting; valuation methods for debt and equity capital; risk and rate of return theory; cost of capital, capital project budgeting decisions and cash flow estimation; optimal capital structure and dividend policy.

BUS 660 Contemporary Issues in Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This course provides an in-depth examination of the multi-faceted concept of leadership studies by presenting the student with the vocabulary, concepts, theories, and applicable research that are fundamental to the understanding of leadership. The course examines contemporary and historical leadership issues, moral and ethical responsibilities of leadership, and leadership in a variety of contexts. Leadership as a social and political influence process is examined.

BUS 661 Leading Organizational Change         3 Credits
This course blends theories of leadership with concepts and models of organizational change. The change process consists of a series of steps that focuses on vision, implementation, change agents, and other internal and external components. The course provides insight into types of changes that impact organizations and possible strategies to effectively address those changes.

BUS 665 Environmental Law & Compliance         3 Credits
This course begins with an analysis of The Solid Waste Disposal Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Further, it will familiarize students with an environmental manager’s duties in permitting, reporting, record keeping and sampling. It emphasizes a systematic approach to identifying obligations with respect to regulated media and developing appropriate responses. Obligations under United States environmental laws, their relationship to state and local laws, and state and local obligations are considered as a model for analysis and response.

BUS 667 Energy, Environment & Economics         3 Credits
This course deals with the linkage of energy, environmental and economic issues. The impact of energy supply and end-use on human well-being and the ecosystem is covered. It also includes a comprehensive approach to the resolution of resource, technical, economic, strategic, environmental, socio- and geopolitical problems of the energy industries. In addition, pathways to a sustainable global energy system are presented.

BUS 668 Macroeconomics of Financial Markets         3 Credits
This course examines the monetary aspects of production, spending, borrowing, and lending decisions, organization, performance and scope of services provided by financial markets and institutions, and the powers of the Federal Reserve System to use monetary policy and limits to credit expansion. The regulatory and globalization aspects and relevance of market behavior to the financial system are also examined.

BUS 669 Managerial Economic Analysis         3 Credits
Managerial economics introduces the basic principles of economic analysis as applied to managerial decisions to determine how an organization can achieve its aims most efficiently. This course applies statistical and quantitative tools and the methodological approaches commonly used by economists to business problems as demand estimation, product pricing, profit maximizing level of output, cost minimizing level of input use, and forecasting.

BUS 670 Legal Environment         3 Credits
This course involves the study of business law, its foundations, and the role it plays in managing a business, with a particular emphasis on the corporate form. Topics of relevance to be explored include the following core concepts: constitutional law, case law, government regulation, ethics, contracts, anti-trust law, securities regulations, employment law, environmental law, and crimes and torts.

BUS 680 Training & Development         3 Credits
This course provides in-depth knowledge of training and performance development concepts essential for line managers or human resource specialists. Beginning with fundamental principles of performance, the course focus is on identifying critical factors in workplace performance and in determining how to analyze the causes of performance problems. Additionally, this course distinguishes between training and development and addresses their complementary functions in the modern organization.

BUS 681 Compensation & Benefits         3 Credits
This course provides in-depth knowledge into compensation theories, policies, systems, and practices, with particular emphasis toward designing effective compensation programs.

BUS 688 Business Strategy:The Sustainable Enterprise         3 Credits
This course integrates environmental management issues with use of strategic planning tools for assessing and responding to the driving forces of the “next” economy: globalization, technology, demographics and the environment. The course examines the challenge of corporations competing in the global economy of the new millennium in such a way that will allow the planet to support them indefinitely. Emphasis is on the company’s ability to build and sustain a competitive advantage utilizing traditional management concepts as well as new sustainability practices.

BUS 689 Market Structure & Firm Strategy         3 Credits
This course focuses on the study of markets, laws, and government regulations used to smooth significant market imperfections, especially the problems caused by market structure and market power. The course further examines how firms formulate business strategies and activities to position themselves for profit advantage. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MBA/Business Economics curriculum. In addition, the capstone project requires the generation and presentation of an industry economic analysis.

BUS 690 Business Strategy         3 Credits
This capstone course explores the formulation, implementation, and evaluation/control of organizational strategic management. In the context of a globally competitive market, students will explore methods of directing an entire organization through applied case analysis. Topics include analysis of competitive position, value creation, development of system-wide goals and objectives, and creation of a strategic plan. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MBA curriculum. Additionally, the capstone project requires the generation and presentation of an industry analysis.

BUS 691 Strategies in Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This course builds on leadership, business, and management concepts. This strategy course provides the student with the opportunity to synthesize all prior learning in leadership and related coursework and experiences, both personal and professional. The course expands the leader’s thinking and explores the arena of leadership and how it will impact the future of the individual, the organization, and the world in which we live.

BUS 692 Strategies in Human Resource Management         3 Credits
This course examines how to manage human resources effectively in the dynamic legal, social, and economic environment currently impacting organizations. The course examines human resource management in the current business environment and develops alignment with vision, strategy, organizational values, and HR functions. Emphasis is placed on integrating human resource management with the overall business strategy.

BUS 693 Global Business Strategy         3 Credits
This course builds on the leadership, business, and management concepts while integrating a comprehensive look at strategic planning and management in a global environment. The course is designed to employ case analyses, critical assessments, global market evaluations, and a comprehensive strategic planning project to lead the student to fluency in the global strategic planning process.

BUS 694 Finance Capstone Seminar         3 Credits
This course will cover advanced financial topics including: International financial management, corporate risk management, merger and acquisitions, portfolio management theory and real options.

BUS 695 Marketing Capstone Seminar         3 Credits
This course builds on the leadership, business, and management concepts contained in the MBA program while introducing the principles and tools for managers to apply in the development, implementation, and review of marketing strategy for organizations. Topics include internal and external environmental analysis; value, competition, and strategic choice; strategic positioning; and implementation and control issues. In addition, the capstone project requires the generation and presentation of strategic marketing plan.

BUS 696 Strategic Thinking for Entrepreneurs         3 Credits
This course focuses on application of key strategic and managerial approaches necessary for entrepreneurs to implement the strategy for a start up or business takeover enterprise. It examines and discusses how entrepreneurial firms develop and implement innovative business plans, create functional operations, and incorporate technology strategies. Emphasis is placed on the vision of the firm, the strategic planning process, and strategic management. The final component is the generation of a business plan as a capstone project.

BUS 697 Project Management Strategy         3 Credits
This course focuses on application of managerial approaches necessary to align significant projects with organizational strategy. It examines and discusses how firms determine business benefits and project feasibility, report progress, and measure project quality while communicating with key organizational stakeholders. Emphasis is placed on Earned Value Management techniques and achieving project progress and technical performance of the project.

BUS 698 Supply Chain Strategic Management         3 Credits
This covers addresses the strategic implications of sourcing and supplier relationships in the context of supply chain management. Critical elements including identifying and selecting suppliers, negotiating contract terms and conditions, implementing contracts, and measuring performance in the context of the organization’s strategic plans are covered. Practical examples of sourcing excellence are provided.

BUS 699 Media Strategies & Applications         3 Credits
The course is the capstone for the Media Management specialization that is designed to integrate media management concepts in to a strategic plan. The course is focused on building and implementing the media strategies for an integrated and comprehensive plan that is consistent with an institution’s vision and mission and follows standard strategic planning theory and practice.

CGD Computer Graphic Design

CGD 218 Visual Literacy in Business         3 Credits
This course examines the evolution and trends in digital media utilized in business. Course content and activities focus on message content and creation and the visual principles and theories that shape effective visual communication in the business environment. Legal and ethical issues relating to visual communication will be introduced and incorporated into projects that develop visual literacy and visual problem-solving skills.

CGD 240 Media Writing & Editing         3 Credits
An introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication. (Cross-listed as JRN 240.)

CGD 318 Public Relations Practices & Promotional Writing         3 Credits
An introduction to current procedures and duties of public relations personnel will be studied. Students will write news releases, brochures, speeches, reports, memos, scripts, and ad copy using workshop format. (Cross-listed as JRN 318.)

COM Communications

COM 101 Introduction to Communication         3 Credits
This course serves as an introduction to the study of human communication. Students will examine classic and modern views of communication as well as theories and research relating to various sub-disciplines of communication such as interpersonal, group, organizational, mass and public communication. They will discuss and evaluate these theories and research findings and assess the impact of technology on the communication process. Relationship stages, theories, and contemporary views of “family” are examined, as well as the impact of family, culture, and gender on communication patterns. Types of groups and organizations are identified, as well as concepts of power and interaction in group, organizational, and public settings.  Mass communication and its impact on individuals and society will be explored. In this class, students will also have an opportunity to examine the practical implications of these concepts in building their own communication skills as well as future career path.

COM 200 Interpersonal Communication         3 Credits
This course is designed to aid students in understanding the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. Verbal and nonverbal communication patterns between people in personal, social, academic, and professional settings will be examined, and the nature of those interactions will be evaluated using contemporary communication theory. The course will enable students to identify their interpersonal communication behaviors and to more critically evaluate their own oral communication and that of others. A primary goal of the course is to improve the quality of students’ communication in their personal and professional relationships.

COM 321 Communication Theory         3 Credits
This course examines theoretical perspectives and research findings concerning human communication. Students will examine classic approaches and new theories and research in interpersonal, group, organizational, and public communication. They will analyze and critique these theories and research findings and assess the impact of technology on communication patterns. Relationship stages, theories, and contemporary views of “family” are examined, as well as the impact of family, culture, and gender on communication patterns. Types of groups and organizations are identified, as well as concepts of power and interaction in group, organizational, and public settings. In this class, students will also have an opportunity to examine the practical implications of these concepts in building their own communication skills.

COM 323 Persuasion & Argumentation         3 Credits
Students will learn critical thinking methods to enable them to analyze and evaluate arguments and understand which contribute to effective and non-effective persuasion. They will formulate persuasive arguments and learn to deliver those arguments effectively, both in oral and written forms. This course examines the purpose and function of research in supporting elements of argument and persuasion and the need to understand receiver variables.

COM 325 Communication & Conflict         3 Credits
The course provides students with conflict resolution techniques through communication. Students will analyze the purpose of conflict, learn to work with difficult people, and understand communication as a significant factor in the development, management, and resolution of conflict at the interpersonal, small group, organization, and societal levels. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

COM 340 Technical Writing         3 Credits
This course provides students with technical writing concepts and principles and the skills necessary to compose effective technical documents for a broad range of professions. Emphasis is placed on making complex and technical information understandable to a variety of audiences. Students will explore types of technical documents and the specific techniques applicable to technical writing such as outlines, abstracts, definition, and classification strategies. They will have an opportunity to apply their knowledge by writing a process or mechanism description, a proposal/recommendation report, and a detailed instruction for performing a task or operation.

COM 345 Media Writing for Communication         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the process of writing for varied media. Emphasis is on gathering information, writing styles, editing, and organization of written communication.

COM 360 Advanced Communications in Society         3 Credits
This course integrates the use of advanced communication techniques into a variety of contexts shaped by socially and culturally-constructed distinctions between and among individuals and groups. Topics include intercultural, multicultural, international, and inter-gender communications.

COM 425 Communication in Organizations         3 Credits
This course investigates the role of communication in creating an effective and ethical organizational environment. Students will be assisted in developing and strengthening such communication skills as self- awareness, intrapersonal efficacy, interpersonal competence, and leadership and team skills.

COM 480 Communication Studies Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a summative compilation of representative work from each course in the program. Students will create an electronic portfolio containing the assignments completed throughout the program to demonstrate professional achievement. Students will complete a comprehensive research project on a selected career field. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

CRJ Criminal Justice

CRJ 201 Introduction to Criminal Justice         3 Credits
This course involves an analysis of the criminal justice system focusing on the police, courts, and corrections.

CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice         3 Credits
This course describes prevalent patterns of juvenile delinquency, relates these patterns to theories of child and adolescent development, and examines various theories pertaining to the causes of criminal behavior among juveniles. In addition, the course surveys the roles of police, courts, and delinquency intervention programs in the administration of juvenile justice. Emphasis will be given to strategies of prevention and early intervention.

CRJ 303 Corrections         3 Credits
An analysis of correctional procedures and institutions, especially jails, prisons, parole, and probation is the focus of this course. Other topics include inmate subcultures, rehabilitation, and prisonization.

CRJ 305 Crime Prevention         3 Credits
This course explores strategies of crime prevention including programs designed to reduce opportunities to commit crime, programs to alleviate demoralizing community social and economic conditions that foster criminal behavior, programs to improve police/community cooperation, and programs to educate young people as to likely consequences of criminal behavior.

CRJ 306 Criminal Law & Procedure         3 Credits
A survey of constitutional rights, police compliance to constitutional rights, and constitutional amendments that specifically apply to the individual. The course examines the application of these rights in the enforcement, investigation, and adjudication of specific crimes.

CRJ 308 Psychology of Criminal Behavior         3 Credits
Psychology of Criminal Behavior is an integrated course applying the research and methodology of psychology and sociology to the understanding of criminal conduct. Theories of psychology are explored including biological, developmental, cognitive, social learning, and psychoanalytic. The sociological concepts of social process and structure, social control, and social conflict are introduced.

CRJ 311 Forensics         3 Credits
Forensic science applies scientific methodology to crime scene investigation and crime solving. This course analyzes techniques of crime scene investigation and the lawful gathering of evidence. Emphasis is placed upon the Federal Rules of Evidence, including the admissibility of physical evidence at trial, as well as the role of forensic science in the criminal justice system and the identification, collection, and preservation of physical evidence (chain of custody issues).

CRJ 422 Criminal Justice Capstone         3 Credits
Students will review all learning objectives achieved throughout previous coursework and develop a comprehensive, focused study of a modern criminal justice issue while applying solutions and predictions for future trends in criminal and social justice. Successful students will focus on the pragmatic application of principles and theories that guide criminal justice practice in the United States. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

CRJ 433 Principle & Theory of Security Issues         3 Credits
This course outlines the principles and topics relevant to business and organizational security management. Students gain understanding of established management functions, including the role of the Chief Security Officer. Various facets of physical, personnel, and information security are studied, as well as aspects of loss prevention and the protection of assets.

CRJ 435 Evaluation of Security Programs         3 Credits
This course examines industry standards and practices and methods of determining the adequacy of security management programs. It also explores the concepts of legal liability, management structures and techniques, and their impact on security operations.

CRJ 437 Contemporary Issues in Security Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on the current topics in security management such as substance abuse, violence, adjudication and reconsideration reviews, security countermeasures, case management, use of examinations such as polygraphs, report writing, international commercial sales, and media relations. The role of the security manager in personnel management, security planning, organizational communication, recruitment, retention, training and development, and management of contracts are also examined.

CRJ 439 Security Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the real world applications for security managers. Staff selection and employee screening are discussed, as well as daily operating procedures, guard operations, securing information systems, and investigations are discussed. Students will be introduced to current topics in workplace violence, managing change, security awareness training, and physical security.

CRJ 441 Homeland Defense         3 Credits
This course will examine the boundaries of the national security mission by evaluating the threats, actors, and organizational structures and resources affecting the security of the United States.

CRJ 443 Intelligence & Homeland Security         3 Credits
This course examines the relationship between intelligence and homeland security strategy during the 20th century with emphasis placed on the Cold War. Using a case study approach, students will analyze past and present national security issues from an intelligence perspective.

CRJ 445 Consequence Management:Terrorism Preparation & Response         3 Credits
This course addresses the potential results of nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare and incidents. Topics include public health consequences, emergency planning and response measures, detection and management technologies, and vulnerabilities. Course objectives include examination of the historical uses of chemical and biological weapons and the impacts of chemical and biological weapons.

CRJ 447 Homeland Security Organization         3 Credits
Students will examine federal, state, local, private, and other organizational structures involved in homeland security. The course focuses on development of homeland security from early to modern times with an emphasis on the emerging homeland security structure and culture.

CRJ 451 Homicide Investigation & Evidence Gathering        3 Credits
This course provides students with the skills and knowledge necessary for the resolution of homicide investigations. A historical overview is provided and current topics are explored. Topics include criminal behavior, the role of the crime laboratory, DNA testing, and medical/legal causes of death. Students will also be introduced to policies and procedures for evaluating and gathering evidence, with attention to blood stain and physical evidence and the impact of physical force on bodies and objects.

CRJ 453 Criminal Profiling         3 Credits
This course defines the motivators and environmental influences leading to criminal behavior, as well as the patterns of offending. Students are introduced to profiling approaches and techniques and their relationship to crime solving.

CRJ 455 Criminal Law         3 Credits
This course provides an in-depth analysis of criminal law. The principles of criminal liability are emphasized as well as the actions, mental state, and circumstances that are common to individuals committing crimes against society, persons, or to property.

CRJ 457 Forensic Evidence & the Law         3 Credits
Students are exposed to the historical and contemporary contexts in which arguments are made about the quality of forensic evidence and the legal burden of proof in criminal litigation. Methods and strategies for the gathering, analyzing, and application of forensic evidence are discussed. This course examines the principles and practices of crime scene investigation as well as the procedures for the collection, preservation, documentation, and analysis of physical evidence.

CRJ 461 Corrections Administration & Management         3 Credits
This course evaluates and develops the competencies necessary in corrections management and administration at all levels. Topics include strategic planning, risk assessment, effective leadership strategies, and current issues in corrections management. Students gain an understanding of the structure of the correctional facility as an organization. Ethical, legal, and social implications of corrections administration are discussed in detail.

CRJ 463 Contemporary Corrections Issues         3 Credits
This course focuses on a broad range of contemporary concerns and topics in criminal justice such as racism in sentencing, racial profiling, police use of deadly force, national drug control policy, community policing, court authorized electronic intercepts, and prosecutorial discretion. Students will research current criminal justice issues and make analytical observations using concepts and methodologies learned in the class.

CRJ 465 Corrections & Incarceration         3 Credits
This course examines approaches of correctional facilities and provides an overview of historic and contemporary philosophies and practices in the American Penal System. Treatment programs, prisoners’ rights, intermediate sanctions, and intuitional management are among the topics discussed, as well as correctional issues pertaining to race/ethnicity and women.

CRJ 467 Probation & Parole         3 Credits
The purpose and procedures pertaining to probation and parole are analyzed in this course. Topics include pre-sentence investigation, supervision of probationers, parole administration and services, treatment theory, juvenile services, and parole officers. Students are introduced to such new concepts as community-based corrections, the justice model, and determinate sentencing and their impact on traditional policy and practice.

CRJ 501 Criminal Justice, Criminal Law & the Constitution        3 Credits
This course introduces students to the fundamentals of the criminal justice system, substantive criminal law, and the U.S. Constitution. This course may be waived for students holding undergraduate degrees in criminal justice or having completed certain courses.

CRJ 510 Criminal Justice Policy & Theory        3 Credits
This course provides an extensive analysis of the functions, processes, and structures of the criminal justice system. Principles, doctrines, selected rules of criminal law, and law as social control will be examined.

CRJ 512 Criminological Theory        3 Credits
This course explores classical and contemporary literature in criminology and criminal justice. Both theory and empirical research will be used to examine criminal behavior as well as the structure, function, and interaction of the criminal justice system.

CRJ 514 Constitutional & Judicial Processes        3 Credits
This course examines the structure, functions, and operations of the constitution and judicial processes. The impact of historical and contemporary constitutional issues on the criminal justice process will also be examined.

CRJ 520 Research Methods in Criminal Justice        3 Credits
This course introduces the use of research methods in the study of criminal justice. The focus is on the examination of the issues related to collecting, analyzing, and using data. Students will learn to test hypotheses, draw inferences, and write a research report.

CRJ 522 Psychological Factors in Criminal Justice         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the use of psychological methods and theoretical models in the criminal justice system. Students will examine criminal and police psychology with an overview of forensic psychology.

CRJ 524 Ethics in Criminal Justice        3 Credits
This course examines theoretical and applied criminal justice ethical standards as they relate to criminal justice decision making. Students will evaluate issues concerning discretion, due process, truthfulness, corruption, and discrimination.

CRJ 613 Comparative Criminal Justice Systems        3 Credits
This course provides an international perspective on law enforcement. Students will focus on the phenomena of globalization of criminal activity, major aspects of the legal traditions and criminal justice systems of selected countries, as well as international legal and law enforcement institutions.

CRJ 615 Victimology         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the principles and concepts of victimology, an analysis of patterns and trends, as well as theoretical reasoning and responses to criminal victimization. Students will examine the consequences suffered by victims as well as the services and resources available to them.

CRJ 620 Organizational Behavior in Law Enforcement & Corrections         3 Credits
This course provides an analysis of the various issues facing criminal justice and correctional organizations in the context of professional practice, including, the theoretical concepts of organizational behavior, management and leadership of human resources, and design and structural processes of such organizations. Included topics are fiscal accountability; personnel deployment; implementation of change, motivation and retention of personnel, the hiring, assignment, and promotion of personnel, organizational communication; professional development, and applicable legal issues as they pertain to agency operations.

CRJ 621 Cybercrime Investigation        3 Credits
This course will introduce students to the methods for investigating internet crime. Students will learn how to gather evidence, build a case against the perpetrator, and manage an Internet crime scene.

CRJ 622 Introduction to Forensic Science        3 Credits
This course will introduce students to the history of forensic science along with current technologies, procedures and methods of laboratory analysis in use today. Topics covered will include recognition, protection, documentation and collection of physical evidence as well as analysis of such physical evidence. Legal recognition of new technologies will also be reviewed.

CRJ 623 Homeland Security         3 Credits
This course introduces the student to the responsibilities and functions across agencies at various jurisdictional levels that have the charge of mitigating hostilities, threats, hazards, and consequences. Additionally, this course will study the methods of the most effective response systems. Students will develop the skills to identify, evaluate and resolve complex policy issues and initiate practical actions.

CRJ 625 Employment & Policy Law for Law Enforcement & Corrections Administrators        3 Credits
This course explores specialized topics in substantive and procedural law with a special emphasis on employment law, and how these legal issues impact ethics and leadership in criminal justice and correctional organizations. This course is well suited for command-level personnel in response to a variety of potential agency and personal liability issues.

CRJ 626 Computer Forensics        3 Credits
This course will introduce students to the methods for preventing and detecting cybercrime. Students will learn the basics of retrieving and analyzing data from various mediums, such as computers, global positioning systems, or removable storage devices.

CRJ 627 Advanced Forensic Science        3 Credits
This course will review the forensic science subjects covered in CRJ 622 and introduce the student to the scientific techniques used in processing evidence found at investigations and crime scenes. This course is designed to allow the student to complete exercises in the forensic fields most commonly used today.

CRJ 628 Terrorism: Threats & Strategy        3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the student with an understanding of terrorism, both international and domestic. The course will explore the causes and effects of terrorism as they relate to political structures from both religious and historical perspectives; with particular focus on present day impacts. Offered online.

CRJ 630 Budgeting for Finance Law Enforcement & Corrections Administrators        3 Credits
This course will introduce students to public program budgeting and finance concepts. Special emphasis is given to methods of financing public programs and the preparation and management of budgets for the programs. This course is intended to provide students with an opportunity to learn and practice the technical aspects of program budgeting and finance in the public safety arena.

CRJ 631 Security & Protection for Cybercrime        3 Credits
This course will instruct students of the basic rights of business and individuals who are affected by cybercrime as well as the means to protect them. Students will learn how to protect potential victims whether minors in chat rooms or multinational businesses from cyber criminals.

CRJ 632 Crime Scene Investigation & Management         3 Credits
This course will introduce the student to the forensic techniques utilized in crime scene investigations (CSI). Students will learn how to process and retrieve trace evidence such as DNA and other items of evidentiary value. Student will also learn accepted methodologies employed in contemporary crime scene management. Students will also become familiarized with commonly accepted forensic techniques, contemporary specialized techniques, and judicial expectations and requirements relative to the admittance of evidence collected by forensic crime scene investigators.

CRJ 633 Risk Assessment        3 Credits
This course is intended to provide the student with advanced knowledge and understanding of the area of risk assessment and management. The focus is on the recognition of real and perceived threats, sharing information between communities and agencies, the collaboration of resources, and the management of risk. Students will examine the concepts of risk assessment, risk analysis, and the impacts of actual and suspected threats.

CRJ 697 Capstone: Evaluation & Program Analysis in Criminal Justice        3 Credits
Students will research key concepts, methods, and issues in the field of evaluation research. In addition, students will analyze and develop an evaluation proposal on a discreet topic within the field of criminal justice. The focus will center on needs assessment, impact, monitoring, as well as the application of quantitative and qualitative techniques.

ECE Early Childhood Education

ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the field of early childhood education including history, philosophy, advocacy, public policy, issues, trends, and careers.

ECE 201 Introduction to Early Childhood Behavior Management         3 Credits
This course will address age appropriate behavior expectations for classrooms and ideas for supporting student learning. Motivation theory, positive reinforcement and behavior support plans will be covered. Major theories of behavior will be considered as they relate to educational settings.

ECE 203 Introduction to Curriculum & Instruction for the Early Childhood Classroom         3 Credits
Introduction to Curriculum & Instruction for the Early Childhood Classroom examines the relationship between curriculum, instruction, and assessment. This course is designed to provide students with the opportunity to analyze developmentally appropriate practices for early childhood settings, as well as compare the effectiveness of early childhood curricular approaches. In addition, students will apply specific methods for early childhood instruction and assessment. For the final project, students will develop a curriculum unit plan.

ECE 205 Introduction to Child Development         3 Credits
Introduction to Child Development provides an overview of child development from birth to age eight. This course is designed to provide students with the opportunity to explore the various theories of child development. In addition, developmental milestones and developmental domains will be explored at each of the stages of child development. Factors that influence child development will be examined and ways to support development will be discussed. Students will examine strategies and environments that promote development. 

ECE 214 Nutrition & Health of Children and Families         3 Credits
This course provides a study of the health and nutrition needs of children and families.

ECE 311 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods         3 Credits
This course focuses on curriculum development in early childhood and teaching strategies with a developmentally appropriate approach. Students will prepare curriculum and practice teaching strategies which illustrate the characteristics of play and creativity. The guidance of young children to include behavior management and creating positive learning environments will also be emphasized.

ECE 312 Administration of Early Childhood Education Programs         3 Credits
This course focuses on the development and implementation of early childhood programs for a variety of age groups and purposes. Specifically, curriculum development, materials, teaching strategies, evaluation, budgets, hiring procedures and state guidelines/regulations are addressed as are the skills and competencies to implement the above.

ECE 313 Collaboration with Parents & Community         3 Credits
Factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with parents of babies and preschool-aged children, families and community resources are considered in this course.

ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the developmental stages of language acquisition in young children from birth to the age of 6. The focus of the course is on the facilitation of language acquisition in young children.

ECE 332 Child Development         3 Credits
This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through early childhood. Students learn about motor, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, aesthetic, and language development in early childhood.

ECE 335 Children’s Literature         3 Credits
Students learn how to select and use children’s books and other media relating to physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development of babies and preschool-aged children.

ECE 341 Social & Emotional Growth of Infants & Toddlers         3 Credits
Social-emotional development including the management of emotions and the ability to establish positive relationships with others will be covered in this course. Students will learn the important elements in a childcare setting that support healthy social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment in infants and toddlers.

ECE 343 Quality Care Environments for Infants & Toddlers         3 Credits
Students will learn both theory and application of why and how to set up, arrange and change early childhood learning environments to effectively meet the developmental needs of very young children. The role of the teacher, the importance of the environment, design principles, health and safety will be covered in this course.

ECE 345 Infant & Toddler Learning & Development         3 Credits
Emphasis will be placed on effective activities and practices to promote language development, cognitive development and motor skill development in young children. Sensory, music and movement development will also be covered in this course. Appropriate behavior teaching and coaching for infants, toddlers and two year olds will be discussed.

ECE 347 Culture, Family & Childcare         3 Credits
This course will increase the students expertise and understanding of all the components that must work together to create an effective childcare setting in which all children can thrive. Elements to be covered in the planning of a childcare environment include discipline and behavior management as well as consideration of the child’s developmental level, the family and cultural context.

ECE 351 Play & Learning for the Young Child         3 Credits
In this course students explore the significant role and impact of play on the development of children. Students will actively participate in discussions and activities related to major theorists, current research on play, the developmental stages of play, cultural influences, and current trends and topic related to play.

ECE 353 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children         3 Credits
Students examine the theoretical frameworks related to cognitive development in children providing them with a foundational understanding of the theories of brain development. Using that foundation, students evaluate the relationship between cognitive development and the developmental domains in children and the influences on brain development. Additionally, students analyze how environment and genetics impact brain development and cognitive functioning and evaluate the educational and societal implications for children in the context of cognitive development and functioning. Throughout the course, students also synthesize their learning from the course to develop strategies and techniques in their work with children in a variety of educational settings to promote optimal cognitive development.

ECE 354 Assessment & Intervention During Early Childhood         3 Credits
Throughout this course, students analyze the purpose of assessment in supporting children across all developmental domains. Using this foundation, students examine the practical application of assessment tools and utilize assessment strategies to enhance the growth and development of children. Finally, students synthesize their learning by developing an assessment portfolio that contains intervention strategies for meeting the developmental needs of children.

ECE 355 Understanding Behavior & Family Dynamics         3 Credits
This course explores developmental theory and the relationship to the socialization and education of young children in child rearing, caring, and education. Special emphasis will be placed upon exploring how the child is viewed in the context of his or her family and the community at large.

ECE 405 Children & Families in a Diverse Society         3 Credits
This course will provide a clear and practical introduction to multicultural and anti-bias issues, and aid students in developing culturally relevant methods in working with children and families in early childhood settings.

ECE 430 Early Childhood Education Capstone         3 Credits
This is the capstone course for the Early Childhood Education and the Early Childhood Education Administration Major, to be taken at the completion of the major courses. This course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply their learning from the course of study for Early Childhood Education in a comprehensive manner. Students will reflect on the courses taken and develop an understanding on the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards, developmentally appropriate practices based upon child development research, center-based curriculum and professionalism. This course will culminate with a comprehensive final project that integrates the student learning throughout the program as well as a final exam that covers the program learning outcomes. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ECE 497 Child Development Capstone         3 Credits
The capstone course is designed to be taken at the completion of all courses in this area of study. This capstone course will bring together information regarding advocacy and legislation for children and families and ways that this shapes children’s experiences and opportunities. Students will have the opportunity to integrate and apply their learning from the course of study in the Child Development major in a comprehensive manner. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ECE 601 Introduction to Early Childhood Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the field of early childhood education including history, philosophy, advocacy, public policy, issues, trends, and careers.

ECE 605 Children & Families in a Diverse Society         3 Credits
This course will provide a clear and practical introduction to multicultural and anti-bias issues and will aid students in developing culturally relevant methods in working with children and families in early childhood settings.

ECE 611 Early Childhood Curriculum & Methods         3 Credits
This course focuses on curriculum development in early childhood and teaching strategies with a developmentally appropriate approach. Students will prepare curriculum and practice teaching strategies which illustrate the characteristics of play and creativity. The guidance of young children to include behavior management and creating positive learning environments will also be emphasized.

ECE 612 Administration of Early Childhood Education         3 Credits
This course focuses on the development and implementation of early childhood programs for a variety of age groups and purposes. Specifically, curriculum development, materials, teaching strategies, evaluation, budgets, hiring procedures and state guidelines/regulations are addressed as are the skills and competencies to implement the above.

ECE 623 Collaboration with Parents & Community         3 Credits
Factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with parents of babies and preschool-aged children, families and community resources are considered in this course.

ECE 625 Family & Community Engagement         3 Credits
This course focuses on factors that promote effective engagement with families of infants, toddlers and preschool-aged children, and the impact of this relationship on young children’s development, learning and behavior. Integration of concepts with best practice in early care and education, as well as family context and community resources are considered in this course.

ECE 630 Language, Physical & Social Development in Young Children         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the developmental stages of language acquisition, physical and social development in young children from birth to 6. The focus of the course is on the specific developmental milestones in young children.

ECE 653 Cognitive Development of Infants & Young Children         3 Credits
This course deals with theories regarding cognitive development in children from birth to eight years of age including knowledge resulting from brain research. The relationship between the rate of cognitive development and overall development will be explored throughout the course. Students will apply this knowledge to design programs to meet the needs of children with varying needs and abilities.

ECE 654 Assessment & Intervention in Early Childhood         3 Credits
This course explores the issues around early assessment and intervention with young children. Specific developmental concerns will be identified and intervention programs will be examined.

ECO Economics

ECO 100 Survey of Contemporary Economic Issues         3 Credits
Contemporary economic issues are discussed and relevant economic theory is introduced throughout this course of study. The economic theories of supply and demand, competitive markets, and price elasticity are explored.

ECO 203 Principles of Macroeconomics         3 Credits
Introduction to national income determination and the equilibrium level of output and employment. Monetary and fiscal policies as well as open economy issues are discussed. Recommended prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Critical Thinking competency and Information Technology competency.

ECO 204 Principles of Microeconomics         3 Credits
Introduction to the theory of consumer equilibrium, market structure, and wage determination. Recommended prerequisites: Fulfillment of the General Education Critical Thinking competency, Mathematical competency, and Information Technology competency. (Equivalent to ECO 308).

ECO 308 Economics for Managers         3 Credits
This course will provide a survey of the field of economics as it relates to effective management. The course is designed to provide a basic understanding of the principles, concepts, and operational aspects of our economic system. (Equivalent to ECO 204).

ECO 316 Financial Institutions & Markets         3 Credits
A study of money and capital markets concentrating on interest rate determination, the major public and private financial institutions in the U.S. economy, and the major types of financial instruments including bonds, equities, and derivative instruments. Prerequisite: ECO 100 or ECO 203. (Cross-listed as BUS 316.)

ECO 320 International Economics         3 Credits
This course will focus on the environment of firms with particular emphasis on economic variables such as GNP, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and international trade.

ECO 342 Principles of Econometrics         3 Credits
This course introduces students to multiple regression methods for analyzing data in economics and related disciplines. The mathematics of econometrics will be introduced only as needed and will not be a central focus. Prerequisites: BUS 308 or MAT 332, and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency.

ECO 406 Business Cycles & Growth         3 Credits
Topics include analysis of economic fluctuations and their impact on corporations and consumers; different explanations for business cycles; monetary and fiscal policy for stabilizing economic fluctuations; effects of public debt, investment, employment and trade policy on economic growth. Prerequisite: ECO 203.

ECO 408 Managerial Economics        3 credits
This course is designed to provide a solid foundation of economic understanding for use in managerial decision-making. The course offers an intuitive non-calculus based treatment of economic theory and analysis. A variety of examples is used to illustrate the application of managerial economics to diverse practical situations. The role that economic analysis plays in that process is emphasized throughout this course. Prerequisite: ECO 204.

ECO 610 Global Economics         3 Credits
This course will study international economic with respect to the global aspects of supply and demand. This class will review and evaluate international trade theories, geographic trade patterns, globalization, multinational corporations, and international variations of corporate and national economic policies. By the conclusion of this class, the student will be able to compare and contrast international financial and trade frameworks, and describe the problems and challenges facing the multinational corporation.

EDU Education

EDU 100 Issues in Education        3 Credits
This is an introductory course for students considering teaching as a career path or individuals seeking an increased understanding of the complexity and importance of education. The first focus is on topics in education that include, but are not limited to, teaching as a profession, diversity in the classroom, facilitation of student achievement and accountability, classroom management, and requirements for continuing professionalism in the field. The second focus of this course is on academic writing as a necessary component in the field of education. Prerequisites: GEN 103 and successful completion of ENG 122 or equivalent with a grade of “C-” or better.

EDU 108 Introduction to Policy & Education         3 Credits
This course examines the theory, analysis, development and implementation of educational policy. It will explore the reasons for change in educational policy, ways to track its evolution, and manners in which educational policy may be influenced. The history of educational policy will also be explored.

EDU 120 Principles of Instructional Design         3 Credits
This introductory course will cover learning theories including behaviorist, cognitive, constructivist and social learning as well as examine their relationship to instructional practices and course design. Basic principles and vocabulary for e-learning will be introduced. Additional topics covered will include factors that influence learning including motivation, learner engagement and learning styles. Students will begin to identify learning outcomes that can be addressed in an e-learning setting.

EDU 232 Instructional Design for E-Learning         3 Credits
Students will be introduced to a variety of instructional design strategies and address the selection of specific strategies to address learning needs in an educational or training environment. The role of needs assessment to inform design and formative evaluation to monitor instructional effectiveness will be addressed in this course. Prerequisite: EDU 120.

EDU 304 Introduction to Education         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with a broad view of the various components involved in education and schools today. An introduction to current legislation and trends in education as well as curriculum standards will be covered. The complex diversity of students today, as well as assessment and accountability issues, will also be addressed.

EDU 321 Introduction to Serving English Language Learners         3 Credits
This course provides a sufficiently broad yet detailed exposure to the realities of teaching English Language Learners. The course is designed to prepare students to deliver content area instruction to English Language Learners with diverse abilities using the sheltered instruction approach.

EDU 324 History of American Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of sentinel events, theories, and important historical figures that have shaped the United States education system. (Cross-listed as HIS 324.)

EDU 334 Adult Learning in the Workplace          3 Credits
Students will be introduced to the various learning needs of adults from a generational perspective. Strategies and ideas for the development of training and instruction to address the needs of learners for present generations as well as learners from diverse backgrounds and cultures will be reviewed. The role of needs assessment to inform design and formative evaluation to measure instructional effectiveness will be addressed in this course.

EDU 335 Design Concepts & Application for Online Learning         3 Credits
The application of instructional design for online learning will be emphasized as students apply their knowledge to analyze, select and design instructional strategies that are most effective for engaging and teaching online learners. Students will learn methods for managing and delivering online instruction utilizing course management tools and multimedia technologies in both synchronous and asynchronous environments. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 336 Evaluation of E-Learning         3 Credits
Students will examine the components of online instruction and classroom design for high quality standards. Learners will evaluate and assess instructional design and its impact on student learning through a review of various sites and programs. Tools for evaluation of instructional material will be reviewed. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 337 Collaboration in the Virtual Classroom         3 Credits
The use of e-learning to promote collaboration and team work in a virtual environment will be explored in this course. Opportunities for collaboration utilizing social networking and other tools will be evaluated. Students will utilize a variety of tools to experience real time learning in the virtual classroom. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 338 Human Development & Learning          3 credits
Brain development as related to human development and the capacity for learning will be explored throughout this course. The neuroscience of brain development and how this information translates into education, as well as the implications of this information for maximizing learning, memory, behavior and overall functioning, are topics that will be addressed.

EDU 352 Foundations of Educational Technology         3 Credits
Strategies and ideas for the use of technology to enhance learning will be explored in this course. The latest in Web applications will be explored and evaluated for their instructional application.

EDU 356 Emerging Issues in Educational Technology          3 Credits
Strategies and ideas of including the latest in technology advancements to promote student engagement and learner success will be examined in this course. Mobil learning, the use of social media such as blogs, Facebook, etc. as well as other Web 2.0 applications will be explored and evaluated for instructional application. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 358 Assessment of Student Learning         3 Credits
Students will learn to identify the differences in formative and summative evaluation data and design on-line learning scenarios to address both of these. The effectiveness of e-learning will be explored through research. The philosophy, use and development of grading rubrics for assignments will be explored. Issues of plagiarism and cheating in e-learning will also be examined. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 360 Philosophy of Education         3 Credits
This course provides a sufficiently broad yet detailed exposure to the realities of teaching. The text introduces the vantage points of teaching in four main categories. Part I, the world of teachers and students. Part II, examines the structure, climate and culture of schools today. Part III, reviews the historical, philosophical, legal and financial foundations that shape our educational system. Part IV, provides opportunities to debate, explore and discuss educational issues and trends facing educators in the 21st century. The primary goals of this course are to support students by providing a comprehensive understanding of the world of teaching, by developing critical skills related to the teaching profession, and by developing a teaching philosophy.

EDU 362 Adult Learning & Instruction         3 Credits
Students will learn about the various theories and practices associated with adult learning. Various modalities of instruction will be addressed including e-learning, accelerated courses, and training sessions.

EDU 363 Education & Social Justice          3 Credits
The influences of educational policy and its convergence with social justice will be studied in this course. Issues of race, gender, sexuality, globalism, and other multicultural issues within the study of politics and policy will be explored throughout this course.

EDU 365 Politics of American Education         3 Credits
The political dimensions of policy formation/implementation in education and the use of power to influence educational policy will be explored. Conflict resolution and the analysis of consequences and impact will be examined.

EDU 367 Elementary & Secondary School Media          3 credits
This class will explore the role of the teacher librarian and role of the library media center at three different levels of education (elementary, middle, and high school). Students will research programs, library practices, teaching styles and management in the facilitation of a library media center.

EDU 371 Phonics-Based Reading & Decoding          3 Credits
This course provides an overview of research, curricular content, and instructional practices associated with Research Based Systematic Phonics Instruction (RBSPI) and other methods for teaching reading. Emphasis and focus are on methods mandated by Arizona legislation. This course covers the history of written language, alphabetic reading and writing systems, and implementation of effective methods for reading instruction. Note: Students enrolled in EDU 371 will be required to find a student to teach or instruct for this course. The student can be a child or adult, age 5 or above. The time commitment will be approximately 3 hours per week for three weeks beginning the second week of this course. There are no exceptions to this requirement. Prerequisite: EDU 372 or PSY 372.

EDU 372 Educational Psychology         3 Credits
Educational Psychology explores the theories of how people learn. Selected learning theories are analyzed from the perspective of teaching and learning. Developmental theory and environmental and social factors are explored as they interface with the learning process. Educational psychology’s research is applied to the measurement, assessment, and evaluation of learning and the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching-learning interactions.

EDU 381 Curriculum & Instructional Design         3 Credits
Students will examine the pedagogy involved in designing, selecting and assessing curriculum to meet the needs of diverse learners. The basics such as how to write learning outcomes based on academic standards to selecting the research based materials and activities to support student learning, will be covered. Evaluation of student learning will be included in the course.

EDU 382 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners          3 Credits
Students will explore the variety of learning differences found in the classroom today including linguistically diverse students, students with mild to moderate disabilities as well as Gifted and Talented learners. Specific strategies and classroom accommodations that may be used at all levels to meet the needs of all students will be addressed. Working as a member of a collaborative team will also be covered.

EDU 411 Reading & Cognition         3 Credits
The task of learning to read is a very complex process involving the application of perceptual, sensory, linguistic, and cognitive skills to making meaning of text. Exploration of the specific cognitive functions that are applied while reading and strategies supporting reading instruction and reading comprehension skills will be addressed. The implications of digital media on reading skills will also be explored in this course.

EDU 416 Intelligence Assessment          3 Credits
This course will explore different theories of intelligence, the use of intelligence tests to create a numeric score, and the impact of family and culture on intelligence. Educational expectations and programs based on intelligence scores and cultural biases that may impact educational opportunities.

EDU 417 Cognitive Studies Capstone          3 Credits
In this capstone course, students in the Cognitive Studies degree program will demonstrate their attainment of the program learning outcomes through the completion of a project. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

EDU 422 Public Policy & Special Education          3 Credits
A study of the educational, legal, sociological and ethical issues that influence public policy related to the provision of special education to students with disabilities.

EDU 428 Student Achievement in Public Schools         3 Credits
This course will examine various factors influencing student achievement in public schools. Influencing factors will include motivation theories, as well as the impact of families, teachers and schools on student success. Issues of equity and access to quality educational programs will be considered.

EDU 431 Advanced Instructional Design         3 Credits
Students will apply a systematic approach to instructional and informational design to meet specific identified learner outcomes. Applying all of the steps for instructional design students will bring together the strategies and theories explored in the prerequisite courses to a learning project. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 433 Project Management for Instructional Design          3 Credits
Instructional design requires careful and thoughtful collaboration among a variety of design team members. In this course various project management tools, procedures, and methodologies will be introduced as they are applied to projects in education or training. Students will explore the relationship of time constraints, cost, scope and the nature of the project being designed. Prerequisites: EDU 120 and EDU 232.

EDU 440 Information Literacy          3 Credits
This course will provide students with hands-on experiences in strategies to access information in the 21st century, evaluate resources, and effectively use search engines to locate information. Students will learn Web 2.0 tools in a systematic way recommended by professional library associations.

EDU 441 Research & Analysis Skills         3 Credits
This course will introduce students to the theory and methods of evaluating research methods. It explores the ways in which professionals identify and frame research and evaluation questions, assess current scholarly literature on specific topics, locate and critically use primary and secondary source data, and formulate worthwhile evaluation projects. Emphasis will be placed on the research tools and processes professionals use and the role information professionals play in their development, dissemination, and use.

EDU 443 Literature for Children & Teens          3 Credits
This class will expose students to many different types of children and young adult literature, media, and resources. Students will develop material lists for different genres, explore current trends in student interests, and exhibit knowledge of library published journals.

EDU 471 Public Policy Issues in Education         3 Credits
Public policy issues in education including historical, international and political will be examined in light of current research perspectives. Current policy strategies for reforming U.S. public schools will be highlighted.

EDU 473 Divergent Perspectives in Educational Policy & Practice          3 Credits
Current issues and debates in the field of education will be investigated. Students will examine the purpose of schooling and the challenges of meeting a variety of visions for what the school system should accomplish today.

EDU 486 Educational Policy & Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the societal and political contexts in educational settings. Students will examine various issues that are likely to have an impact on teaching and learning in diverse educational settings. Educational policy areas considered include governance, curriculum, accountability, personnel development, and school finance.

EDU 490 Interdisciplinary Capstone         3 Credits
This is the capstone course for social science majors with a concentration in education. The course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply learning from their professional programs of study in a comprehensive manner. Students will also assess the impact of their educational experiences on their ethical perspectives and critical thinking skills. Students will reflect on and evaluate their personal and professional growth, the benefits of lifelong learning, knowledge and strategy evaluation, and the impact of these elements on their future. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

EDU 495 Library Science & Media Capstone         3 Credits
The Capstone Course is an opportunity for students to demonstrate understanding of the Library Science and Media program outcomes through the application of concepts and tools of inquiry to create learning environments, evaluate technology tools and applications for instruction and research, create learning opportunities for a variety of learners, and analyze literature materials for inclusion in specific settings and programs. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

EDU 496 Capstone Instructional Design         3 Credits
As the culmination of the BA in Instructional Design students throughout this course will complete a design project demonstrating their achievement of all program outcomes. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

EDU 497 Capstone: Education & Public Policy Development        3 Credits
The capstone course is an examination of influences affecting policy development and decision making in the education arena. It will cover policy management, policy execution, establishing and measuring criteria for policy success, and effective communication throughout the public policy process. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained throughout the completion of the EPP major. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

EDU 498 Education Studies Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply learning from their professional program of study in a comprehensive manner. Students will also assess the impact of their educational experiences on their ethical perspectives and critical thinking skills. Students will reflect on and evaluate their personal and professional growth, the benefits of lifelong learning, knowledge and strategy evaluation, and the impact of these elements on their future. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

EDU 590 Climate, Culture, and Managing the Learning Environment         3 Credits
This course brings focus to the skills, strategies, and considerations a facilitating educator must master to create and maintain a safe, orderly, and flexible environment that is conducive for learning. Participants in this class will increase their knowledge of techniques and strategies proven effective for classroom instruction and individual student behavior management. Prerequisites: EDU 650, 692, 673, 645, 620.

EDU 591 Assessing Learners         3 Credits
This course emphasizes how formative and summative systems are embedded in a problem-based approach to assessment, and how different types of assessments appeal to different learners. Participants analyze research-proven assessment strategies and how to implement these to impact educational and program improvement. Participants will explore the issue of integrating instruction with assessment, or what has been popularly referred to as “teaching to the test.” The paradigm shift from assessment of learning to assessment for learning is highlighted. Prerequisites: EDU 590, 650, 692, 673, 645, 620.

EDU 592 Planning for Diverse Learners          3 Credits
Instructional Practice specialization graduates engage in continuous and collaborative planning processes to address the needs of diverse learners they encounter in today’s educational environments. Graduates will address planning and preparation techniques to accommodate English language learners, special education, gifted, physically challenged, and mainstreamed students that are consistent with strategies that benefit all. Emphasis is on triangulating curricular demands, assessment, and the lesson-planning process. A variety of instructional models and strategically-placed combinations of formative and summative assessments are employed to ensure mastery of targeted goals. Prerequisites: EDU 590, 591, 650, 692, 673, 645, 620.

EDU 593 Student Engagement and Literacy in STEM         3 Credits
This course has several main objectives. First, it will explore what it means to integrate STEM. Second, it will investigate what skills students should be learning to aid them in integrating STEM into their curriculum. Third, it will analyze the importance of teaching reading in the content area. Fourth, it will critique and develop activities with an emphasis on bringing "excitement" to the STEM and Literacy classrooms. Finally, it will align learning practices with the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), Common Core Standards, and classroom strategies. Prerequisites: EDU 590, 591, 592, 650,692,673, 645, 620.

EDU 596 Creating a Culture of Universal Achievement & Collaboration          3 Credits
This course introduces students to the core beliefs of No Excuses University and the Six Exceptional Systems for universal achievement leading to classroom and school success. Students will practice skills associated with candid collaboration and select specific areas of focus that will support them in the development of their own Collaboration Commitment. By understanding the foundational steps of the exceptional system staircase, students will be able to apply what is learned to their own practice and be prepared to follow the next steps as featured in the second course of the Exceptional Systems for Revolutionizing Education specialization, EDU 597 Creating a System of Standards, Assessment, & Data Management.

EDU 597 Creating a System of Standards, Assessment, & Data Management          3 Credits
This course allows students to establish meaningful connections between a culture of universal achievement and committed collaboration with the next steps on the exceptional systems staircase: standards, assessment, and data management. By breaking down a standard into manageable parts, selecting effective assessments to determine student growth, and constructing an effective data management system for teachers and learners, students in this course will gain practical skills that can be directly applied to their professional practice. As such, students will be prepared to follow the next steps featured in the third course of the Exceptional Systems for Revolutionizing Education specialization, EDU 598 Creative Interventions & the Success Equation.

EDU 598 Creative Interventions & the Success Equation         3 Credits
In this course, students will connect the first five steps of the Exceptional Systems staircase through the creation of successful interventions. More specifically, students will discover the relationship between effective data translation, committed collaboration, and implementation of appropriate learner interventions. Practical and effective ways to help all learners reach their next level of success and help schools get better results are at the heart of the course. Key concepts learned and practiced in the course can be directly applied to students’ professional practice, support their professional development, and prepare them for the final course in the Exceptional Systems for Revolutionizing Education specialization, EDU 599 Exceptional Leadership – Turning Bold Choices Into Results.

EDU 599 Exceptional Leadership - Turning Bold Choices Into Results         3 Credits
In this final course for the Exceptional Systems for Revolutionizing Education specialization, students discover what it means to be a leader as well as how the choices leaders make impact learner, teacher, and school success. Leadership traits and practices bring students full circle with the Six Exceptional Systems and provide opportunities for practical application of learned concepts with current and potential practice in the field of education.

EDU 600 Introduction to Online Learning          3 Credits
This course presents an overview of the online learning environment from the instructor's point of view. It is a description of the terminology, tools, and skills needed to create a successful online learning experience. Areas addressed in this course include basic online learning concepts, the roles of the teacher and student in online learning, and the components of the online learning environment. Also covered in the course are teaching methodologies, types of blended learning, and guidelines for making the transition from the traditional classroom to the online classroom. Hardware, software, and other tools and technologies used in online learning are discussed.

EDU 601 Promoting Student Success in the Online Learning Environment         3 Credits
This course covers the basic tools needed for student success in an online learning environment. Topics include communication, collaboration, and software skills required to succeed in online learning. Also covered are instructor and student responsibilities and expectations, as well as potential roadblocks to success. Tools and techniques for organizing, prioritizing, and completing course tasks are discussed. Finally, instructional methods for guiding students and evaluating student progress in online courses are also addressed. Prerequisite: EDU 602.

EDU 602 Assessing Knowledge & Skills in the Online Learning Environment         3 Credits
This course examines approaches that assess student knowledge and skills in the online learning environment. Directed instruction, or objectivism, is compared and contrasted with constructivist or inquiry-based learning and assessment theories. Traditional assessment strategies are discussed as applied in directed instructional models of online learning. Nontraditional assessment approaches are explored in constructivist models, such as group products, web pages, multimedia projects, student portfolios, and student projects graded by self-report assessment instruments and rubrics. This course will focus on the use of discussions, pre- and post-testing, writing activities, graded assessments, self-grading assessments, and hands-on projects on student learning and assessment. Prerequisite: EDU 600.

EDU 608 Children’s & Young Adult Literature         3 Credits
Students will explore contemporary literature for children and young adults at the early childhood, elementary, middle and high school levels. The ability to select and evaluate quality literature for children and youth, and the skills necessary to plan and integrate literature into a K-12 program will be addressed.

EDU 609 Online Teaching Internship         3 Credits
Learners will have the opportunity to demonstrate professional skills and knowledge in meeting the unique needs of online learners by using a Learning Management System (LMS) to develop their own online course. Learners will create engaging content and activities that reflect best practices for promoting critical thinking, student retention, and ensuring a robust community environment in the online classroom. Learners will use a professional online course evaluation instrument to rate their courses and those of their peers to inform the improvement and finalization of a quality online course. Prerequisite: EDU 601.

EDU 610 Introduction to Teaching & Learning with Technology         3 Credits
The tremendous growth of technology has had an enormous impact on academics, and knowledge acquired has perpetually altered the dynamics of teaching. However, pedagogical preparations for the use of the new learning technologies requires an understanding of their worth in the context of historical implications, philosophical foundations, educational psychology, and learning theories.

EDU 613 Technology Issues in Instruction         3 Credits
The focus will be on issues related to the use of technology in learning including equity, access, technology literacy, plagiarism, the effective use of games and simulations, and the trend toward e-learning. Students will evaluate various examples of technology-based instruction for instructional quality as well as relevance to the classroom and training environment. Course assignments will include participation in discussions, evaluation of courseware, online journal articles and other web sites, and individual reviews of relevant literature.

EDU 615 Leading the Change Process in Curriculum & Instruction         3 Credits
The course will explore the role of the change agent in the identification, planning, implementation, and assessment of change initiatives for improved achievement. The impact of change on the individual, course, program, and system level will be studied. Research-based standards for successful leadership will be identified and applied as students examine the impact of administration and management on teaching and learning.

EDU 616 Methods & Materials for Teaching & Learning With Technology           3 Credits
This course focuses on the application of technology to enhance instruction. Students will be exposed to the courseware, software applications, and technologies used in instructional technology and discuss ways they can be used effectively. Course assignments and projects require the use of productivity tools, presentation tools, digital imaging, Internet Websites, and online learning platform technologies. Teaching style with technology-based instruction will be explored. Various software and hardware tools will be utilized to enhance presentations, strengthen professional productivity, and encourage critical thinking skills of learners.

EDU 617 School, Family & Community Partnerships         3 Credits
Parent and community involvement is a crucial element to school success. Promoting the social, emotional and academic skills necessary for student success in the 21st century requires a team effort of collaboration with schools, families and the community. Students in this course will explore strategies and research for engaging partners in the ongoing education of children in the community.

EDU 620 Meeting Individual Student Needs With Technology          3 Credits
This course fosters awareness of individual learner characteristics that impede successful achievement. Milder forms of learning disabilities, emotional disorders, and dysfunctional social conditions that are prevalent in typical instructional situations are evaluated. Alternative pedagogies utilizing computer technology applications to alleviate such barriers are explored. Prerequisite: EDU 673.

EDU 622 Development of Interactive Learning Modules         3 Credits
The focus in this course is the development of resources to be used for instruction. Using the information gathered from previous courses, the student creates a project that engages learners in interactive activities. The activities in this course will utilize technology as a tool to enhance pedagogical practices. The performance outcomes of these activities must promote both creative and complex thinking skills.

EDU 623 Introduction to Teaching & Learning          3 Credits
This course is designed to introduce the student to the Master of Arts in Education Program. Students will engage in self-assessment and reflection focused on the philosophy of serving the needs of all students within the context of the community. (Equivalent to EDU 650.)

EDU 625 Managing the Instructional Environment         3 Credits
In this course the student identifies and explores the internal and external factors that serve to challenge teachers and trainers in instructional environments. Logistical and behavioral components of creating an engaging learning environment are explored. Individual and group dynamics with the integration of technology are evaluated.

EDU 626 Research Design & Methodology         3 Credits
In this course the student accesses sources of educational information, evaluates research evidence, studies various types of educational resources, and applies research to the instructional setting. The focus of this course is research on issues in educational technology and the use of technology tools for making data-driven decisions using both quantitative and qualitative methods. (Equivalent to EDU 671.)

EDU 629 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners         3 Credits
This course explores strategies and techniques to support the success of language and culturally diverse students. The values, customs, and communication styles of cultural groups and their implication for teaching are considered. Research-based instructional approaches to developing English learner literacy will be examined.

EDU 633 Educational Policy Formation     3 Credits
This course is designed to focus on theories and models of policy-making process, including pluralism, elitism, systems analysis, structuralism, and state autonomy models. The course examines how different theories view the roles of political leadership, institutions, interest groups, academics experts, and external influences in the policy-making process. The course examines how different factors influence policy outcomes and processes at various stages of the development process. The course provides students with analytical tools to understand variations in the policy-making process and the opportunity to develop their own applications.

EDU 635 Community & Youth Development         3 Credits
This course will support teachers and others with the development of practical strategies and tools to support community-wide efforts to strengthen and support youth today. Advocacy for youth development as well as strategies to support youth from a wide range of backgrounds will be addressed.

EDU 639 Human Relationships & Learning in the Multicultural Environment         3 Credits
Students will explore and experience the impact of interpersonal communication concepts and skills upon the creation and maintenance of positive human relationships. The student will develop a knowledge base of selected cultural groups to acquire the competency to identify basic cultural modalities that have an effect upon the teaching and learning processes. Students will demonstrate the integration of the course content to their own personal values and teaching styles. The student will also demonstrate application of human relationship skills to the educational setting and the community. Prerequisite: EDU 650.

EDU 642 Understanding & Teaching English Language         3 Credits
In this course students will study the structure of the English language in order to better understand the difficulties that arise in learning a second language. English phonology, syntax, analysis, and application of linguistic theory will be studied.

EDU 643 Methods, Materials & Technology for Learning a Second Language           3 Credits
Strategies for English Language Learners in the content areas while maintaining a language development focus will be illustrated. Specific strategies, materials, technology, and learning activities will be examined to support learning.

EDU 644 Child & Family Welfare         3 Credits
This course will examine public policies in place to support children and families in at-risk situations. A focus on the services and programs offered to support families and children as well as the development of protective factors in families will be offered in this course.

EDU 645 Learning & Assessment for the 21st Century          3 Credits
Supporting the measurement of 21st Century Thinking Skills requires assessments that appropriately measure student skills and content knowledge. Such assessments must be meaningful, relevant and supportive of long-term success in the 21st century and be used to monitor student progress, driving instructional decisions to meet the needs of all learners. Using real-world applications, students of EDU 645 will learn how student learning is enhanced through instructional & curricular rigor and alignment of formative and summative assessments. Further, how student measurement data can be used to monitor student progress and make instructional decisions will be explored. (Equivalent to EDU 618.) Prerequisite: EDU 673.

EDU 647 Families, Communities & Diversity         3 Credits
This course will focus on establishing relationships and partnerships within families and community of diverse cultures. Specific strategies in developing programs promoting cultural competence within families and communities will be explored. Students will analyze available family and community resources within their community in promoting and supporting cultural diversity.

EDU 648 Teaching & Learning with Technology          3 Credits
This first course is an overview of the field of educational technology including instructional design, influence of learning theory on technology application as well as the various technologies available and their application to learning.

EDU 649 Technologies for Teaching & Learning          3 Credits
This course focuses on identifying appropriate technologies for teaching and learning. Special attention will be directed in analyzing teaching and learning styles. Identifying and evaluating technologies to meet individual needs will be explored in both educational and corporate environments.

EDU 650 Teaching, Learning & Leading in the 21st Century         3 Credits
This course is designed give students a real world perspective into the what it is like to teach, learn, and lead in the 21st century classroom. This course provides an opportunity for students to experience the world of the classroom and analyze the range of perspectives and topics that impact being a successful teacher, learner, and leader in the 21st century. The course will bring together a unique set of ‘voices’ from the field, to explore the contemporary nature of what it is like to teach in today’s changing schools while focusing on identifying innovations that can develop students’ capacity to be agents of innovation, collaboration, and creativity. (Equivalent to EDU 623.)

EDU 651 Collaboration & Learning in a Virtual Environment         3 Credits
Students will explore teaching and learning in virtual worlds. Project-based design, facilitation, and evaluation of instruction, research, and other resources will be examined. The use of online collaboration for student learning and effective uses of various technologies for social networking will be explored.

EDU 652 Instructional Design & Delivery          3 Credits
This course covers various elements of the instructional design process including needs assessment, instructional problems, learner characteristics, instructional objectives, content sequencing, instructional strategies, and evaluation instruments. Students are expected to learn how to plan, develop, evaluate, and manage the design of effective instructional materials.

EDU 653 Teaching in Higher Education          3 Credits
The course will examine education theories, methods, and strategies for the improvement of instruction in higher education. Emphasis will be placed on the unique challenges of teaching in a changing environment in higher education. Students will explore factors that affect adult learning and the organizational cultures that promote or inhibit learning.

EDU 654 Student Development in Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will examine student development theories from a socio-cultural and psychological developmental perspective. Factors affecting the teaching and learning related to the college environment will be analyzed. Theories of student development and their applications in student affair programs, services, and activities will be reviewed.

EDU 655 Trends & Issues in Instructional Design & Technology for On-line Learning         3 Credits
Students gain the necessary skills and knowledge to design effective instructional materials for use in an on-line learning environment. Powerful innovations that may redefine teaching and learning practices will be explored throughout the course.

EDU 656 Technology Solutions for Just in Time Training & Learning          3 Credits
This course will allow students to develop an understanding of the planning for and application of technology for training that meets institutional and organizational needs. Students will utilize technology to effectively develop a request for proposal plan for training utilizing technology to inform, motivate, and prepare learners.

EDU 657 History & Philosophy of American Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will provide an overview of the historical development and cultural backgrounds of higher education in America. Emphasis will be placed on the major themes and developments in American higher education including the ideologies, people, cultures, and movements that have particularly influenced those developments. Current issues and trends in higher education will be explored.

EDU 658 Instructional Leadership          3 Credits
This course focuses on leadership in the educational or corporate environment to bring about change required to meet learning and training needs. Students will evaluate their personal leadership in their professional environment. Leadership tools to provide increased learning opportunities will be used to design learning experiences and evaluate results.

EDU 659 Testing & Assessment for English Language Learners         3 Credits
Various tools and methodologies for assessing English proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing for both ELL children and adults will be critiqued. Formative and summative assessments will be explored with an emphasis on the application and appropriateness of their use for instructional design.

EDU 662 Curriculum & Assessment in Higher Education         3 Credits
The course will study the relationships between planning and student learning at course, program, and institutional levels. Modes of curriculum design, development and change in higher education will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on examining curricular leadership and assessment strategies. Offered online.

EDU 667 Reading Instruction & Early Intervention          3 Credits
Reviews of various research based reading programs will be examined critically. Evaluation will be based on cost, alignment to standards, and research in regard to program effectiveness. Intervention programs for struggling readers and their role in a traditional school setting will be explored.

EDU 668 Reading Comprehension Across the Curriculum         3 Credits
This course will support teachers and others in working with students to improve reading comprehension across all areas of the curriculum. Research investigations into the brain activity required for reading comprehension will be reviewed. Specific strategies for addressing reading comprehension difficulty will be explored.

EDU 669 The Reading, Writing Connection          3 Credits
This course will emphasize the connection of reading and writing with a focus on the content areas. Students will be exposed to a variety of approaches including vocabulary techniques, comprehension strategies, and study techniques to use with learners. Issues of assessment, motivation, and cultural as well as linguistic diversity will also be addressed.

EDU 671 Fundamentals of Educational Research         3 Credits
This educational research course is designed to teach students how to use digital sources to locate and evaluate research articles and apply that information in a learning environment. Students will also consider ethical aspects of research. Finally, students will evaluate and propose ways to become change agents by effectively applying action research principles to real world educational problems and issues. (Equivalent to EDU 626.) Prerequisite: EDU 620 or EDU 652.

EDU 673 Instructional Strategies for Differentiated Teaching & Learning         3 Credits
During this course, students will learn about and use evidence-based differentiated strategies and materials to meet diverse academic instruction that incorporate the progressive needs of 21st century learners using student’s cultural schemata (i.e., personal experiences, cultural/language norms and family belief systems). Instruction will align with the Common Core State Standards and alternative assessment methods to provide a rich inquiry of learning styles while applying strategies that promote critical thinking and incorporate digital tools and resources. Prerequisite: EDU 650.

EDU 674 Foundations & Trends in Curriculum & Instruction          3 Credits
The course will provide an overview of the foundational pieces necessary for effective design and delivery of curriculum and instruction. Current trends will be compared and contrasted with brain-based research from the field. Emphasis will be placed on processes and procedures for developing both an engaging curriculum and a caring and responsive learning environment.

EDU 675 Change Leadership for the Differentiated Educational Environment         3 Credits
Change Leadership for the Differentiated Educational Environment is designed to ensure that students demonstrate mastery of the MAED program learning outcomes through the continuation of the capstone project. Change Leadership for the Differentiated Educational Environment bridges the learning activities between EDU 671 Fundamentals of Educational Research and EDU 695 MAED Capstone. This course experience is designed to ensure that students continue their exploration of action research principles in which they will seek out and solve an organizational problem within their area of concentration. Topics in this course will be related to implementing change in an organization, evaluating the impact of the applied intervention, communicating outcomes, collaboration, and 21st century leadership practices. Prerequisite: EDU 671.

EDU 676 Curriculum & Instruction Design for Increased Achievement          3 Credits
The course will teach a backward design model for curriculum and instruction that emphasizes clear targets and goals for increased achievement. Curriculum integration and mapping techniques will be examined and implemented as students model the power of collaborative planning and individual reflection. A variety of delivery models will be explored.

EDU 677 Monitoring & Evaluating Curriculum & Instruction through Systems Thinking         3 Credits
The course will define and apply the concepts of differentiated instruction and systems thinking in the development of curriculum and instruction. Processes and procedures for monitoring and evaluating programs will lead to an understanding of the complexity of an effective change process for increased achievement.

EDU 678 Seminar in Curriculum & Instruction for Diverse Needs         3 Credits
The course will simulate the real-world role of the change agent in successful implementation of curriculum and instruction for improved teaching and learning. Students will identify a need, develop an action plan, implement the steps of the plan, and evaluate both individual and organizational achievement that results. Prerequisite: Completion of the previous four Curriculum & Instruction courses or instructor approval.

EDU 679 Technology Solutions for Organizational Improvement          3 Credits
In this course, students will examine theories, organizational learning outcomes, and models of assessment and evaluation that lead to institutional improvement and effectiveness in the use of technology. Students will follow a logic model to conduct a program evaluation and develop a proposal for organizational improvement.

EDU 684 Shared Vision of Learning         3 Credits
Students will learn how to develop a shared vision of student achievement and integrate it into the school plan. By developing and articulating a belief system and shared vision of teaching and learning, students will learn how to link improved teaching strategies to school-wide and district-wide instructional priorities. From this initial building of a shared vision, students will develop a theory of action directed at getting to the shared vision by ensuring that relevant student data are available and examined regularly. Students will learn and apply strategies for guiding, motivating, delegating and building consensus among diverse constituencies in the school and community. The reality is that school leaders must encounter multiple voices in the community and as such, they need to ensure that those voices are part of the consensus building for shared visions of schooling.

EDU 687 Building a Learning-Centered Culture         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide an opportunity for participants to learn how to advocate, nurture, and sustain a school culture and instructional program that is conducive to student learning and staff professional growth in a standards-based system of learning. In this course students will develop an understanding of the rationale for and the components of standards based curriculum and instruction and how they link to students’ learning needs. Students will learn to apply student data to determine policy decisions and leadership actions to improve the instructional program. They will learn to apply site-based teacher-practice data to determine leadership actions to drive professional development and identify student support systems that result in increased student performance. Students will also explore research on diverse learning styles and differentiating instruction for all learners. It is in this course that students learn the power of a system-based approach that builds coherence through a standards-based curriculum and instruction; supervision that supports differentiated instruction in support of accelerating student learning, and the development, implementation, and evaluation of professional development that supports standards-based curriculum and instruction. Prerequisite: EDU 684.

EDU 688 Organizational Management for Student Learning         3 Credits
Students are introduced to safe school environments, data-driven decision-making strategies, practice using various assessment tools and monitoring systems for teaching and learning, and learn district, state, and federal accountability systems. Students will gain an understanding of the legal polices pertaining to classified and certificated personnel. Students will also continue to apply a system-based approach that builds coherence through the alignment of fiscal, human, and material resources to support the learning of all sub-groups of students. Prerequisite: EDU 687.

EDU 689 Personal Ethics & Leadership Capacity         3 Credits
This course develops students' ability to model integrity and justice while learning and applying a variety of decision-making and problem-solving strategies. In this course, students will write a personal code of ethics that includes their moral purpose and belief system for the improvement of teaching and learning. Students will also address issues of equity such as race, language, religions, and sexual harassment. Students will learn ways to inspire and motivate others, and to effectively communicate shared decision-making outcomes to stakeholders. Students will continue to build understanding around the leadership practices that create a learning-centered and trustworthy school community that provides high levels of learning for all students. Prerequisite: EDU 688.

EDU 690 Electronic Summative Portfolio         3 Credits
Using LiveText software, students will begin to create an electronic, professional, portfolio that documents personal and professional growth. Artifacts that parallel INTASC standards will be required for classroom teachers. Corporate trainers will focus on skill-based instruction and outcomes in accordance with the NETS-T standards. This will be an ongoing project through the remainder of the courses within this program and will be finalized in EDU 697.

EDU 692 Creativity, Culture, & Global Contexts in Education Decision Making         3 Credits
This course provides rich opportunities for participants to learn how culture, creativity, and innovation impact teaching and student learning in the 21st century. Participants will adopt a global perspective of teaching and learning to understand how the infusion of 21st century skills impacts curriculum and prepares learners for the challenges associated with living and working in the 21st century. Through scenario-based activities, participants will directly apply skills needed to make informed decisions about the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of culturally relevant instructional practices to support the learning of 21st century skills. Prerequisite: EDU 650.

EDU 695 MAED Capstone         3 Credits
The Capstone is a course in which students will demonstrate their attainment of the program outcomes through a spiraled process of skill demonstration including reflection, application, and evaluation. First, students will reflect on patterns in academic work as well as design and development challenges associated with previous course work so as to take control of one’s professional growth and become a more self-directed learner. Next, students apply the framework of 21st Century teaching and learning to redesign prior MAED activities and then evaluate how 21st Century skills influence program learning outcomes. Last, students will use digital tools to showcase their scholarly artifacts through the creation of a digital portfolio for both course, and professionally related purposes. Prerequisite: EDU 675.

EDU 697 MATLT Capstone:A Project Approach         3 Credits
This Capstone course requires students to synthesize their skills and knowledge acquired throughout the MATLT program. The Capstone project must present a practical application that is appropriate for a professional environment in the students’ chosen field of work, be appropriate for inclusion in a professional portfolio, and incorporate a relevant problem or issue that can be supported through formal research. Furthermore, the project should demonstrate significant content across the spectrum of MATLT courses and promote the accomplishment of professional and personal goals. In addition, students will create a professional brochure highlighting their skills, strengths, and educational preparation.

ELL English Language Learner

ELL 240 Linguistically & Culturally Diverse Learners         3 Credits
This course explores strategies and techniques to support the success of language and culturally diverse students. The values, customs, and communication styles of cultural groups and their implication for teaching are considered. Research-based instructional approaches to developing English learner literacy will be examined.

ELL 242 Understanding & Teaching English Language         3 Credits
In this course students will study the structure of the English language in order to better understand the difficulties that arise in learning a second language. English phonology, syntax, analysis, and application of linguistic theory will be studied.

ELL 351 Listening & Speaking in a Second Language         3 Credits
The stages of language development as well as ideas and strategies to enhance oral language learning and acquisition in the classroom will be applied in this course. Theories and methods of teaching language as communication in oral and aural modes will also be applied.

ELL 353 Reading & Writing in a Second Language         3 Credits
The relationship between first and second language comprehension as well as the reading comprehension and writing connection will be explored in this course. The use of differentiated literacy instruction for English Language Learners will be the central focus.

ELL 354 Grammar in a Second Language         3 Credits
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge of how and why English grammar is necessary for teaching the four language skills, and recognizing and correcting student errors. This course provides students with an overview of English grammar and strategies for implementing grammar instruction. Students will critique lesson plans in terms of best practices, and create their own lesson plans for specific student populations by applying their knowledge of English grammar and language pedagogy.

ELL 355 Methods, Materials, & Technology for Learning a Second Language         3 Credits
Strategies for English Language Learners in the content areas while maintaining a language development focus will be illustrated. Specific strategies, materials, technology, and learning activities will be examined to support learning. (Equivalent to ELL 358.)

ELL 357 English Language Teaching & Adult Learners         3 Credits
Theory and methodology applicable to English language instruction are integrated in the context of working with adults. Materials and methods suitable for working with adult English learners will be explored and evaluated in this course.

ELL 359 Contemporary Issues in English Language Instruction         3 Credits
Historical influences on instructional design in second language education will be explored. National and state standards for all learners and the implication for ELL instruction will be analyzed. Dual language instruction, bilingual education, and the politics of this as contrasted to English Language immersion programs will also be examined.

ELL 361 Language Learning in a Global Context        3 Credits
This course introduces students to the issues surrounding second language learning around the world. Emphasis will be given to educational, civic, business, governmental, and cultural issues.

ELL 420 Testing & Assessment for ELL Students         3 Credits
Various tools and methodologies for assessing English proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing for both ELL children and adults will be critiqued. Formative and summative assessments will be explored with an emphasis on the application and appropriateness of their use for instructional design.

ELL 497 English Language Learner Studies Capstone         3 Credits
This is the capstone course for the English Language Learner Studies major, to be taken at the completion of the major courses. This course provides students with the opportunity to integrate and apply their learning from the course of study for English Language Learner studies in a comprehensive manner and prepare themselves for their future teaching careers. Students will reflect on the work they have produced in their BAELLS courses, develop an understanding of the Teachers of English to Other Language Speakers (TESOL) standards and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards, and develop skills for applying to teaching positions. This course will culminate with an e-portfolio of student work and a comprehensive final project that integrates learning throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ENG English

ENG 121 English Composition I         3 Credits
This course is designed to enable students to develop competence in analyzing, organizing, and developing ideas; to locate and use library resources for supporting ideas; and to adapt one’s writing to various audiences. Instruction and practice in writing and critical reading is a focus in this course.

ENG 122 English Composition II         3 Credits
This course provides instruction and practice in writing effective expository and persuasive essays. The techniques for doing research and writing research papers are explored. Attention is given to the development of library research skills. Prerequisite: Successful completion of ENG 121 or equivalent with a grade of “C-” or better.

ENG 125 Introduction to Literature         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the basic elements of fiction, poetry, and drama. Emphasis is on reading literature to perceive the techniques used in each genre, to understand the basic theoretical approaches to literature, to acquire the vocabulary associated with literary criticism, and to analyze and evaluate literature.

ENG 201 American Literature to 1865         3 Credits
This course will examine American literature from early colonization through 1865, including texts from the colonial, revolutionary, and antebellum periods. The focus will be upon literary analysis and literary movements contextualized by American history and culture. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 202 American Literature After 1865         3 Credits
This course will examine American literature focusing on a selection of works published between 1865 and the present. We will explore the impact of social and cultural transformations on our national literature working through literary movements and paying close attention to the development of ideas about gender, race, region and nation as expressed in fiction, poetry, and drama. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 225 Introduction to Film         3 Credits
This course is designed to help students understand and appreciate movies and film more completely. The course examines the ways in which movies and films are shot, tell stories, develop characters, and depict physical reality. Classes consist of critique and analysis of movies and films.

ENG 303 Survey of Shakespeare         3 Credits
An in-depth study of eight of Shakespeare’s greatest works including significant films of productions. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

ENG 315 Business & Professional Writing         3 Credits
Instruction in the planning, organization, construction, style, and tone of several forms of business and professional correspondence: letters, interoffice communication, resumes, and formal reports. A review of grammar, punctuation, and usage is incorporated into the course. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

ENG 317 International Voices        3 Credits
An introduction to recent international writing in its cultural context. Students read fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and interview, and are introduced to music, art, film, and cuisine of cultures beyond U.S. borders. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents and fulfillment of English Proficiency requirement.

ENG 318 Creative Writing         3 Credits
This course provides writing experiences in fiction, nonfiction, and poetry for students who have a strong interest in creative expression and have some experience in writing in one of these genres. Various aspects of the imaginative process are explored with separate application made to the genres of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. Students write in each genre, participate in workshops with instructors, join with instructors and writing practitioners in critiquing colleagues’ work, and make presentations of their own work. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 321 Introductory Linguistics         3 Credits
This course provides students with an introduction to the principles and methods of linguistic theory. Basic concepts included are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. The developmental stages of language acquisition and the variations of dialect and style observed in spoken and written English are also examined. Students practice applying linguistic theory to explain language-related phenomena encountered in everyday life.

ENG 325 Intermediate Composition         3 Credits
Intermediate Composition is designed for students who have some experience with college-level writing but want to develop their ability to write. The goal of this course is to help students learn techniques for writing effective narrative, reflective, analytical, and research essays. These techniques include the effective use of specific details to engage and persuade readers, methods of organization that enable readers to follow a line of thinking, and strategies for editing sentences for clarity and conciseness. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 328 Scientific & Technical Writing         3 Credits
Students will develop the skills necessary for writing about scientific, environmental, medical, and technological topics. Emphasis is placed on making complex and technical information understandable to a variety of audiences. Prerequisites: ENG 122 and fulfillment of the General Education Science requirement. (Cross-listed as JRN 328.)

ENG 341 Studies in Literary Genres         3 Credits
This course will introduce students to literary genres such as poetry, short fiction, creative non-fiction, drama, and the novel. Students will read, analyze, and write critically about representative selections in the various genres. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 345 British Literature I         3 Credits
This course examines writing by representative British authors in various genres from the Anglo-Saxon period through the mid-eighteenth century. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 346 British Literature II         3 Credits
This course provides a survey of writing by representative British authors in various genres from the Romantic Period to the present. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 350 London Theatre Tour         1 Credit
The course is designed to enable students to appreciate and experience theater in London. Prerequisite: ENG 125 or permission of the instructor.

ENG 353 Evolution & History of the English Language         3 Credits
Where did English come from, how has it evolved into the language that is used today, and why does American English behave differently than, for example, the English spoken in Ireland? Also, in what ways are different languages distinct, and how are they similar? Students will trace the historical origins and influences of the transformation of the English language. Students will also explore the major theories of the evolution of language. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 380 Literary Research         3 Credits
This course is designed to teach the techniques for conducting literary research. Students will focus on particular authors while focusing on the essential skills of literary research. In addition to short critical essays, students will produce a major research paper. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents.

ENG 438 Literary Theory         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and tools to develop an understanding the nature of literature, what functions is has, what the relation of the text is to the author, the reader, to language, to society and to history.

ENG 497 English Capstone         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate mastery of the concepts and methodology in the major by producing a final project that includes extensive research into the selected topic. Prerequisite: ENG 121 and ENG 122 or equivalents and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

ENV Environmental Studies

ENV 100 Introduction to Environmental Studies         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the scientific information and key concepts that underlie the functioning of earth’s systems with emphasis on how these systems are shaped by human activities. Students examine the social, economic, political, ethical, and technical dimensions related to environmental issues and solutions. Topics include population growth, natural environmental cycles, industrialized food systems, air and water pollution, and urbanization.

ENV 230 Concepts of Sustainability         3 Credits

This course is designed to provide a sound understanding of the ecological, technological, economic, political, and ethical dimensions of environmental sustainability. Through the study of selected incidents and current projects, students will examine food systems, transportation, energy, urbanization, rainforests and global climate change, and defend a position in sustainability.

ENV 300 Environmental Biology   nbsp;      3 Credits
A study of biodiversity. The origin and evolutionary history of biodiversity, including the geological forces that shaped its course, will be discussed. This course will be made pertinent through discussions of the impact of human activity on biodiversity and subsequent impact on the human population. Prerequisite: An introductory biology course or SCI 207. (Cross-listed as BIO 300.)

ENV 322 Energy & Environmental Systems         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide knowledge relative to the relationship between energy consumption, energy generation, their related externalities, and conservation in the context of diminishing reserves of fossil fuels and increasing availability of renewable resources. Students will defend a position related to a particular energy source and its effect on the environment.

ENV 325 Environmental Management         3 Credits
This course examines the issues in the urban environment and the interactions between theory and policy relating to urbanization, industrialization and the impact of population growth on the environment.

ENV 326 Ecology & Evolution         3 Credits
This course examines the ecological and evolutionary processes across several levels of organization, including individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Students analyze the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, with an emphasis on natural selection.  The course demonstrates the methods used by ecologists to answer questions about ecological systems including experimental, statistical, theoretical modeling, and visual representations of data.  Prerequisites: ENV 100 and SCI 207.

ENV 330 Environmental Ethics         3 Credits
This course is a study of the ethical dimensions of selected contemporary environmental controversies. Students will examine the major theoretical approaches to environmental ethics, value systems, and specific issues including biodiversity and wilderness preservation.

ENV 333 Environmental Impact         3 Credits
Following the guidelines set by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its subsequent modifications, students will learn the fundamental methods of analysis required for conducting a robust Environment Impact Statement (EIS). Students will learn the fundamental elements of an EIS through the examination of contemporary cases.

ENV 345 Business & the Environment         3 Credits
An environmental economics approach is used to illustrate the impact of the firm on the environment and environmental policy on the firm. Cost-benefits analysis is developed in student-driven research projects. (Cross-listed as BUS 345.)

ENV 350 Conservation Biology         3 Credits
Conservation biology examines the causes and consequences of biodiversity loss, conservation approaches and strategies, and the ecological and evolutionary theory used in these approaches. Students evaluate practices that conserve biological diversity at the gene, population, ecosystem, landscape and global scales. The course incorporates topics in culture, ethics, economics and politics to monitor and protect global biodiversity. Prerequisite: ENV 326.

ENV 495 Environmental Research         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the various stages in the environmental research process. Course design focuses intensely on scientific journal article construction as well as research design, data collection, and statistical analysis.

ENV 497 Environmental Studies Capstone         3 Credits
Students will utilize knowledge gained throughout the program to construct a final Capstone Project focused on the design and implementation of a sustainable community. This Project will allow students to display content area knowledge over all completed courses.

ESE Education Special Ed

ESE 315 Survey of Exceptional Students         3 Credits
An investigation into the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors needed to identify and instruct students with disabilities in varied school settings. Attention will be given to the variety of students that special educators are likely to come into contact with. Students will examine the issues of providing services to identified individuals within and outside school settings. (Cross-listed as PSY 315.)

ESE 370 Learning & the Brain         3 Credits
Teaching and learning issues within a cognitive processes context are explored. This course covers the study of emotion, memory, and recall as well as early brain development and its relationship to learning. (Cross-listed as PSY 370.)

ESE 601 Students with Exceptionalities in the School Setting         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the education of students in the school setting with exceptional needs, specifically those with mild to moderate disabilities, who qualify for services under one or more of the eligibility criteria covered by special education federal laws. Special education key terms and common strategies that influence learning and behavior as well as ethical and legal privacy rights of families of children with disabilities are introduced. Additionally, variations, characteristics, and patterns of individual differences in learning and academic progress are investigated.

ESE 603 Law & Ethics in Special Education         3 Credits
Law & Ethics in Special Education explores the fundamental civil and legal principals and pivotal legislation that contribute to the placement, instruction, service delivery, and privacy issues of those who have a qualifying disability under federal laws. Learners will identify critical issues that may lead to ethical and legal conflicts of interdisciplinary team participants as well as proactive strategies for resolution. Furthermore, the course offers multiple opportunities for analysis of personal biases regarding professional ethics and practice standards. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 610 Assessment & Evaluation of Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
Assessment & Evaluation of Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities provides a comprehensive examination of the assessment and evaluation cycle employed within the special education process. During this course, learners will distinguish the special educator’s role within the multidisciplinary assessment process including how the evaluative data drives the planning and development of an individualized program. Additionally, the mandatory safeguards that assure ethical evaluation and assessment practices do not discriminate on the basis of race, culture, or native language are examined.

ESE 631 Survey of the Exceptional Child         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the education of students with diverse learning abilities and styles, including children with mental retardation, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, those identified as gifted and talented, and those diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder. These and other disabilities and special abilities are explored with a focus on the identification of individual differences in development and learning, and risk factors associated with exceptionalities. Developmental variations and patterns of these exceptionalities are examined along with the educational support strategies, the effects on the family and the rights of children.

ESE 633 Collaborative Relationships & Transition         3 Credits
This course focuses on effective education-based collaboration strategies for special educators who have multiple roles and serve numerous functions when designing and implementing developmentally appropriate and challenging learning experiences for students with a disability. As the special educator job is multifaceted, additional focus is on formulating a team-centered framework that provides academic support for various service delivery models. Additionally, candidates will learn how to effectively collaborate through verbal, written, and digital communication with collaborative transition team members who enable students to meet 21st century standards post-high school completion. Prerequisite: ESE 631.

ESE 634 Education-Based Collaborative Relationships         3 Credits
This course focuses on collaboration strategies for special educators in the school environment who work with other professionals, services providers, and families of students with mild to moderate disabilities. Emphasis is placed on educators who provide academic support for various service delivery models. Communication, teamwork, and strategies for dealing effectively with conflict are emphasized. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 645 Lesson Design for Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
This course explores the methods of effective instructional planning, lesson design, and teaching strategies for students with mild to moderate disabilities. Learners will develop quality differentiated instruction techniques for various student profiles. Additionally, learners will create individualized goals and objectives for students with disabilities. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 656 Positive Behavior Supports in the Classroom         3 Credits
This course introduces the underpinnings of behavior theory and offers real-world strategies for the 21st-century classroom that assist today’s educators in meeting the needs of students with mild to moderate disabilities. Behavior functions and modifications as well as various methods of observation and documentation are emphasized. Diverse cultural and environmental factors contributing to student behavior are also examined. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 665 Instructional Planning for Differentiated Student Needs         3 Credits
Instructional Planning for Differentiated Student Needs addresses how to use evidence-based differentiated strategies and materials that incorporate cultural schemata (e.g., personal experiences, language norms, and family belief systems) to meet the progressive needs of 21st-century education. Students will design instructional materials that align with state standards, investigate assessment methods to address a variety of learning styles, and apply strategies that promote critical thinking and incorporate digital tools and resources. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 668 Evidenced-Based Instructional Methods for Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
In this course, learners will explore multiple aspects of curriculum design and delivery, apply their knowledge of the characteristics of varying disabilities, and create meaningful classroom instruction that aligns with curriculum, standards, and individualized education program goals. Data-driven instruction derived from individualized assessment results will be accessed and applied to instructional methods. Emphasis will be placed on evidence-based instructional strategies including collaboration with service providers to best meet the academic needs of students with mild to moderate disabilities. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 680 Action Research in Special Education         3 Credits
Action Research in Special Education guides students through the process of becoming an effective change agent by applying action research principles to current special education challenges and issues. Students will locate and evaluate research articles for scholarship, relevancy, and ethical neutrality. The topics covered during this course include implementing change in an education-based organization, evaluating the impact of the applied intervention, communicating outcomes, collaboration, and 21st-century leadership practices. Prerequisite: ESE 601.

ESE 684 Instructional Methods for Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
This course will cover critical issues and specific methods and materials relating to the instruction of students with a varying range of needs. Class sessions will focus on students with mild disabilities and implementation and evaluation activities. Major emphasis will also be on the framework for appropriate instruction for students in light of their learning stages, the nature of the learner, and the content. Additional topics include: service delivery systems, roles of teachers and ancillary personnel, legal requirements, and major issues confronting the field of special education.

ESE 688 Diagnosis & Evaluation of Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities         3 Credits
The student will become familiar with the basic concepts and procedures relating to assessment in special education. Norm-referenced, achievement, diagnostic, informal, curriculum-based, intellectual, and adaptive assessment will be covered. Interpretation will be stressed. Application of course principles will be provided in one or more student-conducted testing situations.

ESE 691 Behavior Management in the Classroom         3 Credits
This course provides strategies for changing inappropriate behaviors and prompting the acquisition of adaptive behaviors through positive management procedures. Designed to provide the teacher practical “how to” skills in classroom management, modification of behavior, and other management skills directed toward establishing an environment of learning. Prerequisite: ESE 631.

ESE 697 Characteristics of Students with Mild & Moderate Disabilities & Evidenced-Based Strategies for Instruction         3 Credits
This course investigates the characteristics of students with mild and moderate, high-incidence disabilities (LD, EBD, ID), as well as the most effective strategies for teaching students with these disabilities. The central focus of the course is to design quality instruction to meet the needs of a range of learners in an inclusive classroom, as well as to leverage effective approaches and strategies to teaching and assessing students with disabilities. Prerequisite: ESE 631. (Equivalent to ESE 695.)

ESE 699 Applied Capstone Project         3 Credits
The Master of Arts in Special Education capstone course requires learners to demonstrate their mastery of the program learning outcomes through a spiraled process of reflection, application, and evaluation. Each week learners will highlight their academic and professional growth by leveraging 21st-century teaching and learning strategies that have been acquired throughout the graduate program. The culmination of this iterative learning process is the students' creation of an electronic portfolio that synthesizes their scholarship and is used as the final course evaluation instrument.

EXP Freshman Experience

EXP 105 Personal Dimensions of Education         3 Credits
This course is designed to help adult learners beginning their university studies to achieve academic success. Students will explore learning theories, communication strategies, and personal management skills. Adult learners will develop strategies for achieving success in school and work. Students will also be introduced to the University’s institutional outcomes and learning resources. Successful completion with a “C-” or better or equivalent is required.

EXP 200 Fundamentals of Adult Learning         3 Credits
This course presents adult and experiential learning theories and applies them to the student’s life and experiences. Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning will be examined and used to analyze prior learning experiences. Students will investigate the roles of reflection and metacognition in the learning process. Guidance and practice will be given in developing an experiential essay structure that will plausibly demonstrate college-level experiential learning outcomes. The experiential essay written in the course can be submitted to the Prior Learning Assessment Center at the completion of the course for a potential of three additional credits.

GEN General Education

GEN 102 Digital Literacy for Life & the Workplace         3 Credits
This course offers an overview of digital literacy as it applies to personal, academic, financial, and professional success. Students will analyze the impact of digital technology on personal and social communication to develop digital literacy skills that will assist in achieving academic and career goals. An overview of financial literacy in the digital age is introduced with practical strategies for application in personal and professional life.

GEN 103 Information Literacy         3 Credits
This course will provide a foundation in information literacy skills. Students will learn distinct research methods for various types of questions as well as develop methods to evaluate resources based on authorship, authority, credibility, information type, currency, and purpose. A focus on the use and acknowledgement of resources will provide students with a ground for future ethical research. The course will emphasize the use of academic research and organization tools with a focus on applying those methods to make informed choices and think critically about various sources of information.

GEN 499 General Education Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides students with a cumulative and integrative learning experience grounded in their general education experience. Through the study of selected interdisciplinary topics and course-embedded assessments students will demonstrate mastery of essential competencies and application of different ways of knowing. Students will apply the general education principles informed by ethical and critical sensibility and provide evidence of growth in acquiring the habits of active citizenship. A minimum grade of “C – “ is required to meet course requirements. Prerequisite: 75 credits or permission of the student’s school or college dean. 

GEO Geography

GEO 308 Geographic Information Systems         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software that is widely used to conduct spatial analysis in the areas of environmental science, defense and intelligence, emergency response, business, education, government, health and human services, public safety, transportation, and utilities and communication. Students will learn the ArcGIS system and become experienced in the analysis of spatially related data and the digitized map system. Note: The software used in this course has specific computer requirements including, Windows 8 Operating System, 2.2 GHZ minimum speed, and 2GB minimum Memory/ RAM.

GRO Gerontology

GRO 200 Introduction to Gerontology         3 Credits
This course will provide an introduction to aging and an overview of the field of gerontology. The major concepts, theories and principles of gerontology will be introduced. Students will explore ageism in the United States, current demographic trends in our society, old age as a stage of lifespan development, health and healthcare concerns of older persons, issues of work, retirement, housing and economics, family relationships and social support, quality of life, and political issues of an aging society. Concepts, practices and other issues of aging will be explored.

GRO 202 Psychology of Aging         3 Credits
This course covers normal aging from a cognitive perspective as well as various forms of dementia, including signs and symptoms, risk factors, and neuropathology. Students learn about cognitive changes that occur with normal aging as well as risk factors for transient cognitive impairments. Alzheimer’s disease is discussed in detail as well as non-Alzheimer’s forms of dementia, including frontotemporal dementia syndromes, Parkinson’s disease dementia, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, and Creutzfeld Jakob disease. The course also includes a section on evidence-based factors related to successful aging and the future of aging research.

GRO 320 Adult Development & Aging         3 Credits
This multi-disciplinary course presents views, perspectives, and research on aging and the aging process with emphasis on the life-span perspective. Current research and theory covering psychological, sociological, anatomical, physiological, and biological aspects of aging are explored.

GRO 325 Aging & Health         3 Credits
This course examines the interface between health and aging. A broad range of health concerns and issues of older persons are explored from physical, mental, and emotional perspectives.

GRO 330 Social Policy & Aging         3 Credits
This course explores the context and process for policy making impacting older adults in the United States. Topics covered include elder advocacy, retirement, inequities in access and procurement of services, employment, Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, delivery and regulation of health care, elder abuse, and social/community services.

GRO 338 Mental Well-Being & Aging         3 Credits
This course explores models of mental health for older adults. The content examines mental well- being in older adults from both the individual (micro level) and societal perspectives (macro level.)

GRO 410 Death & Dying         3 Credits
This multi-disciplinary course offers an overview of psychosocial aspects of death and dying. Topics include attitudes toward death, preparation for death, care of terminally ill patients, funeral issues, mourning, grief practices, suicide, and euthanasia.

GRO 440 Ethics & Legal Aspects of Aging         3 Credits
This course explores major ethical and legal issues impacting older adults and the provision of services to this population. Case studies and court decisions are incorporated throughout the course to address legal and ethical considerations/issues from social, cultural, and individual perspectives.

GRO 497 Gerontology Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of gerontology. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HCA Health Care Administration

HCA 205 Introduction to Health Care         3 Credits
This is an introductory course that explores the historical evolution of health care in the United States, its financing sources, technology, delivery of care and the stakeholders who comprise the health care system. The structure of the health care system, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, better known as Obamacare, will be discussed along with the various components that influence health care such as legal, ethical, regulatory, and fiscal forces. Students will also explore other health care systems and examine the potential future of health care in the United States. 

HCA 281 Accounting Concepts for Health Care Professionals         3 Credits
This course is designed as an applied managerial and financial accounting course, designed to provide health care decision-makers with fundamental concepts of health care accounting practices and procedures. Prerequisites: Successful completion of Mathematical and Information Technology competencies. (Cross-listed as ACC 281.)

HCA 305 The U.S. Health Care System         3 Credits
This is an introductory course that explores the historical origins, foundations, values, and resources of the U. S. Health Care System. Other national health care systems are discussed in a comparative discourse with that of the United States. Throughout the course, the health care service component is integrated with market place, legal, ethical, regulatory, and financial factors as forces influencing the continued evolution of the U.S. Health Care System and the resulting opportunities.

HCA 312 Health Care Finance         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to health care’s fundamental financing concepts. The interaction of funding resources among government agencies and the private sector in the funding of health services is explored. Political and social policies contributing to the demand for health services are discussed. Cost control strategies such as managed care, fee for service and specified contractual arrangements provide the foundation for analyzing health care financing. Health services financing and disbursement systems are presented across the domains of for-profit, non-profit, public, grant funding and managed care. Focused attention is given to discussion of government financing of health services including, Medicare, Medicaid, and specific entities such as veterans administration and other categorical funding. Prerequisites: HCA 281 and HCA 305 or HCA 205.

HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law         3 Credits
This course presents the ethical and legal implications of health care administration. The unique legal aspects encountered in the provision of health services are analyzed. Concepts of access, affordability, health care interventions and human rights are interfaced with legal and ethical issues challenging the provision of health care services. Concepts of risk management, continuous quality assurance, guardianship, Institutional Review Boards, and needs of special and diverse populations provide discussion points in the course. The overlapping domains of ethics and medical law are examined. Case studies and discussion of ethical and legal precedent setting decisions are used to link theory with reality. Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205. (Cross-listed as NUR 322).

HCA 331 Introduction to Health Education         3 Credits
This course is a foundational course designed to provide an introduction to health education and the health education profession. Health educators are often responsible for developing and implementing health education programs that aim to improve the quality of life of individuals and communities. The roles, responsibilities, skills, settings, and professional networks of health educators will be reviewed in this course.

HCA 333 Introduction to Long-Term Care         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the long-term service delivery continuum. Course topics include: the concept of patient-family-centered services, introduction to theories of adult development and aging, modalities of the long term care delivery system, organizational culture, introduction to regulatory agencies, financial resources, and assurance of quality.

HCA 340 Managing in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
An upper-level management course providing basic management theory for the beginning manager. Management challenges, human service environments, management theories, organizational design, program planning and implementing supervisory relations, managing finances program evaluation, leadership theories and teams in organizations are explored. Prerequisite: HCA 305 or HCA 205. (Cross-listed as SOC 340.)

HCA 352 Legal & Ethical Aspects of Health Information Management         3 Credits
This course explores the major legal and ethical issues central to the implementation, application, and utilization of health information across the spectrum of health care settings. Key topics include liability, confidentiality, risk, quality, and utilization management. In addition, the legal and ethical ramifications of federal legislative mandates pertaining to health information management are reviewed. Case studies are utilized throughout the course to help students apply course concepts.

HCA 375 Continuous Quality Monitoring & Accreditation         3 Credits
This course provides a foundational exploration of the concepts of health care accreditation and continuous quality monitoring. The concept of quality assurance is explored from a perspective of selected accreditation, regulatory, licensing and certification programs. The interface of accreditation and reimbursement is explored. Health information systems are used in the analysis of health care accreditation, government mandates, and regulatory activities as they impact consumer outcomes. Legal implications of quality monitoring are analyzed. Social, political, professional and organizational influences upon health services delivery are explored from a perspective of demand, special populations, financing and service delivery.

HCA 401 Introduction to Health Care Informatics         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of health care informatics including basic vocabulary, concepts, technology, uses and practices. The history, background, and development of health care informatics are presented, as well as academic, private, and government influences.

HCA 415 Community & Public Health         3 Credits
This introductory course explores community and public health services in the well-being of a population. Regulatory mandates promoting public and community health are explored. The interface among community and public health services and the overall health care industry is explored. Legal and ethical imperatives emergent in public health services are discussed. Financing options are explored recognizing the role of categorical fiscal resources. Health care promotion and prevention strategies are explored in concert with the role of health care institutions and the public sector. Health information data is utilized in the planning of a community and/or public health project. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework.

HCA 417 Electronic Health Records         3 Credits
This course begins with an exploration of the evolution of electronic health records (EHRs,) and then delves into the current forces driving the adoption of electronic health records. The components of EHR’s are reviewed and the core functionalities of the EHR are examined. Major consideration is given to HIPAA and confidentiality regulatory requirements in terms of EHR management. In addition, the different methods of data capture and recording of data are reviewed, as well as a comparison of contents for an inpatient versus an outpatient EHR.

HCA 419 Current Topics in Informatics         3 Credits
This course examines trends and emerging technologies involved in health care delivery and information systems/technology management within diverse health care settings. Content includes the following health care applications: process improvement and innovation for computerized provider order entry (CPOE,) telemedicine, imaging systems, bio-surveillance, genomics, bioinformatics (methods used to process data from biological experiments,) robotic surgery, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, ethical and legal considerations /aspects related to the use of computerized technology and information systems in the delivery of health care are reviewed.

HCA 421 Health Care Planning & Evaluation        3 Credits
This course utilizes health care research data, research protocols, and information systems in the planning, implementation and evaluation of health care programs meeting the health care needs of a diverse population. Historical perspectives are discussed in tandem with current health programs and future challenges. The impact of public entities in controlling the demand aspects of health services is discussed in light of regulatory legislation. Planning strategies to meet the needs of a diverse population are explored from both the public and private sector. Discussion of the efficacy and efficiencies of past and current programs provide opportunities for analysis of past and on-going service demand and client outcomes. Development of a health care model applying the concepts of reimbursement, supply and demand, contractual adjustments and patient mix in to the planning and evaluation process. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework.

HCA 430 Special Populations         3 Credits
This is a topics course that explores health care services for special populations. The populations include: mental health, substance addiction, rehabilitation, geriatrics and selected specialty services. The course is problem focused emphasizing access, cost-quality issues and financing considerations. Health information data is utilized as resources for the analysis of demand, quality and cost-efficiency. Historical perspectives are presented as shaping factors influencing the present models of health services for special populations. Government mandates, categorical services, legal, ethical, and reimbursement issues are presented as driving forces in the provision of special population health services. Multidisciplinary models of special population health service models are discussed. Learners will develop a model program for a self-selected special population. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the majority of major coursework.

HCA 435 Informatics Applications         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health informatics. Students will learn about the construction and utilization of health care data sets; the use of computerized statistical packages in health care; and the role of health informatics in financial and performance improvement goals. The student will apply common performance improvement models and tools to develop data-driven organizational reports.

HCA 442 Contemporary Issues in Aging         3 Credits
This course presents significant major interdisciplinary aging issues and controversies drawn from biological sciences, medicine, nursing, psychology, sociology, gerontology, public policy, and social work. With an emphasis on critical thinking, divergent views and perspectives of aging phenomenology are explored through the reading and research of selected articles and reports covering current topical content.

HCA 444 Long-Term Care:The Consumer Perspective         3 Credits
This course examines the role and impact consumers have in long-term care decision making and provision of care. Factors and challenges influencing consumer choices are explored within the context of long-term care improvement in both institutional and community settings. Current topical issues such as customer/provider relationships and quality of care are overviewed in this course.

HCA 459 Senior Project         3 Credits
This course provides the learner a format for the integration health care concepts, exploring a self-selected health care topic. The Senior Project may be: 1) problem focused in which the learner identifies a health care problem or issue and conducts research on the topic culminating in a proposed solution; or 2) an observational research project on a self-selected health care topic. Pre- or Co-requisites: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course and majority of major coursework.

HCA 496 Health Informatics Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, theories, and concepts gained from the study of health informatics. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HCA 497 Health Care Studies Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course students will demonstrate their mastery of program outcomes by reflecting on and synthesizing insights gained from their studies. This will take the form of a focused study of a significant trend or problem in contemporary health care. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HCS Health Care Studies

HCS 308 Introduction to Nutritional Concepts         3 Credits
This introductory course provides an overview of the basic principles of nutrition including the basic functions, needs, and sources of micro and macronutrients. Students apply nutrition principles to personal needs, as well as needs of individuals across the lifespan. Nutrition controversies are explored in addition to learning about the anatomical and physiological impacts of inadequate/improper nutrition practices and the risk for disease. Note: This course is designed for students with no previous and/or a limited science background. Prerequisite: HWE 200.

HCS 311 Health & Wellness in Adulthood         3 Credits
This course provides students with a holistic overview of the multi-faceted dimensions of health and wellness in adulthood. Physical, social, intellectual, emotional occupational, spiritual, and environmental elements of health are explored within the context of a wellness lifestyle.

HCS 316 Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness         3 Credits
This course explores the complexities and dimensions of health and illness through diverse cultural perspectives. Traditional health beliefs and practices among selected populations are presented along with the influences of social, political, and demographic changes impacting issues and perceptions of health and illness in a multi-cultural society.

HCS 321 Foundations of Complementary & Alternative Health         3 Credits
This course introduces students to basic definitions and classifications of non-allopathic complementary and alternative health systems. Content includes the history and development of practices, practitioner nomenclature, and cultural influences of the major systems of Complementary and Alternative Medicine used today.

HCS 323 Health & Wellness Promotion Throughout the Lifespan         3 Credits
This course provides students with a holistic overview of the multi-faceted dimensions of health and wellness across the lifespan. The seven dimensions of health: Physical, social, intellectual, emotional, occupational, spiritual, and environmental are explored within the context of a wellness lifestyle.

HCS 326 Holistic Health         3 Credits
This course examines health in relation to living a balanced life and the synergism of mind, body, and spirit, rather than approaching its study solely from the conventional Western or allopathic perspective. Divided into three major themes, the course investigates the principles of strengthening your inner resources, developing healthy lifestyle practices, and taking charge of challenges to the body, mind, and spirit.

HCS 334 Personal Fitness & Wellness for Optimal Living         3 Credits
Students will compare their own physical activity habits to national guidelines and explore the benefits of physical activity as well as the consequences of physical inactivity. Written assignments, case studies, and discussion forums provide students with an opportunity to design exercise and wellness plans for themselves and potential clients. Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 200.

HCS 339 Introduction to Western Herbalism; Basic Doctrine, Energetics and Classifications         3 credits
This course explores fundamental constructs of Western Herbalism. Its focus is in providing the student a framework from which herbs can be conceptualized as entities with energetic and practical signatures. Consequently, herbs will be presented and appreciated from various and eclectic points of view which describes their characteristics and actions for their application in various body tissue conditions. The course will also cover qualitative descriptions (constitutions) that are tied to the human organism, appreciation of therapeutic laws, and classification of medicinal plants. Prerequisites: HCS 321 and HCS 326.

HCS 408 Methods of Community Health Promotion         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the professional scope of entry-level health educator responsibilities. Students gain knowledge of organizational concepts, processes, skills, attitudes, and personal characteristics comprising the field of health education. The course content explores the theoretical and practical issues of the field of community health that enable students to identify and apply health education principles to health challenges facing individuals, groups, and communities.

HCS 412 Health Promotion Planning & Evaluation         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the practical and theoretical elements of health promotion program planning, implementation, and evaluation in a variety of settings. Students explore models and theories used in planning health and wellness promotion campaigns/interventions and how findings of program evaluation can be utilized and applied.

HCS 435 Spirituality, Health, & Healing         3 Credits
This course explores the connections between spirituality, culture, health, and healing. Students examine spiritual rituals and practices from multi-cultural perspectives, in addition to examining elements of spiritual care in a variety of health settings and contexts.

HCS 445 Statistics for Health Sciences         3 Credits
This course provides a practical introduction to statistical methods used in a variety of health research. Topics include descriptive statistics, the standard normal distribution, z-scores, t-tests, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and non-parametric tests. Students perform statistical analyses of health data and interpret results. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency.

HCS 495 Complementary & Alternative Health Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of complementary and alternative health. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HCS 497 Health Education Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health education. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HCS 498 Health & Wellness Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health and wellness. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HHS Health and Human Services

HHS 201 Introduction to Human Services         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the profession of health and human services beginning with the historical evolution of the field and continuing up to modern day. A broad-based view of the purpose, preparation, and theoretical orientation of the profession is stressed including the many types and career settings of human service professions, scope of work, and duties and functions. Basic skills required by health and human service workers are reviewed, in addition to the roles of human service workers in both clinical and non-clinical settings. An introductory examination of orientations, ethics, and skills related to health and human service delivery in diverse practice settings is included.

HHS 207 Communication Skills for Health & Human Service Personnel         3 Credits
This course emphasizes theories and practice of professional communication skills within the context of health and human services. Students will examine classical approaches and new theories and research in interpersonal, and group communication. Active listening, empathy interviewing, nonverbal communication, and presentation skills are stressed. The impact of family, culture, and gender on communication is integrated through communication exercises and class projects. In this class, students will also have an opportunity to examine the practical implications of these concepts in developing their own communication skills through application of selected communication techniques and strategies.

HHS 310 Health & Human Services Culture:The Helping Relationship         3 Credits
This course examines the role and function of “helping,” and helping processes as applied within the context of the health and human service profession. Helper characteristics are considered, relative to optimizing service delivery in diverse health and human service settings serving a multitude of constituents/client groups. Helping strategies and interventions, with attention to principles, methodology, practitioner skills and knowledge are overviewed. Interpretive strategies such as case study analysis, and vignette analysis are used to simulate health and human service settings.

HHS 320 Cultural Awareness in the Human Services         3 Credits
This course prepares students to understand cultural systems, and the nature of cultural identity defined by gender, ethnicity, race, national origin, sexual orientation, income, physical and mental ability, age, and religion. Emphasis is placed on defining and developing skills for the culturally competent delivery of health and human services.

HHS 435 Contemporary Issues, Trends, Health Law Ethics in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
Health and human service delivery practices are discussed using contemporary issues, trends, legal aspects, and ethics in an integrated approach. Health laws, ethics, and professional conduct standards including boundary- setting and confidentiality requirements are covered. Professional roles, functions, and legal/ethical responsibilities of health and human service professionals are overviewed using standards published by selected professional organizations.

HHS 440 Technology in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
This course is a survey of the application and integration of technology within the health and human services sector. Informatics issues such as privacy, access, and security are presented. Legal ramifications, professional ethics, and maintaining confidentiality of the client are explored within the emerging technological context.

HHS 460 Research Methods in Health & Human Services         3 Credits
This course is a survey course encompassing the application of research methodology. It prepares students to critically evaluate published research. The nature and history of the scientific method, research tools, data collection and analysis will be reviewed. Although key statistical concepts are covered, the focus of the course is helping students gain a conceptual understanding of the components of sound research, and to understand the steps and procedures involved in ethical research of the content area.

HHS 497 Health & Human Services Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course, students will reflect upon and synthesize the major insights gained in their study of Health and Human Services. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout their program. The focus is on a strategic health and human services topic that is directly related to access and delivery of services to a selected client group. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HIM Health Information Management

HIM 105 Medical Terminology       3 Credits
This course is the study of medical language and includes the building blocks of prefixes, suffixes and root words, definitions, pronunciations, basic medical terms, and common laboratory tests, diagnostic tests and procedures by body system.

HIM 205 Anatomy and Physiology for HIM I        4 Credits
This course is part one of a two-part course that is the study of anatomy, the structure of the body and how the body is organized and physiology, the function and vital processes of the various structures making up the human body. This course includes an overview of the human body, basic chemistry of the body, cell and tissue structures, integumentary, skeletal, and muscular and nervous system.

HIM 206 Anatomy & Physiology for HIM II        3 Credits
This course is part two of a two-part course that is the study of anatomy, the structure of the body and how the body is organized and physiology, the function and vital processes of the various structures making up the human body. This course includes an overview of the endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic & immune, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems. Prerequisite: HIM 205.

HIM 210 Pathophysiology        3 Credits
This course is the study of common human diseases, disorders and conditions. In the course, students will learn the description, symptoms and signs, diagnostic tests, etiology, and treatment for common diseases, disorders and conditions. In addition, the students will learn about the associated drug class for specific diseases, disorders or conditions. Prerequisite: HIM 105, HIM 205, and HIM 206.

HIM 217 Electronic Health Records        3 Credits
In this course, students will learn about the structure, capture, use, storage and retrieval of health information in paper, hybrid and electronic formats. Students will learn about Electronic Health Record (E H R) project management including scope, goals, strategic planning, workflow analysis, functional needs assessment and implementation. Students will learn about the financial aspects of the E H R as well as the E H R from a consumer and a nationwide health information network perspective. Prerequisite: Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management majors only. Students not enrolled in this major are encouraged to take HCA 417.

HIM 250 Clinical Classifications Systems I        3 Credits
This course is part I of a two-part course that introduces students to applications for clinical classification and coding. Students will learn about the development of classification systems, use of the health record for coding and the relationship between coding and reimbursement. In particular, the students will learn the guidelines for diagnosis coding and organizational structure for provider billing. Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, and HIM 217.

HIM 251 Clinical Classification Systems II        3 Credits
This course is part II of a two-part course that introduces students to applications for clinical classification and coding. Students will compare and contrast various processes, policies, and procedures to ensure the accuracy of coded data and demonstrate their understanding of diagnosis and procedure coding systems through practical application. Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, HIM 210, HIM 217, and HIM 250.

HIM 252 Legal Aspects of Health Information        3 Credits
This course explores the major legal and ethical issues central to the implementation, application, and utilization of health information across the spectrum of health care settings. Key topics include liability, confidentiality, the legal and ethical ramifications of federal legislative mandates pertaining to health information management and informatics. Prerequisite: HIM 217.

HIM 301 Introduction to Health Informatics         3 Credits
This foundational course details the history and factors driving the emergence of health informatics.   In addition to emphasizing the concepts, terminologies and scope of health informatics, the course delves into health information exchanges, data standards, health informatics ethics, online resources and E-research. The course includes an overview of basic database architecture, design and file structure, and data warehousing and data mining in health care.

HIM 310 Healthcare Reimbursement         3 Credits
This course reviews healthcare reimbursement methodologies, government and voluntary healthcare insurance plans, and inpatient and outpatient reimbursement systems. Students will learn about the revenue cycle, audit processes and compliance strategies. Prerequisite: HCA 205.

HIM 360 Healthcare Statistics      3 Credits
This course introduces the student to the generation and analysis of common healthcare statistics, state and national reporting of information and departmental performance standards. Students will learn how to construct and analyze various tables and charts related to healthcare. Prerequisites: HIM 217 and General Education Mathematical competency.

HIM 370 Professional Practice Experience I        3 Credits
This course focuses on the technical application of concepts introduced in other program courses and explores similarities and differences with various healthcare providers. Students will demonstrate their ability to apply knowledge, analyze situations and create solutions in various healthcare scenarios. Prerequisites: HIM 105, HIM 205, HIM 206, HIM 250, HIM 251, HCA 205, HIM 310, HIM 217, HIM 252, HIM 210, and HIM 360. This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution.

HIM 410 Health Informatics – A Systems Perspective          3 Credits
This course focuses on the behind the scenes components of exchange, standards and interoperability of information in healthcare. The course will evaluate informatics-based support resources to include evidence based practice, clinical decision support and transport protocols. Prerequisite: HIM 301.

HIM 420 Health Information Governance & Strategic Planning          3 Credits
This course addresses key components of healthcare information systems and operational effectiveness. Students will analyze the strategic alignment of health information technology, including the evolution of healthcare information systems and data governance. Students will evaluate health information architecture and infrastructure, applications and service management, and administrative and financial systems. Foundational information on the transition of data into knowledge, value analysis, and information management strategic planning is provided. Prerequisite: HIM 301.

HIM 435 Analyzing Healthcare Data         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health informatics. Students will learn about the construction and utilization of health care data sets; the use of computerized statistical packages in health care; and the role of health informatics in financial and performance improvement goals. The student will apply common performance improvement models and tools to develop data-driven organizational reports. Prerequisite: HIM 301.

HIM 440 Health Informatics Research Methods and Data Analysis        3 Credits
This course explores in depth the relationship of research and informatics, research methods, the research process and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of data, including descriptive and inferential statistics. Students will explore the role of epidemiology in research and policy development. Prerequisites: Successful completion of Mathematical competency and HIM 360.

HIM 445 Healthcare Project Management        3 Credits
This course explores principles of project management to improve quality and decrease cost in healthcare. While addressing the intersection of healthcare and information technology, students will learn about the project process and related tools and techniques to successfully plan, execute, control and assess a project. Prerequisite: HIM 301.

HIM 450 Healthcare Management        3 Credits
This course focuses on key management principles in healthcare management and unique Health Information Management activities. Students will learn about organizational structure, the planning and decision making process, budgeting, committee and team dynamics, staff hiring and development and key indicators of department performance. Prerequisites: HCA 375 and HIM 360. This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution.

HIM 495 Professional Practice Experience II        3 Credits
This course is a combination of virtual activities and a supervised management experience in a healthcare setting. Students complete 40 hours in a professional work environment demonstrating mastery in their knowledge, application, analysis and synthesis of key Health Informatics and Health Information Management concepts. Prerequisite: Completion of BSHIM program core courses. This course must be taken at Ashford University and may not be transferred from another institution.

HIS History

HIS 103 World Civilizations I         3 Credits
This course is a study of the origins and development of the world’s major civilizations from their beginnings through the seventeenth century. Emphasis is placed on the salient socio-economic, political and religious characters of the civilization and the patterns of interaction among them. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122.

HIS 104 World Civilizations II         3 Credits
This course is a study of the development and interaction of the world’s major civilizations from the seventeenth century to the present. Emphasis is placed on the rise and decline of European global dominance. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122.

HIS 205 United States History I         3 Credits
American history from the beginnings of European settlement through the Civil War. Emphasis is placed on the colonial sources of American nationality, the development of American political institutions, the evolution of American society, and the sectional crisis of the mid-nineteenth century. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122.

HIS 206 United States History II         3 Credits
This course surveys American history from Reconstruction to the present. Emphasis is placed on the growing pluralism of American society, the effects of industrialization, the evolution of American political institutions, and the increasing importance of the United States in world affairs. Recommended prerequisite: ENG 122.

HIS 306 Twentieth-Century Europe         3 Credits
The history of Europe since 1900. Emphasis is placed on the changing nature of European society, the confrontation between totalitarianism and democracy, the origins and consequences of the two world wars, and Europe’s evolving role in world affairs. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor, successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 310 American Women’s History         3 Credits
By examining a wide range of sources, from first person accounts to interpretive essays, this course explores changes and continuities in women’s lives since the earliest days of the Republic. Students will work to understand the forces motivating change, including the various women’s movements that have arisen over the years. Underlying the course will be the question of how traditional interpretations of American history are altered by the incorporation of women’s history. (Offered every other year.) Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 311 Gender in History         3 Credits
This course examines the changing roles and relationships of individuals and groups within specific historical contexts in an exploration of gender’s centrality to the study of the past. Students will assess gender as a category of socially constructed difference that reveals the complexity of peoples’ experiences as historical actors. Starting from a broad discussion of gender history and theory, the course moves chronologically and geographically through major themes including the family, economic life, ideals and laws, religion, political life, education and culture, and sexuality. Within each topical area, emphasis is placed on the ways that gender is integral to other relations of power, which have affected human lives in multiple ways over time and place. Prerequisite: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 324 History of American Education         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of sentinel events, theories, and important historical figures that have shaped the United States education system. (Cross-listed as EDU 324.)

HIS 331 World War II         3 Credits
A study of the causes, course, and consequences of World War II. Topics covered include the war’s major campaigns, its impact on the societies of the nations involved, the Holocaust, and the war’s influence in shaping the contemporary world. Through readings in various primary and secondary sources, students will also develop an understanding of how historians reconstruct and interpret the past. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 340 Recent American History         3 Credits
This course will examine the foreign policy, political, cultural and social developments in the United States in the years after World War II. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 342 The Middle East         3 Credits
This course is intended to introduce students to the complex history of the Middle East, focusing on the development of the core region in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  Among the most important topics we will discuss are the organization of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, the nature and influence of the region’s relationship with Western countries, the impact of the discovery of oil in the region, the causes and course of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the rise of nationalisms and Islamist movements, and the Arab uprisings of 2010-2011. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 351 Asia in the Age of Decolonization & Globalization         3 Credits
Covering major developments in Asia since the early twentieth century, this course focuses on China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. The course traces the rise of Asian nationalism, the decline of western imperialism, and the region’s rise to economic prominence. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency. Offered online.

HIS 355 Decolonization in Asia, Africa, and the Americas        3 Credits
In this course, students will investigate the end of Western imperialism and the decolonization process within Asia, Africa, and the Americas via comparative analysis. Emphasis is placed on the legacy of imperialism in modern society, different nationalistic movements driving decolonization, the impact of decolonization on society and culture, the relationship between formerly colonized nations and their colonizers, and the impact of globalization in the post-colonial world. Prerequisites: HIS 104 and English Proficiency. Suggested Prerequisite: HIS 378

HIS 378 Historiography & Historical Methodologies         3 Credits
This course provides students with an introduction to the practice of the discipline of history. It provides them with an overview of the ways historians have approached the study of the past since classical antiquity, acquaints them with the major approaches that characterize the discipline today, and equips them to use appropriate practices in historical research and writing. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 379 The Atlantic World         3 Credits
The history of the Atlantic basin from the late fifteenth century through the early nineteenth, including the interactions of Africans, Europeans, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the societies their interactions produced. Themes covered include the Columbian exchange, migrations (forced and voluntary), empire-building, strategies of resistance, identity formation, and the transatlantic dimensions of the American and French Revolutions. Recommended prerequisite: HIS 378. Prerequisites: Successful completion of General Education History Subject Area and English Proficiency.

HIS 388 Destination Course: Literary & Historical Developments in 19th Century England         3 Credits
A course designed to include an extended travel component that provides an experiential encounter with historical or contemporary aspects of the course content. The “destination course methodology” may be applied to an existing course or to special courses. Destination courses may be offered in classroom or online modalities. Students may receive credit for General Education History requirement. (Equivalent to ENG 388 and TVL 311)

HIS 497 History Capstone:Advanced Research Project         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate their mastery of the learning outcomes of the history major by demonstrating the ability to conduct historical research using primary and secondary sources and by producing an original research paper on an approved topic. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course and all History coursework.

HMC Health Marketing and Communication

HMC 303 Health Communications         3 Credits
Utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach, this course provides an introduction to the field of health communications, and explores how communications are utilized to influence and motivate individuals, institutional, government, and public audiences about important health issues and interventions. Students examine processes for creating clear, accurate, and appropriate health communications for a variety of target audiences. Case studies of health campaigns are integrated into the course.

HMC 312 Health Marketing & Advertising         3 Credits
Students are introduced to the essential concepts, methods, and models of marketing and advertising as applied to health care and health- related settings. Marketing concepts presented include the marketing mix, market segmentation, target marketing, strategic planning and forecasting methods, branding, and basic advertising strategy with an emphasis on prevention, education, and other social marketing contexts. Offered online.

HMC 314 Social Media & Health Promotion         3 Credits
This course explores how the Internet and Web 2.0 tools are utilized for health promotion campaigns. General web-based technologies for use in health promotion are introduced and formal and informal types of health promotion are examined. Students will analyze the benefits of various social media campaigns including the appropriate use of applications, such as Facebook and Twitter, in health promotion.

HMC 334 Ethics in Health Marketing & Communication         3 Credits
This course explores contemporary ethical issues in health care marketing. Topics include consumer advertising of health products, goods, and services; physician marketing, advertising, and endorsements of elective procedures and health care products; physician relationships to hospitals and surgery centers in terms of ownership; and disclosure and confidentiality of collected health consumer data.

HMC 462 Contemporary Issues & Trends in Health Marketing & Communication         3 Credits
This course provides an interdisciplinary exploration of contemporary issues and trends in health marketing and communication as well as emerging research areas. Case studies from diverse health related settings are integrated throughout the course to assist students in gaining real world perspectives and awareness.

HMC 499 Health Marketing & Communication Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health marketing and communication. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program into a culminating project. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HPR Health Promotion

HPR 205 The Human Body, Health & Disease         4 Credits
This introductory course provides students the opportunity to develop a basic understanding of health and disease as it relates to basic human physiology for non-science majors. The functions of the skeletal, muscular, integumentary, nervous, special senses, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems are explored. The most common conditions and diseases associated with these systems are examined. Students are provided the opportunity to learn about the major contributing factors associated with these conditions and diseases. In addition to coursework, weekly laboratories provide students the opportunity to explore various aspects of human physiology while applying the scientific method.

HPR 231 Introduction to Health Education         3 Credits
This course is a foundational course designed to provide an introduction to health education and the health education profession. Health educators are often responsible for developing and implementing health education programs that aim to improve the quality of life of individuals and communities. The roles, responsibilities, skills, settings, and professional networks of health educators will be reviewed in this course.

HPR 232 Community Health Promotion Methods         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the professional scope of entry-level health educator responsibilities. Students gain knowledge of organizational concepts, processes, skills, attitudes, and personal characteristics comprising the field of health education. The course content explores the theoretical and practical issues of the field of community health that enable students to identify and apply health education principles to health challenges facing individuals, groups, and communities.

HPR 303 Health Communications         3 Credits
Utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach, this course provides an introduction to the field of health communications, and explores how communications are utilized to influence and motivate individuals, institutional, government, and public audiences about important health issues and interventions. Students examine processes for creating clear, accurate, and appropriate health communications for a variety of target audiences. Case studies of health campaigns are integrated into the course.

HPR 350 Introduction to Epidemiology         3 Credits
This course will introduce students to the field of epidemiology, its purpose and benefits within the public health and health-related fields. It will provide the students the opportunity to review current and relevant health surveillance data and its application in the various health care fields. Furthermore, it will afford the students the opportunity to learn about the role of epidemiologists in today’s health care system.

HPR 450 Grant Writing and Evaluations         3 Credits
This course explores the strategies and execution of the grant process and proposal writing in both non-profit and government sectors. The course covers research for local, state, federal and private funding sources, and emphasizes the creation and preparation of competitive proposals. Students will use all aspects of grant and proposal writing, including how to effectively describe objectives, research and program design, methodology, expected measurable outcomes, evaluation, and budget development. Students will prepare and submit an actual grant proposal as the final project.

HPR 460 Analysis of Health Research         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to develop a basic understanding of health research. Students are given the opportunity to learn about the various types of health research and associated research designs and methodologies. This course provides the students with increased exposure to health research literature and teaches students strategies to critically analyze this literature. Students are provided the opportunity to learn about the ethical dimensions, physical limitations, and practical application of health research. The students are provided a supplemental booklet containing example literature and figures that highlight the major concepts covered in the course.

HRM Human Resources Management

HRM 400 Human Resource Technology Management         3 Credits
This course explores the impact of using technologies in serving HR by building an awareness of technological skills. The content investigates how information technology can be applied to strategic management, records and employee tracking for enhanced recruitment, selection, staffing, compensation, benefits administration, policies and procedures, performance evaluation, training and organizational development. Ethical and legal challenges regarding protection of human resource data are researched.

HSM Homeland Security Management

HSM 101 Introduction to Homeland Security & Emergency Management         3 Credits
This course is a broad overview of homeland security in the United States. Areas of study include the organizational structure of the Department of Homeland Security as well as the principals, foundations, and doctrines surrounding homeland security. Students examine both historical and current issues related to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, current policies of the Department, and potential career paths within the department.

HSM 201 Department of Homeland Security Missions & Current Issues         3 Credits
The course examines the Department of Homeland Security core missions; the reasoning behind the Department; the threats to America; and the current issues revolving around homeland security. In addition, students look at the various career opportunities in the Department of Homeland Security.

HSM 305 Survey of Homeland Security & Emergency Management         3 Credits
This course is a broad overview of Homeland Security from its emergence in America’s first century to the 9/11 attacks. Areas of study include the rise of modern terrorism, domestic terrorism, cyberterrorism, Homeland Security organization, strategies, programs and principles, emergency management, the media, and the issues of civil liberties.

HSM 311 Ethics & Homeland Security         3 Credits
This course provides a foundation of classical ethical theories and explores the ethical implications of war and terrorism in the 21st century. Students will be challenged to analyze the controversial issues of the practice of torture, bombing of civilians, assassination and targeted killing, and humanitarian intervention. Civil Liberties and the Patriot Act will be examined. Case studies will offer students the opportunity to examine their own moral stance on selected issues, and study the traditional ethical rules and practices in war, even when engaging with international terrorist groups.

HSM 315 Emergency Planning         3 Credits
This course will provide students with the skills to develop a comprehensive plan for risk analysis, threat assessment, staffing an
emergency operations center, coordinating with supporting agencies, and the creation of a continuing testing program. Actual case studies are used to teach students how to plan for natural disasters as well as terrorism at the federal, state and local levels.

HSM 320 Emergency Response to Terrorism         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students with the ability to evaluate an emergency incident, determine its scope, understand the function of the first responders, learn the communication procedures necessary to alert the appropriate agencies, and understand how first responders are dispatched. Students will create a recovery plan for response to large scale terrorist incidents.

HSM 421 Research & Analysis in Homeland Security         3 Credits
Students will develop the skills to conduct research into selected topics relating to homeland security, emergency management and disaster preparedness using government websites, Internet sources, library databases, and other pertinent repositories of information and data. Students will be required to formulate a research topic with supporting sources for the final report due in the Capstone course.

HSM 433 Counter Terrorism & Intelligence Analysis         3 Credits
Students in this course study and analyze counterterrorism including the evolution of counterterrorism, and the specifics of the typology and anatomy of terrorist operations. The course includes an overview of the intelligence community, collection, analysis, requirements and dissemination.

HSM 435 Psychology of Disaster         3 Credits
Utilizing case studies and clinical research, the course will focus on the psychological and physiological response to natural disasters, terrorism, and other manmade disasters. Students will examine psychological reactions, the recovery process and mental health care for victims, disaster recovery teams, and first responders.

HSM 438 Introduction to Cyber Crime        3 Credits
This course focuses on the technical aspects of digital crime as well as behavioral aspects of computer hackers, virus writers, terrorists and other offenders. Using real life examples and case studies, students will examine the history, development, extent and types of digital crime and digital terrorism as well as current legislation and law enforcement practices designed to prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes.

HSM 497 Homeland Security & Emergency Management Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course students will demonstrate their mastery of program outcomes in Homeland Security & Emergency Management creating an original research and analysis report using the draft and research developed in the Research and Analysis Course. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

HWE Health and Wellness

HWE 200 Introduction to Health & Wellness         3 Credits
This course provides students with a holistic overview of the multi-faceted dimensions of health and wellness across the lifespan. The seven dimensions of health: Physical, social, intellectual, emotional, occupational, spiritual, and environmental are explored within the context of a wellness lifestyle.

HWE 230 Functional Anatomy         3 Credits
In this course, students study the structure and function of muscular and skeletal systems within the human body using a regional approach. Students are given the opportunity to learn about anatomical variation, the functional importance of this variation, and analysis of movement. This course expands upon the anatomical concepts provided in the prerequisite, The Human Body, Health and Disease. Prerequisite: HPR 205.

HWE 330 Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Physiology         3 Credits
In this course, students study the structure and function of muscular and skeletal systems within the human body using a regional approach. Students are given the opportunity to learn about anatomical variation, the functional importance of this variation, and common pathologies of the upper and lower extremities and trunk. This course expands upon the anatomical concepts provided in the prerequisite, The Human Body, Health, and Disease. Prerequisite: HPR 205.

HWE 340 Exercise & Physiology         3 Credits
This course introduces students to physiological responses to exercise in the human body. Students compare the major physiological systems (energy transfer, cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, etc.) at rest, explain the systemic adaptations that occur with acute and long-term exercise, and evaluate how these activities affect health and human performance. Students also analyze how nutrition and pharmacological aids impact athletic performance. Prerequisites: HPR 205 and HWE 330.

HWE 415 Stress Management         3 Credits
This course will provide students with the opportunity to learn about the effects of stress, apply stress management techniques, and develop stress management programs while considering various cultural backgrounds. Students will analyze the relationship between stress and health. This course is designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of stress management concepts including causes and effects of acute and chronic stress as well as techniques used to manage stress. Prerequisite: HWE 200.

HWE 420 Wellness for Special Populations         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to enhance their understanding of nutritional concepts and designing exercise programs for special populations.  Students will learn how to apply knowledge to develop and modify exercise plans for individuals with special conditions.  Special populations that will be covered in this course will include but not limited to: the elderly, pregnant women, individuals at risk for disease (i.e. elderly, obese), and individuals living with health conditions (i.e. cardiovascular disease, arthritis, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, etc.).  Risks, contraindications, and benefits of exercise for these special populations also will be covered. Prerequisites: HWE 200, HWE 330, HWE 340, and HCS 334.

HWE 498 Health & Wellness Capstone         3 credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of health and wellness. Assignments provide students with an opportunity to create health and wellness programs for target populations and apply appropriate health promotion strategies and techniques to benefit these groups. Students analyze lifestyle factors that negatively or positively affect health and evaluate the effectiveness of wellness programs. This course also provides an opportunity for the students to develop career- related tools for use in professional situations. This course should be taken as the last course in the program.

INF Information Systems

INF 103 Computer Literacy         3 Credits
Students will use operating system software, the Internet, and productivity software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation graphics, etc.). Students will use the library and Web resources to research a topic, word process their findings, and create a visual presentation to communicate to the class.

INF 220 IS Principles         3 Credits
This course develops students’ understanding of information systems, foundational technologies, and organizational application to conduct business and solve problems. This course presents information systems principles and examines how they form an integral part of modern organizations. Topics include systems concepts; organizational processes; technological aspects of information systems; Internet applications; IT security; database management; systems development life cycle; and ethical and social responsibility issues. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor.

INF 231 Programming Concepts         3 Credits
An introduction to the methodology of programming and the construction of graphical user interfaces. Students are introduced to programming through the use of current programming languages(s). Emphasis is on structured design, coding, graphical user interfaces, event-driven programming, and documentation. A variety of programming problems develop skills in algorithm design, file processing data structures, and event handling. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor.

INF 322 Database Management Systems         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the concepts of database processing. An understanding of the physical and logical organization of data and the meaningful representation of data relationships are evaluated. Operational requirements of database management systems are also discussed. Prerequisites: INF 231 and fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency.

INF 325 Telecommunications & Networking Concepts         3 Credits
This course introduces the fundamental concepts of computer networks and telecommunications in modern business contexts. The topics include the infrastructures, standards, and protocols in computer networks and business telecommunications. Prerequisite: INF 231 or permission of the instructor.

INF 336 Project Procurement Management         3 Credits
Designed to develop the basic knowledge base of project managers and project procurement managers, this course emphasizes partnering between buyers and sellers to create a single culture with one set of goals and objectives. Students will discover the key areas in procuring outside services and products—from the initial decision to buy through final contract closeout. They will recognize what must be done for success in the six key project procurement management processes: procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout. They will also formulate the make-or-buy decision, prepare an effective procurement management plan to guide the team, and use outsourcing for maximum benefit. Lessons and best practices from procurement theory and experience are also presented. This course can be used as a substitute for BUS 309. Prerequisite: INF 103 or permission of instructor.

INF 337 Integrated Cost & Schedule Control         3 Credits
Effective cost and schedule management are cornerstone activities of each project. Students will determine how best to plan the execution of a project scope, to consider stakeholder budget and schedule constraints, to use different methodologies, and to establish the performance measurement baseline. They will also discover keys to identify potential cost and schedule overruns and master the tools and techniques to compare actual work accomplished against established plans, as well as work accomplished against actual expenditures. By identifying early warning indicators, students will gain greater insight into potential risk areas and take the necessary corrective action to keep the project in control. Prerequisites: ACC 205, and MAT 332 or BUS 308.

INF 338 Leadership & Communication Skills for Project Managers         3 Credits
This course enables students to develop the necessary skills to elicit maximum performance from every member of a team. Students will uncover the styles of leadership that are most appropriate for achieving project success and discover which forms of leadership and communication styles are best suited to their personalities. They will also learn techniques for resolving conflict and managing personnel issues and gain hands-on experience in analyzing stages of team development and maximizing project team effectiveness. This course can be used as a substitute for BUS 303. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and fulfillment of the General Education Communication I and II competency.

INF 340 Business Systems Analysis         3 Credits
This course is a study of the business systems analysis and development processes for information systems in organizations. The course is focused on information concepts and methodologies associated with the development of business information systems, and their effective application in solving business problems. Students examine the major issues involved in managing information technology within the contemporary business environment and the relationship between organizational structures and information technology. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Information Technology competency.

INF 410 Project Management         3 Credits
This course provides the foundational principles and techniques to plan, execute, and manage complex projects. Topics include workflow analysis, quality control, and performance evaluation.

INF 620 Management of Information Systems        3 Credits
This course introduces the fundamentals of computer systems, the role of information processing in the business environment, and provides a basic overview of essential computer software. The course also provides an overview of systems development, operating systems and programming, database management, networking, and telecommunications all from a management perspective.

INF 630 Systems Analysis         3 Credits
This course addresses the many business systems issues unique to the information services function within organizations. Coverage includes information systems planning, managing the information infrastructure, justifying information technology investments, the costing of services and networks, evaluating information system performance, alternative information service delivery modes, managing distributed and end-user computing, project and operations management, systems security, and the management of information technology professionals.

INF 690 ISS Capstone Seminar         3 Credits
This course emphasizes the use of information technology to develop distinct competitive advantage in relations with competitors, customers, and suppliers, and with respect to products and services. Course participants examine strategies of actual companies and identify other strategies that can be deployed to gain competitive advantage in diverse settings. In addition, the course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MBA curriculum. The capstone project requires generation and presentation of an organizational information systems strategic plan. 

ISM Information Systems Management

ISM 500 Introduction to Management of Information Systems (3 Credits)
This course introduces students to the fundamentals of computer systems and the role of information processing in the business environment. Students are provided with a basic overview of essential business software as well as insight into systems development, operating systems and programming, database management, networking, and telecommunications from a management perspective. Offered online.

ISM 510 Introduction to Computer Programming for Business Applications (3 Credits)
This course introduces students to computer programming concepts that include client/server applications, dashboard technologies, and responsive Web design for current platforms. Students explore basic programming tenets such as user-centered interface design, object-oriented programming, mobile app development, and other topics related to current practices. Using a virtual lab, students apply course concepts to an iterative project that is developed during the six-week course. Offered online.

ISM 640 Computer Networking and Telecommunication Design (3 Credits)
This course covers methods and techniques for the design of computer and telecommunication networks as well as management and business perspectives on network design, traffic and application requirements, network cost analysis, topological design, capacity assignment, virtual network design, network design tools, wireless network design issues, availability analysis, and survivable network design. Students participate in a group project, through which they develop a networking solution for a business problem. Prerequisites: BUS 600 and INF 630. Offered online.

ISM 641 Database Design and Management (3 Credits)
This hands-on, virtual lab-based course introduces students to data modeling and relational databases. Students design and implement normalized databases and manipulate them through online interfaces. The course provides opportunities and includes assignments that allow students to develop the skills needed for translating users’ data needs into functional business applications. Prerequisites: BUS 600 and INF 630. Offered online.

ISM 642 Information Security and IT Governance (3 Credits)
This course provides students with a review of networking concepts and technologies that are critical to IT security operations. It offers guidance on usage and includes a comparison of the available methodologies and their content. Students examine the importance and benefits of sound IT governance to any IT organization. They investigate computer security principles, mechanisms, and implementations to ensure data protection and security of computers systems and examine key network perimeter security tools, including firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS). Prerequisites: BUS 600 and INF 630. Offered online.

ISM 643 Leadership in Business Systems Development (3 Credits)
This course provides students with a foundation for applying appropriate techniques when managing software development projects. Focus is placed on managing Agile development projects and using Agile development methodologies. The importance of team management, changing goals and priorities, knowledge management ideals, and alignment with organizational goals is presented. Students complete a group project, though which they apply leadership principles to a mock software development project. Prerequisites: OMM 622 and ISM 641. Offered online.

ISM 644 Legal and Ethical Issues in Technology (3 Credits)
This course examines legal and ethical issues in today’s technology and data-driven organizational environments. Students analyze issues from an organizational perspective on topics that include information ownership, privacy, and the concept of due care and responsibility for data collected by organizations. Compliance requirements, regulations, and laws governing data and information, protection, collection, usage, and storage are discussed. Prerequisites: OMM 622 and ISM 642. Offered online.

ISM 645 Information Technology Strategic Planning (3 Credits)
This course examines the means for effectively developing short-, medium-, and long-term technology plans. Students focus on topics such as assessment of a firm’s current state and future goals, the process of information technology enterprise planning for meeting the goals of the organization, the need for and the responsibilities of an information systems steering committee, and the methods of identifying and prioritizing information technology projects for the organization. A group project that applies the elements of strategic planning is a key component of this course. Prerequisites: OMM 622, ISM 642 and ISM 643. Offered online.

ISM 650 Information Systems Project Methodologies I (3 Credits)
This course introduces students to project management as defined by the Project Management Institute’s (PMI) body of knowledge (PMBOK) with an emphasis on information technology projects. Project management processes and knowledge areas are explored, with a specific focus placed on the project initiation, scope, schedule, cost, and quality management. Students have opportunities throughout the course to work in groups as they develop components of the project plan. Prerequisites: BUS 600, INF 630, ISM 640, ISM 641, ISM 642, OMM 622, ISM 643, ISM 644 and ISM 645. Offered online.

ISM 651 Information Technology Methodologies II (3 Credits)
This course is a continuation of ISM650. In this course, students continue exploring the project management knowledge areas of human resources, communications, risk management, and procurement. Emphasis is placed on information technology projects. Students have opportunities throughout the course to work in groups as they develop components of the project plan. Prerequisite: ISM 650. Offered online.

ISM 652 Project Management Capstone – Strategic Project Management (3 Credits)
In this course, students apply project management concepts to information technology projects using strategic managerial approaches. Concepts include determining business benefits and project feasibility, reporting project status, stakeholder management, and measuring project quality. Earn value management concepts are introduced. Emphasis is placed on the Project Management Maturity Model. Prerequisites: ISM 650 and ISM 651. Offered online.

ISM 670 IT Organizational Management and Leadership Capstone (3 Credits)
In this capstone, students will integrate professional practices explored in the Master of Information Systems program core courses with concepts presented in the Organizational Management and Leadership specialization courses. Topics in IT leadership, database systems, networking, software design, human computer interaction, management of technology, and ethics are applied within a framework of global e-business technology strategy. Through projects, students draw from real organizational scenarios to practice major information technology concepts. Students select, develop, and present a significant technology implementation project. The project will incorporate organizational management and leadership strategies, systems development, and business planning. Prerequisites: INF 630, ISM 640, ISM 641, ISM 642, OMM 622, ISM 643, ISM 644, ISM 645, OMM 640 and BUS 661. Offered online.

ISM 680 Big Data Applications (3 Credits)
This course provides students with an overview of big data and its applications. Students explore course topics that include data collection, analytics, and presentation. Prerequisites: BUS 600, INF 630, ISM 640, ISM 641, ISM 642, OMM 622, ISM 643, ISM 644 and ISM 645. Offered online.

ISM 681 Business Intelligence Systems (3 Credits)
This virtual lab-based course outlines the procedures necessary for translating raw data into meaningful information that can be used for making business decisions. Students complete a group project through which they utilize a range of technologies that enable these processes. Prerequisite: ISM 680. Offered online.

ISM 682 Advanced Data Management and Acquisition Capstone (3 Credits)
This course provides an overview of current and future trends in data management. Students continue to develop their knowledge of online data applications as they apply to broad and specific contexts through the completion of a capstone project. Prerequisites: ISM 680 and ISM 681. Offered online.

JRN Journalism

JRN 101 Digital & Media Literacy         3 Credits
This course is designed to teach students to critically examine the impact of digital media and mediated messages on their everyday lives. Throughout the course, students explore the underlying power relationships of the media industry, the construction of media messages, and the influence of digital media on individuals, groups, and society.

JRN 200 Elements of Journalism         3 Credits
Elements of Journalism provides students with an understanding of the field of journalism. The course focuses on developing the students’ skills in the areas of grammar, spelling, punctuation, Associated Press (AP) style writing, the inverted pyramid, news gathering, interviewing and other elements of journalism. Prerequisites: ENG 121 and 122.

JRN 201 Multimedia News Writing and Editing         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the principles and techniques of effective writing and editing for news in various platforms. There will be an emphasis on accuracy of information, presentation, clarity, precision, and efficiency in the use of language. Students will also begin to discover the various career opportunities and the field and begin to develop their goals through the Career Services Integration pieces built into the course. Prerequisite: JRN 200.

JRN 231 Survey of Journalism & Mass Communication         3 Credits

This course is designed to provide an overview of the history, professional traditions, and roles and practices of the news media in a democracy. Topics include journalistic reporting, how news is defined, ethics, emerging trends, online reporting and news writing basics.

JRN 301 Newsgathering & Reporting         3 Credits
This course focuses on gathering, evaluating, writing, and editing information for news stories tailored to various forms of media. Prerequisite: JRN 201.

JRN 321 Visual Journalism         3 Credits
This course will teach students the importance of visual elements in news, and how to effectively incorporate visual elements into news stories for various media platforms. Students will also be introduced to industry-standards related to the design of visual news and the various software programs that are used. Prerequisite: JRN 301.

JRN 331 Advanced Writing & Editing for the Media         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the principles and techniques of good writing for the mass media with an emphasis on accuracy of information, presentation, clarity, precision and efficiency in use of the language. Additionally, students will focus on the standards of writing for the Web which differ substantively from the traditional media. Prerequisite: ENG 325.

JRN 333 Ethics in Journalism         3 Credits
Ethics in journalism begins with an overview of ethical foundations and philosophy with a focus on case studies in the media and the application of ethical standards and decision making to issues faced by journalists on a daily basis.

JRN 335 Cyber-journalism         3 Credits
This course examines the ways in which technology has transformed the journalistic landscape to a 24-hour news cycle with digital content acquisition and distribution. Students will explore the professional and technical challenges of producing multimedia news in this environment.

JRN 337 News Reporting & Writing         3 Credits
This course focuses on the gathering, evaluating and writing of the news in the print and electronic media. Students will hone basic skills and become aware of current trends including citizen journalism, convergence and the importance of fairness and objectivity.

JRN 339 Global Journalism         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the student with an overview of the major issues facing global journalism. It focuses on the social, cultural, and governmental aspects of the international media and their relationship to journalism from the perspective of a democratic system.

JRN 341 Specialized Journalism         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the various genres of journalistic writing. Students learn to employ skills acquired from previous journalism courses to specific types of news reporting. Genres include the following: investigative journalism, sports journalism, entertainment journalism, business journalism, and environmental journalism.

JRN 410 Journalism Law         3 Credits
The study of the law of journalism and mass communication is a vast field. This course provides a broad overview of the rule of law, the First Amendment, disruptive speech, libel, protecting privacy, reporter’s privilege and electronic media Regulation.

JRN 412 Advanced Editorial & Feature Writing         3 Credits
Students in this course will apply journalistic skills to opinion writing for editorial pages. It provides tools for evaluating critical thinking and argumentation for evaluating editorial writing. Additionally, students will learn the skills and requirements for feature writing. Prerequisite: ENG 325.

JRN 415 Methods of Research & Analysis in Journalism         3 Credits
This course teaches students research methods of utility and analysis in journalism with a focus on survey research, electronic database searching, government sites, and the evaluation of data sets in journalism research studies.

JRN 425 Journalism & Politics         3 Credits
This course is designed to aid students in determining how the media shape the context of American government and politics. Students will study American political journalism theory, current practice, convergence, and emerging technological change and their impact on public opinion and policy.

JRN 497 Journalism & Mass Communication Capstone         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate mastery of the programmatic outcomes of the journalism major by creating an electronic portfolio of work completed during the program and by adding newly developed material that showcase professional journalistic skills. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

LEA Law Enforcement Administration

LEA 101 Introduction to Concepts in Law Enforcement Administration        3 credits
This course introduces students to the concepts involved in law enforcement administration and the factors influencing successful organizations through effective hiring, training, and support of employees. The course explores organizational theory, design and communication, along with the processes of planning and decision making. The effects of stress and adverse behavior are also reviewed with relation to the organization and requirements of the administration. Politics, labor relations, and fiscal management are addressed in correlation with the effects on law enforcement administration process.

LEA 201 Introduction to Law Enforcement Administration         3 Credits
This course focuses on the elements of law enforcement administration and the factors influencing successful organizations through effective hiring, training, and support of employees. The course examines organizational theory, design and communication, along with the processes of planning and decision making. The effects of stress and adverse behavior are reviewed with relation to the organization and requirements of the administration. Politics, labor relations, and fiscal management are addressed in correlation with the effects on law enforcement administration process.

LEA 312 Community Policing        3 Credits
This course outlines key roles and responsibilities in the management of community policing efforts from the law enforcement perspective. Relationships of police image, public expectations, and community leadership are examined. Communication and interaction within a community of diverse socioeconomic conditions, race, sex, and age are examined with respect to community-oriented policing and law enforcement leadership.

LEA 316 Ethics in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on theories and methods to assist officials establishing and maintaining ethical behavior in law enforcement employees. The course analyzes misconduct in law enforcement through relevant literature and applicable scenarios in integrating theory and practice.

LEA 328 Leadership & Supervision in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on the comparisons between leadership, management, and supervision and the traits and theories surrounding effective application. The course will analyze the impacts of crime on successful leadership and the ability to motivate in order to maximize work effort.

LEA 339 Law Enforcement Personnel Management         3 Credits
This course examines the issues involved with maintaining qualified and capable officers available for deployment by a law enforcement administration. The course delves into employee assistance, medical issues and concerns that can significantly affect law enforcement organizations. Federal, state, and local certification and training requirements are discussed regarding continued employment and the impact on staffing. Applicable case law will be reviewed regarding Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA).

LEA 408 Technological Management in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course will assess the implementation and application of modern technological hardware and software in assisting law enforcement administration in addressing crime concerns. The course will explore the use of facial-recognition software, closed circuit television, and automatic vehicle monitoring systems in influencing crime issues. Terminology and applications are explained to provide insight to students regarding available resources and usage.

LEA 413 Investigations Management         3 Credits
This course addresses criminal investigations from the perspective of the police manager or administrator as well as developing practical skill sets in investigative technique. Legal, social, managerial, and community concerns regarding crime and investigations are evaluated. Relationships between investigators, prosecutors, and police managers are explored.

LEA 432 Fiscal Administration in Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on the principles of budgeting in the public sector and provides the student with an understanding of the methods used in making financial decisions. The course compares and contrasts the public and private sector and addresses the responsibility of efficient use of funds. Federal state, and local perspectives in finance and budgeting are evaluated. Responsible and ethical financial principles are reinforced.

LEA 439 Politics & Law Enforcement         3 Credits
This course focuses on the constitutional basis of law enforcement and on the political relationships and impact of political decisions on the day-to-day operations and focus of law enforcement. The course examines the influence of special interest groups, as well as police associations and unions, in the administration of law enforcement goals. The election of certain law enforcement officials is also addressed regarding perceived loyalty to voters or employees.

LEA 444 Training Management         3 Credits
The focus of this course surrounds the necessity of training and the effectiveness of methods employed to reduce agency liability while promoting employee safety. The course will address the liability assumed by both employee and agency when training standards are not adhered to or supervision and leadership allows for deviation from set standards.

LEA 497 Law Enforcement Administration Capstone         3 Credits
This course will focus on the integration of research skills, theory analysis, and application of leadership and management methodologies in law enforcement administration. Successful students will exercise critical thought along with clear and concise writing skills throughout the development of a final project/paper on a singular topic within the field of law enforcement administration. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

LIB Liberal Arts

LIB 101 The Art of Being Human         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary introduction to the humanities, focusing especially on classic texts of the ancient and medieval period as a way to understand our lives today. The course will explore various ways human beings have expressed their understanding of the human condition through such cultural forms as mythology, religion, philosophy, and the arts.

LIB 102 Human Questions         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary introduction to the humanities, focusing especially on the period from the Renaissance through the present. The course will explore the various ways human beings have attempted to answer questions about the meaning of our world and existence through philosophy, art, and science.

LIB 125 Contemporary Issues in Organizational Leadership         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the multi-faceted concept of leadership studies by presenting the student with the vocabulary, concepts, theories, and applicable research that are fundamental to the basic understanding of leadership. The course will examine contemporary and historical leadership issues unique to women and minority leaders, the moral and ethical responsibility of leadership, and leadership in a variety of contexts. Leadership as a social and political influence process will be examined.

LIB 202 Women, Culture, & Society         3 credits
Women, Culture, and Society” examines the images, roles, and contributions of women in historical and artistic contexts from the Renaissance to the present. The course is designed to give students an understanding of the role women have played in the development of culture in Western Civilization as well as the ways western societies have shaped women’s lives and creative expression. With conversations on the arts and theory, the course analyzes the complex ways gender, intersecting with race, class, and ethnicity, influences our experience and culture.

LIB 301 Liberal Arts Seminar         3 Credits
Students examine a selected topic from the perspectives of the various disciplines within one of the broad fields of liberal arts: fine arts, humanities, science, or social science. Students develop a working knowledge of the methodologies, perspectives, and limitations of each discipline, as well as an appreciation of the insights that may be derived from interdisciplinary inquiry. May be repeated for additional credit only with change of field. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (Cross-listed as BIO 301 and NAT 301.)

LIB 315 The Environment & the Human Spirit (INTD)         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary examination of humanity’s spiritual relationship with the natural world. The course will explore contemporary environmental issues in the context of theology, philosophy, literature, film, music, visual art, and other representations of the human imagination. Prerequisite: ENG 122 or equivalent  (Interdisciplinary)

LIB 316 Historical Contexts & Literature         3 Credits
In Historical Contexts in Literature, students will explore the ways in which literary works represent particular people, places, situations, and ideas through fiction. Further, by using a range of literary, political, and historical texts, the course will examine both the ways in which political and historical contexts shape literary production, and the ways in which fictional texts affect political, social, and moral discourse.

LIB 318 Peacemaking: A Study of Conflict Resolution (INTD)         3 Credits
An interdisciplinary study of peacemaking with a focus on conflict resolution. Highlighting this course are guest presentations and discussions led by Ashford University faculty from diverse subject areas. Students examine thinking and behavior in response to social conflict such as aggression, threats, prejudice, avoidance, withdrawal, conformity, and obedience. Students study various strategies of peacemaking and negotiation and then apply these methods in class role-playing activities. (Interdisciplinary)

LIB 320 Global Socioeconomic Perspectives (INTD)         3 Credits
This course is an examination of major socioeconomic developments in different countries including Japan, Germany, Sweden, the United States, and the developing nations. Topics include population, natural resources, energy, sustainable growth, and policies such as privatization and free trade agreements. Social and economic justice in the global economy is considered. (Interdisciplinary)

LIB 323 Revolution & Terrorism in the Modern World (INTD)         3 Credits
This course examines the ways revolution and terrorism has shaped the twenty-first century from an interdisciplinary perspective drawing on history, philosophy, and sociology. Emphasis is on the ideas and socio-historical forces that have produced revolutions. (Interdisciplinary)

LIB 332 Science & Culture (INTD)         3 Credits
This course explores Western science as a cultural artifact and its impact on other aspects of culture: art, literature, film, music, philosophy, and theology. In addition, the affects of these “other aspects of culture” on the development of science will also be investigated with emphasis on the need to make connections. The course will examine the ways in which scientific developments are articulated in other cultural artifacts. (Interdisciplinary)

LIB 356 Research Methods for the Humanities         3 Credits
Students in this course will develop a working knowledge of the major methodologies and perspectives of disciplines in the humanities. Topics include the role of theory, identification of appropriate sources, the influence of values, and the role of the humanities in interdisciplinary inquiry.

LIB 495 Capstone – Advanced Research Project         3 Credits
This course will culminate with a comprehensive and summative final project that demonstrates the student’s ability to conduct research into an approved topic and to develop an original research paper using an interdisciplinary approach. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

LNG Linguistics

LNG 101 Introduction to Language         3 Credits
Language is a central part of our daily lives. It is how we communicate our thoughts and desires to others. Yet, we usually take language for granted, using it effortlessly without stopping to think about how it works. So, what exactly is language, and how does it work? This course is an introduction to linguistics, the scientific study of language. At the end of this course, students should understand what linguists study and have a good understanding of the core concepts in phonology, phonetics, morphology, syntax, and semantics. The developmental stages of language acquisition and the variations of dialect and style observed in spoken and written English are also examined.

LNG 206 Language & Technology         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the various ways language and technology interact. Students will understand the importance of computers that can process spoken and written language, and be introduced to a variety of implementations of these emerging technologies. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 212 Second Language Acquisition         3 Credits
This course provides students an opportunity to investigate the process of acquiring a second language and to compare this process to learning in general. Students will also explore the basic theories of second language acquisition compared to first language acquisition and will discuss how these theories influence second language curriculum design and guide second language instructional methods. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 222 Survey of Communicative Disorders         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the field of speech and language pathology. Students will survey a variety of communicative disorders and their effect on language development as compared to clinically normal growth and development of speech and language. Students will also consider the effect of these disorders on various levels of society. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 310 Sounds of Language         3 Credits
In this course, students begin to answer the questions: how do we speak, why do different languages sound distinct, and how does sound encode and convey meaning? Students will examine sounds and sound systems of languages by exploring the phonetic properties of language as well as various phonological systems that languages employ to organize these speech sounds into meaningful utterances. Students will also study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 320 Structures of Language         3 Credits
This course provides students an opportunity to explore the linguistic theories of morphology and syntax. Students will examine structure within language by describing and investigating the underlying principles and processes of word formation as well as the rules which govern phrase and sentence structure. Basic concepts addressed include morpheme-based morphology and a generative grammar approach to syntax. Students will also study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 330 Language and Power: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis         3 Credits
How does language function in maintaining and changing power relations in modern society? What are the ways of analyzing language which can reveal these processes? How can people become more conscious of power structures, and more able to resist and change them?
The question of language and power is still important and urgent in the twenty-first century, but substantial social changes in the past decade have changed the nature of unequal power relations, and therefore the agenda for the critical study of language. This course provides an introduction to the analysis of discourse and dialogue, and brings the discussion fully up-to-date by covering the issue of globalization of power relations and the development of the internet in relation to language and power. Prerequisite: LNG 101.

LNG 353 Evolution of the English Language         3 Credits
Where did English come from, how has it evolved into the language that is used today, and why does American English behave differently than, for example, the English spoken in Ireland? Also, in what ways are different languages distinct, and how are they similar? Students will explore these topics in this course via a consideration of the methods of historical linguistics with English as a case study. Topics in linguistic typology will also be addressed. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 360 Language & Society         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to language in its social context. In this course, students will explore how language embodies culture, and how society is impacted by language. Topics include linguistic variation in diverse social contexts; language and gender; language and ethnicity; language and socioeconomic class; and the language of law, politics, propaganda, and advertising. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 415 Meaning in Language         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the theory of meaning in language. Students will consider how language relates to the physical world, and how it contains and conveys truth, falsehood, and meaning. Students will also consider how various contexts factor into determining meaning, and will study selected applications of these theories. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 450 Computational Linguistics         3 Credits
This course provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of natural language processing and computational linguistics. Students will study basic elements of computer programming from a computational linguistics perspective and will apply these methods to solving selected problems representative of those encountered in the field. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 455 Language Development Disorders         3 Credits
This course encompasses a study of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of selected language development disorders from a clinical perspective. In an online classroom setting, students will investigate the causes and characteristics of specific language disorders, as well as the current methods of clinical assessment and treatments. Using transcribed and recorded speech samples, students will simulate the clinical processes of diagnosis and treatment by applying these methods. Throughout the course, students will consider the professional conduct and ethical guidelines set for by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Note: This course does not result in licensure or certification of any kind. Prerequisite: LNG 321 or LNG 101.

LNG 497 Applied Linguistics Capstone         3 Credits
This course provides students an opportunity to conduct research into a theoretical area of linguistics and its application to assist in creating a plan for future study and professional development. Students will select a topic of interest and research its current and potential applications to one or various areas of industry. Students will demonstrate an understanding of how key linguistic theories have allowed for progress within certain industries and identify opportunities that are still present in the field of applied linguistics. Prerequisites: LNG 321 or LNG 101 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MAT Mathematics

MAT 126 Survey of Mathematical Methods         3 Credits

The course is designed to explore a wide range of mathematical models as applied to the problems of a modern society. Topics are selected from a variety of disciplines using mathematical methods in the critical thinking and decision-making process. Mathematical methods covered include, but are not limited to, business math, introductory algebra, beginning geometry, and business statistics.

MAT 221 Introduction to Algebra         3 Credits
This course establishes a strong base for an Algebraic exploration of mathematical topics. Student understanding is built up through learning the basics of real numbers and Algebra terminology, writing, solving, and graphing equations, and manipulating polynomials through various operations. Students will develop a familiarity and ease of working with the language and notation of Algebra while learning to think logically through algorithms and solving methods. Emphasis will be placed on developing an awareness of the use of mathematics as it exists in the world today.

MAT 222 Intermediate Algebra         3 Credits
In this course students will explore a wider range of Algebra topics beyond the introductory level. Topics will include polynomials, functions, rational expressions, systems of equations and inequalities, operations with radicals, and quadratic equations. Emphasis will be placed on developing an awareness of the use of mathematics as it exists in the world today. Prerequisite: MAT 221 or equivalent with a grade of "C-" or better.

MAT 232 Statistical Literacy         3 Credits

This course is designed to meet general education quantitative reasoning (mathematics) requirements. It will cover such topics as sampling, bias, probability, distributions, graphical methods of portraying data, measures of center, dispersion and position and the Central Limit Theorem. It will also cover computational techniques such as correlation, regression and confidence intervals. Prerequisite: MAT 221.

MAT 540 Statistical Concepts for Research         3 Credits

This course demonstrates how to apply selected statistical techniques to a wide variety of problems and situations arising in the areas of business, economics, finance, management, social science, health, psychology, and education. Topics include graphical description of data; measures of location and dispersion; probability; discrete and continuous random variables; sampling distributions and estimation; confidence intervals and hypothesis tests; simple linear regression and correlation.

MGT Management

MGT 300 Supply Management         3 credits
This course introduces the professional practice of supply management and its application to business. Students examine procurement, total cost of ownership, sustainability, and strategic partnerships in a global economy with different market structures. Students also evaluate negotiating and contracting to achieve organizational strategic objectives. Finally, students explore supply management careers.

MGT 321 Assessing Leadership Skills         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the concepts, skills, and strategies of personal/professional transformation that are the foundation of leading organizations in diverse communities. Topics include leadership assessment, developing personal vision, establishing a commitment to service, leading in complex communities, managing communication, and creating an environment of excellence.

MGT 322 Principles of Logistics Management         3 Credits
This course introduces logistics/physical distribution and supply, and the related costs. It provides a systematic overview and analysis of the elements of logistics functions in widely varying types of industries and agencies, including handling, warehousing, inventory control, and financial controls. Prerequisite: MGT 330.

MGT 325 Introduction to Transportation Management         3 Credits
This course focuses on intermodal transportation as part of supply chain management. The course addresses the development of the global transportation system, transportation regulation, the modes of transportation and how they interface, shipper issues, intermodal transportation management, and the future in transportation. Prerequisite: MGT 330.

MGT 330 Management for Organizations         3 Credits
This course presents an introduction to management theory and practice, including the inter-relatedness that the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions play in the multicultural, technology-driven, and global organizations of the 21st century. The emphasis is on the application of management theory to real-life situations in the workplace. (Equivalent to BUS 201.)

MGT 370 International Supply Chain Management         3 Credits
Topics covered in this course include the government’s role in global logistics, the global logistics environment, ocean and air transportation, transportation to Canada, Mexico, and the European continent including intermediaries, documentation, insurance, exporting, and importing. Current trends in globalization will also be explored and evaluated. The role of logistics and transportation organizations in the global supply chain process will be discussed.

MGT 380 Leadership for Organizations         3 Credits
Several leadership styles are examined in this course. Emphasis is placed on developing effective leadership in organizations and personal enterprises, and on developing ethical leadership perspectives in personal and professional decision-making.

MGT 401 Hazardous Materials Management         3 Credits
This course addresses the significant issues associated with handling hazardous materials in a logistical system. The course also provides a firm foundation on basic hazardous materials management principles. Topics include definitions of hazardous materials, regulatory overview, technology to treat different hazardous materials, and tracking and manifest rules. Prerequisite: MGT 330.

MGT 415 Group Behavior in Organizations         3 Credits
Theory and research are applied to the study of group dynamics, processes encountered in the small-group setting, and how organizational effectiveness is impacted by small-group and team functioning. The course focuses on group productivity, decision-making, diversity, group communication, resolving group conflict and building effective teams.

MGT 425 Leadership & Motivation         3 Credits
This course examines various approaches to motivation and the design and implementation of motivational strategies for effective personal and organizational performance.

MGT 435 Organizational Change         3 Credits
In this course, students will study and apply alternative theories, models and strategies for creating and managing organizational change. The effectiveness of management tools in initiating problem solving and decision making to bring about change within organizations is evaluated.

MGT 450 Strategic Planning for Organizations         3 Credits
Strategic Planning introduces students to various management planning models and techniques, and applies these to actual business cases. This course stresses the concepts of both strategic planning and strategic management. (Equivalent to MGT 451.)Prerequisite: MGT 330.

MGT 451 Strategic Planning Capstone         3 Credits
Culminating the aggregate knowledge of a business program, the Strategic Planning Capstone introduces students to various management planning models and techniques. Application of strategic planning concepts is stressed throughout the curriculum. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course. (Equivalent to MGT 450.)

MGT 460 Leadership Priorities & Practice         3 Credits
Leadership Priorities and Practice is a capstone course that requires students to reflect on and synthesize the major insights gained in their study of organizational management. A substantive paper is developed to illustrate how these insights can be applied effectively in the student’s work environment. Students choosing the personal program of study must show how their chosen concentration relates to organizational management and include insights from each academic area in their synthesis and application. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MGT 490 Strategic Human Resources Planning         3 Credits
This course provides a link between the traditional human resources functions (recruiting, staffing, training, performance appraisals, labor relations, and compensation and benefits), strategic planning, and meeting long-range organizational goals and objectives. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MGT 492 Strategic Management for the Multinational Enterprise Capstone         3 Credits
The final integrative course in the international business program integrates the basic business functions through strategic management principles. Comprehensive cases deal with global competition in complex changing environments within which the organization seeks to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Issues of strategy formulation and implementation are addressed. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MGT 496 Strategic Warehouse Management        3 Credits
This course is an overview of the strategic role that the warehousing function plays in the modern logistics environment. Subjects include warehouse strategies, difference in government and non-government systems, layout and design, location, customer service, bar coding, material handling, and measuring warehouse productivity. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MGT 497 Strategic Technology Planning for Organizations         3 Credits
This course examines the role of information technology as a strategic component of modern business. While focusing on the implementation of computer-based information systems, it will also consider broader issues of communication and culture in organizations, as well as institutional change related to new technologies. It will use literature reviews, case studies, and an assessment exercise to address several issues related to new means and strategies in information and communication technologies. Prerequisites: MGT 330 and INF 340 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MGT 601 The Functions of Modern Management         3 Credits
This course serves to advance the knowledge of the functions of management, the underlying theories and literature associated with the management discipline, and build students’ understanding of the relationships across organizational and business functions. Students grapple with current management problems and emerging solutions applied in the context of the organization.

MHA Master Health Care Administration

MHA 601 Principles of Health Care Administration         3 Credits
The focus of this course is on the application of advanced organizational principles in complex health care environments. Organizational issues, administrative processes and applications are explored. The managerial perspectives of a mid-to senior healthcare administrator are emphasized.

MHA 605 Business Intelligence         3 Credits
Business Intelligence uses technology to transform and analyze data into presentable information for decision-making. Strategic planning is essential for sustainability and business intelligence tools help leaders make the decisions that will positively impact the bottom line.

MHA 610 Introduction to Biostatistics        3 Credits
This course explores the application of fundamental statistical methods to the health care environment. Course content includes both descriptive and inferential methods including: data analysis, statistical estimation, regression analysis, analysis of variance, hypothesis testing and analysis of longitudinal data.  NOTE: This course uses software that is not Mac OS compatible. Access to a Windows PC or a Windows-based platform is required.

MHA 612 Financial & Managerial Accounting         3 Credits
This course provides the foundation for integrating health care finance and managerial accounting. Opportunities for analyzing current and emerging health care financing trends are provided. Practical cost-benefit strategies used in planning, controlling and preparing internal and external reports are emphasized.

MHA 614 Policy Formation & Leadership in Health Organizations         3 Credits
This course focuses on the administrator’s perspective and leadership role in formation of health care personnel policy and program recruitment, compensation, performance evaluation and labor relations. Evaluation of policy compliance with accreditation, regulatory and legal requirements, professional standards and ethical considerations, and medical staff and board communication are stressed.

MHA 616 Health Care Management Information Systems         3 Credits
This course applies health care data in real-world contexts. Factors such as service line identification, program planning, implementation models and outcome monitoring are covered.

MHA 618 Health Economics         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the analysis of health care operations and planning decisions derived from the theoretical concepts of demand, cost production, profit and competition. External and internal forces challenging health care services are analyzed. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency within the complex health care environment are emphasized.

MHA 620 Health Policy Analyses         3 Credits
This course focuses on the analysis and evaluation of health care policy. Policy implications in organizational decision making, strategic planning and market positions are examined.

MHA 622 Health Care Ethics & Law         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the legal and ethical issues arising in the health care environment. Case study analysis is used to illustrate the ethical and legal implications commonly addressed in health care.

MHA 624 Continuous Quality Improvements & Risk Management         3 Credits
This course examines a systemic approach to health care outcomes and risk management practices. Assurance of quality health services and organizational risk control is discussed using industry benchmark and accreditation standards and processes.

MHA 626 Strategic Planning & Marketing in Health Care         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the visioning and modeling of services and programs, both anticipatory and responsive, utilizing market-driven information. Students integrate theories from economics, information management, finance and leadership, culminating in the generation of a comprehensive business plan.

MHA 628 Managed Care & Contractual Services         3 Credits
This course examines the concepts of supply, demand, profits, cost and quality control in a managed care environment. Stakeholder dynamics are explored. Factors such as population, health status, market forces, contractual adjustments, third-party payers, cost allocation, government policies, and legal and ethical implications are explored.

MHA 630 Global & Population Health: Comparative Systems         3 Credits
Global health care needs continue to emerge as interchanges among peoples and nations increase. To effectively address these needs, health care administrators must understand the social, economic, environmental, and political determinants of health and be prepared to respond to challenges related to health and health care at the local, national, and global level. This course examines the historical evolution of global health challenges as well as the future trends that will continue to impact health and health systems worldwide.

MHA 690 Health Care Capstone         3 Credits
This course offers an opportunity for the integration of knowledge and skills developed within a culminating student project. The focus is on strategic and organizational issues unique to the health care environment. The student will present a comprehensive report at the end of the Capstone experience.

MIL Military Studies

MIL 101 Introduction to Military Studies         3 Credits
This course provides an orientation to the systematic study of the military. It explores topics that include grand strategy, the role of the military in the promotion of national security, how the application of military force can promote peace, the character traits necessary for moral and effective leadership, and the ethical dilemmas raised by the use of military force.

MIL 204 Introduction to Sources of Conflict in the Middle East         3 Credits
This course will examine the political, religious, social, and economic complexities and ramifications of the conflict in the Middle East from Afghanistan to Northern Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students will study the complex topics of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism as components of conflict in selected nation states. This course will evaluate the effects that conflict has on the region and the world as a whole and the impact of selected military interventions.

MIL 208 Survey of the American Military since WWI         3 Credits
Since World War I, the American Military has expanded and transformed into a modern military machine. This course will focus on the reasons and ways in which the versatile American Military has been utilized throughout the world, at different times. This course will focus on a selection of significant battles fought by air, land and sea, during World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Persian Gulf War.

MIL 212 The Military as a Peace Keeping Force         3 Credits
This course will examine ways in which militaries are utilized during peace times and in times of conflict. It will focus on NATO, the United Nations, Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Recovery. It will investigate the role external factors such as, international and local politics, geography, media, terrorism, and economics have on a military’s ability to be a peace keeping force.

MIL 275 Military Ethics         3 Credits
Ethical issues faced in the modern world will be examined including the ethics of leadership, just war theory, and the moral status of the rules of war. Students will use critical thinking to determine the ethical implications and solutions for complex issues that are relevant to the current day military. The course will make use of case studies to illustrate moral and ethical dilemmas.

MIL 310 American Military History I         3 Credits
United States military operations from colonial times through World War I. The course draws material from selected disciplines of the humanities, exploring how and why America has gone to war beginning with the American Revolution to the post-World War I period. This course examines how war has shaped national strategy and how conflict affected peacetime society.

MIL 311 American Military History II         3 Credits
United States military operations from the end of World War I to The Gulf Wars. The course draws material from selected disciplines of the humanities, exploring how and why America has gone to war beginning with World War II, through the Cold War period, and, finally, the Gulf Wars. This course examines how war has shaped national strategy and how conflict affected peacetime society.

MIL 312 Peacekeeping         3 Credits
This course will explore the concept of peacekeeping, particularly as it relates to grand strategy. Both multilateral and unilateral peacekeeping operations will be studied in considerable detail. Students will use a case study methodology to assess the utility and moral implications of peacekeeping operations worldwide.

MIL 322 The Literature of War         3 Credits
The course will provide an overview of the literary content, social values and military significance found in selected works of military literature. Students will gain a contextual, cultural, and humanitarian understanding of the historical influences in military literature.

MIL 350 Studies in Military Leadership         3 Credits
A close examination of how and what made specific American military leaders successful by studying their leadership techniques and military careers. The American Revolution to present day leaders will be examined. This course is designed to inspire an interest in the principles and practices of military leadership and to explore how these high-impact principles and practices may be professionally applied in the workplace.

MIL 497 Military Studies Capstone         3 Credits
Students will demonstrate their mastery of the learning outcomes of the Military Studies major by demonstrating the ability to conduct historical research using primary and secondary sources and by creating a final research paper requiring comprehensive critical analysis of an approved topic in the areas of military leadership, conflicts, peace-making, peace-keeping, and humanitarian efforts. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

MKT Marketing

MKT 625 Consumer Behavior         3 Credits
This course presents and analyzes the most critical issues of buyer behavior both for individual consumers and within the organizational environment. Priority is placed on the economic, psychometric, and sociometric factors that influence buyer behavior and the buyer decision process. Through analyzing and understanding buyer behavior, marketing managers can ultimately understand this process and actively influence strategic business decisions.

MKT 635 Market Research         3 Credits
This course is designed to integrate theory and practice and develop students’ analytical skills in marketing research methodology. Students apply methods and techniques for the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of primary and secondary data toward the solution of current marketing problems.

MKT 640 Brand Publishing         3 Credits
This course builds on leadership, business, management, and marketing concepts contained in the MBA program, while introducing the principles of brand publishing, trending technologies, and customer behavior. Through examples and case studies, students learn to improve the organization, tracking, assembly, personalization, and sourcing of content to establish a center of excellence within an organization. In addition, this capstone project will generate a portfolio project to demonstrate students’ significant execution of brand publishing as a core marketing function and career path.

NUR Nursing

NUR 300 Professional Role Development and Practice in Nursing         3 Credits
This course focuses on the baccalaureate-prepared nurse’s role(s) in professional practice, and the alignment of nursing theories with practice and research. The course surveys important changes that have occurred in the nursing profession over the years, such as the ANCC Magnet Recognition Program. The course will cover quality and safety education for nurses (QSEN), the nursing scope of practice as defined by the American Nurses Association (ANA), the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) core competencies in collaborative care, nursing ethics, education, health promotion, and disease prevention, as they relate to professional nursing roles. Students will apply critical thinking, evidence-based practice (EBP), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) to professional nursing practice. This course includes 20 hours of practice experience activities. Prerequisites: ENG 325 and NUR 322.

NUR 302 Transcultural Nursing Care         3 Credits
This course focuses on the differences and similarities among cultures with respect to human care, health, and illness and how these considerations apply to real-world nursing practices. Students enrolled in the course develop their scientific and humanistic knowledge by integrating their own history, life experiences, beliefs, and values and by assessing how these factors have the potential to impact the ways in which they provide culturally competent care. Prerequisite: NUR 300.

NUR 304 Health Assessment         3 Credits
This course prepares RN to BSN students to synthesize the comprehensive health assessment. Emphasis is placed on the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of data collected from clients of all ages. A physical, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual approach, which is supported by evidence-based practices is used to assess the client and to incorporate consideration of the client's needs, state of wellness, developmental level, and response to life experiences. Students also evaluate current health policy and technology to support health assessment to improve community health. Prerequisite: NUR 302.

NUR 306 Nursing Research         3 Credits
This course provides the scientific foundation for professional practice. It introduces the student to the basic research methodologies and statistical concepts, and qualitative, quantitative, and epidemiologic research designs. Research methods and findings are appraised and applied within the framework of evidence based professional practice. Research proposal development as a foundation for nursing inquiry is emphasized. Prerequisite: NUR 300.

NUR 322 Health Care Ethics and Medical Law         3 Credits
This course presents the ethical and legal implications of health care administration. The unique legal aspects encountered in the provision of health services are analyzed. Concepts of access, affordability, health care interventions and human rights are interfaced with legal and ethical issues challenging the provision of health care services. Concepts of risk management, continuous quality assurance, guardianship, Institutional Review Boards, and needs of special and diverse populations provide discussion points in the course. The overlapping domains of ethics and medical law are examined. Case studies and discussion of ethical and legal precedent setting decisions are used to link theory with reality. (Cross-listed as HCA 322).

NUR 400 Family Health Nursing         3 Credits
Major theoretical models and frameworks for developing clinical skills in assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing, and evaluating holistic nursing interventions across the family life cycle are presented. Contemporary issues related to diverse family structures, cultural and socioeconomic influences on access to and delivery of health care, and provision of culturally-competent family nursing care are emphasized. Knowledge and skill development in providing evidence-based nursing care and coordinating health care for families experiencing acute and chronic illnesses, including transitions in level of care and care settings, are reinforced. Community-based nursing assessment and interventions with physically-, psychologically-, and socially-vulnerable client populations within a family health context are explored. Prerequisites: NUR 304, NUR 306 and GRO 325.

NUR 402 Community Health Nursing         3 Credits
This course focuses on culturally diverse populations and aggregates in communities to achieve an optimum level of wellness. Special emphasis is placed on advanced theoretical concepts related to health promotion, risk reduction, disease prevention, and development processes. Students gain skills needed to influence policy and to support the changes in a community context. They examine healthcare reform and its impact on communities, evaluate policies that influence the structure, financing, and quality in health care, and examine healthcare delivery from a global perspective. Through discussions and other activities, students examine the effect of legal and regulatory processes on nursing practice, healthcare delivery, and population health outcomes as well as ways to advocate for promotion and preservation of population health. This course includes 20 hours of practice experience activities. Prerequisites: NUR 304 and NUR 306.

NUR 404 Nursing Care and Management of Chronic Illness and Disability         3 Credits
This course focuses on the interrelationship among functioning, health, and disability, which is analyzed within a biopsychosocial context. Pathophysiological, psychosocial, and functional aspects of chronic health conditions, across the lifespan and linked to the following physiological systems, are presented: respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, endocrine, immune/ inflammatory, hematological, and skeletal/integumentary. The Chronic Care Model (CCM), multidisciplinary care, and current therapeutic modalities and disease management for these conditions are explored. Development of evidence-based, community-focused chronic illness nursing assessment, care plans, and interventions, including care coordination strategies, is emphasized. Prerequisites: NUR 400 and NUR 402.

NUR 406: Leading and Managing in Nursing         3 Credits
To effectively transition from a clinical nursing role to leadership, nursing professionals must possess business savvy and specialty skills that allow them to meet the demands an evolving and changing industry while maintaining the caring competencies of the nursing profession. This course introduces and reinforces group-promoting teamwork, leadership, delegation, supervision, healthcare ethical decision-making processes, strategic planning, and business negotiation. . This course includes 20 hours of practice experience activities. Prerequisites: NUR 304 and NUR 306.

NUR 492: Capstone I: Nursing Practice Improvement Inquiry         3 Credits
This course, and its companion, NUR 494, represent the culmination of learning in the nursing program, and provide students an opportunity to synthesize and demonstrate knowledge of biopsychosocial health alterations and health promotion with clients across multiple practice settings, with an emphasis on patient population/community practice, the importance of culture and diversity in nursing practice, health policy, knowledge of nursing leadership, intra- and interprofessional collaboration, ethics, and research. Integrated knowledge and skills will be demonstrated through the development of a capstone project proposal related to the identification and critical, evidence-based, research exploration of a nursing practice problem, and strategies for quality improvement in the areas of health informatics, leadership and management, or population/ community health. NUR 492 and NUR 494 includes 30 hours of practice experience activities. Prerequisites: NUR 404, NUR 406 and permission of the program chair.

NUR 494: Capstone II: Nursing Practice Improvement and Evaluation         3 Credits
Demonstration of integrated theoretical, research, and evidence-based practice knowledge and skills is foundational to the role of the professional, bachelor’s-prepared nurse. The student will utilize the capstone project proposal developed in NUR 492 to develop a comprehensive improvement plan for the identified nursing practice problem, which encompasses best practices utilizing: quality and safety in patient care, nursing informatics, health policy, community/population health, nursing leadership, ethical and professional standards, and integration of theory. The plan will include strategies for evaluating its identified outcomes. The project will highlight the knowledge gained of the professional nurse practice role, specialized patient population, and health care-practice setting. NUR 492 and NUR 494 includes 30 hours of practice experience activities. Prerequisites: NUR 492 and permission of the program chair.

OMM Organizational Management

OMM 612 Managing in Social Change         3 Credits
This course considers key aspects of social change in today’s complex and interdependent business world, analyzes their effect on how managers position their business enterprises, and identifies decision-making strategies that allow mission-driven organizations to contribute to social transformation.

OMM 614 Innovation & Entrepreneurship         3 Credits
This course explores innovation as it relates to organizational leadership and purposeful entrepreneurship. It analyzes the perspective and values of an entrepreneurial mind and the developmental cycle of an entrepreneurial organization or organizational unit, including the stages of resource development, launching, managing growth and evaluating progress. Approaches to problem- solving are developed with applications made to organizational responsibilities and personal growth.

OMM 615 Strategies: Marketing/Advertising/Public Relations         3 Credits
This course explores practical ways to develop organizational communication plans that integrate marketing, advertising and public relations strategies. Emphasis is given to the dynamic process of managerial decision-making required to implement an integrated communication plan effectively in order to achieve organizational goals.

OMM 618 Human Resources Management         3 Credits
This course is a study on managing people in the workplace, focusing on the important policies and processes associated with recruiting, hiring, training and evaluating personnel in order to achieve strategic organizational goals.

OMM 622 Financial Decision-making         3 Credits
The course is designed to allow individuals who do not prepare accounting and financial documents to understand and use these documents as tools in effective managerial decision-making, control and planning. Topics include purposes of financial statements, analysis of financial statements using basic accounting concepts, budgeting, and financial accountability in an organization.

OMM 625 Learning Organizations & Effectiveness         3 Credits
This course presents the principles and elements of the learning organization and uses key principles as a framework for defining the organization’s management practices and measuring its effectiveness.

OMM 640 Business Ethics & Social Responsibility         3 Credits
This course analyzes organizational, professional and personal ethics and creates a framework for exploring the social responsibilities of managers and organizational leaders. Various methodologies will be used to explore ways to encourage ethical development and moral behavior within organizational culture and to resolve business ethical issues and dilemmas.

OMM 692 Organizational Management Strategy         3 Credits
This capstone course explores the formulation, implementation and maintenance of organizational strategic management. In the context of a globally competitive market, students will explore methods of directing an entire organization. Topics include: analysis of competitive position, value creation, developing systems-wide goals and objectives, and the creation of a strategic plan. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire program curriculum.

PED Physical Education and Health

PED 212 Foundation of Movement & Motor Activities         3 Credits

Students will examine integrated movement curriculum and the relationship between knowledge, motor skills, and movement activities. Activities will lead to understanding of how the body is used during fundamental motor skills and the progression to more advanced movement. Emphasis is on the study of human movement and the development of motor skills which enhance health related physical fitness. Movement concepts of body awareness, space, and quality of movement are defined. Fundamental movement skills are analyzed and used as a basis for planning physical education coursework.

PHI Philosophy

PHI 103 Informal Logic         3 Credits

This course is a study of correct and incorrect reasoning involved in everyday activities. The fundamentals of language and argument, deductive and inductive reasoning and other aspects of practical reasoning are examined.

PHI 208 Ethics & Moral Reasoning         3 Credits

This course explores key philosophical concepts from an ethical perspective. Students will analyze selected assertions of knowledge and the methods of reasoning humans use to justify these claims. Through research into theories of science and religion, as well as the theoretical and empirical challenges these institutions of thought face, students will also investigate how the mind constructs and understands reality. This will provide a foundation for an exploration into questions of morality, in which students will look at traditional and contemporary ethical theories, and apply these theories to contemporary moral issues.

PHI 445 Personal & Organizational Ethics         3 Credits
In this course, students will examine various ethical theories, economic concepts, and business paradigms. These examinations will serve as the foundation for the analysis of moral problems in business. Students will explore the ethical challenges and dilemmas facing decision makers in business organizations. Students will also consider their own stake in the market as consumers, employees, managers, or small business owners.

POL Political Science

POL 111 Introduction to Political Science         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to the complexity and nuance of Political Science. It explores the political and social dynamics of choice, action, and consequence that underlie and support all political phenomena. Specifically, this course focuses on the why and how of politics rather than the what, in order to provide students with useful, current, and relevant conceptual and theoretical tools for enhancing their critical thinking skills.

POL 201 American National Government         3 Credits
A survey of government at the national level. Emphasis is placed on the constitutional basis of American government, federalism, the sources and forms of political behavior, the operation of the three branches of government, and the making of national policy.

POL 211 Introduction to Politics         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to selected institutions, processes, and political behaviors associated with the study of politics in the United States and globally.

POL 255 Introduction to International Relations         3 Credits
This course in International Relations is an introductory study of the interactions and interconnectivity of the countries of the world.  The course emphasizes the need to think critically about international politics and foreign policy.  Consequently, this course focuses topically on how and why wars begin, balances of power between states, international institutions, collective security, international communications, human rights, globalization, regime types, international trade, environmental change, imperialism, injustice, inequality, and other issues relevant to the changing world. 

POL 303 The American Constitution         3 Credits
This course is a study of the Constitution of the United States and its role in American history and government. The study covers the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, its subsequent amendment and interpretation, and its contemporary role in American politics and government. (Cross-listed as HIS 303.)

POL 310 Environmental Policies        3 Credits
Examines political, social, and economic policies and their impact on the global environment. Also explores ways in which policy decisions can serve to protect the environment. (Cross-listed as ENV 310.)

POL 319 State & Local Government         3 Credits
This course examines the structure and processes of state and local governments and their related current problems and issues. There is a focus on the effect of Federalism and its effect on States.

POL 325 Congress & the Presidency         3 Credits
This course examines the notion of shared governance as it applies to two central institutions of the American national government, Congress and the Presidency. Students have an opportunity to learn more about the history, structure, and functions of each institution but there is much emphasis placed on the relationship between Congress and the Presidency. Topics include leadership, policymaking, tensions within each institution and between the different institutions, and a focus on a variety of public policy areas.

POL 353 Comparative Politics         3 Credits
This course introduces the basic concepts and theories of comparative politics through an analysis of selected political systems and governments from various regions and societies across the world. Topical analysis in the course includes an emphasis on key political institutions, political culture, ideology, globalization, conflict and stability, various state and non-state actors, and on issues associated with economic development and underdevelopment.

POL 355 International Relations         3 Credits
The course in international relations is the study of relations between different nations of the world with an emphasis on understanding the political implications of international security matters and the international political economy. The topical emphasis on nationalism, diplomacy, conflict, international organizations and actors, human rights, political economy, and key global issues offers insights into the principles of identity, cooperation, and the use of power in an international context.

POL 411 Political Behavior         3 Credits
Students will study political behavior as it relates to campaigns and elections in the United States. Selected course themes include political communication, participation, voting, and elections.

POL 470 Introduction to Political Analysis         3 Credits
This course introduces the preliminary processes needed to research and write presentable and professional Political Science papers. Practical, hands-on experience and in-class exercises will walk students through the research process and enable them to create expert research products. Specifically, this course focuses on how to choose a research topic, conduct a thorough literature review, make critical research design decisions, collect and analyze relevant data, and skillfully document and present the results of the research. Prerequisite: 18 credit hours in Political Science

POL 480 Methodology in Political Science         3 Credits
This course completes the process of learning how to conduct political analysis and critically assess statistical research. In this course, students will learn how to measure political science events and actions, identify and assess pertinent variables, design valid hypothesis testing techniques, control for alternative hypotheses, and interpret data in various formats, including graphs, statistical tables, and charts. Students will utilize pragmatic, relevant Political Science-related exercises to enhance and refine their political science analysis skills. Prerequisite: POL 470.

POL 497 Political Science Capstone         3 Credits
In this final course students will demonstrate their mastery of program outcomes in Political Science and Government by creating an original research report on a current, relevant, and specifically defined subject area. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

PPA Public Administration

PPA 301 Principles of Public Administration         3 Credits
An introductory examination of the characteristics of the public organization and its impact on society including analysis of the principles of public administration, personnel issues, budgetary activities, legal dynamics, as well as historical development of the field are included.

PPA 303 Finance for Public Administrators         3 Credits
This course addresses the principles of state and local financing of government, sources of public revenue, objects of public expenditures, problems of fiscal administration, emerging policy issues involving land use and taxation, spending and budgeting, intergovernmental cooperation, debt financing, financing for economic development, and privatization. Prerequisite: ECO 203.

PPA 305 Budgeting for Public Administrators         3 Credits
This is an introductory course in government budgeting dealing with public revenue, expenditure policies, and politics of the budgetary process while addressing current issues and challenges in this field.

PPA 307 Intergovernmental Relations & Issues         3 Credits
The theory and practice of intergovernmental relations and the various issues that accompany the daily operations and affect the overall efficiency of our system. This course will address both the legal and political perspectives of the interactions, relationships and public policy considerations throughout the various components and levels of government. Prerequisite: PPA 301.

PPA 401 Urban Management         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to formal and informal elements of urban management systems addressing the exploration of alternative approaches to dealing with problems arising from rapid urban growth. Prerequisite: PPA 301.

PPA 403 Administrative Law         3 Credits
A study of the nature and the law of the administrative procedure, of separation and delegation of powers, and of the scope of judicial review and other remedies against administrative actions.

PPA 405 Personnel Management         3 Credits
An examination of the essential processes, policies, and laws pertaining to public personnel including an analysis of issues concerning public personnel administrators, employee protection, motivation, and effectiveness.

PPA 497 Public Policy Formation         3 Credits
A study of how the dynamics of governmental decision making influence the content of public policy; course focuses upon how legislators, interest groups, chief executives, and the bureaucracy function to define alternatives and to shape policy agenda and content. Prerequisites: PPA 301 and successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

PPA 601 Foundations of Public Administration         3 Credits
This course examines the theory and practice of public administration, its legal and constitutional foundation and the role of the public administrator in public policy. The context of the course discussions are based on the current issues facing public agency administrators.

PPA 602 Public Financial Management         3 Credits
This course is an exploration of current governmental fiscal management techniques and issues. Other course topics include various types of financial and technical assistance as well as quasi-governmental and non-profit management organizations.

PPA 603 Government Budgeting         3 Credits
This is a comprehensive, straightforward examination of government budgeting. Topics deal with include the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to revenue projection, the collection and review of departmental proposals, the development of capital budgeting policy and other budgeting tasks. Also addressed are budget implementation, accounting and financial reporting. A variety of methods for maintaining budgetary balance, preventing overspending and dealing with contingencies are presented and discussed.

PPA 604 Urban Planning/Redevelopment         3 Credits
This course focuses upon the visioning and modeling of services and programs, both anticipatory and responsive, utilizing market-driven information. Students integrate theories from economics, information management, finance and leadership, culminating in the generation of a comprehensive business plan. 

PPA 605 Negotiation, Bargaining & Conflict Management         3 Credits
This course analyzes bargaining and negotiation principles and practices in the public sector. The course focuses on the financial issues of contract negotiations and labor relations and building negotiation skills of the administrator.

PPA 699 Public Policy Development         3 Credits
This capstone course is an examination of influences affecting policy development and decision making in the urban political arena. It also covers policy management, policy execution, establishing and measuring criteria for policy success, and effective communication throughout the public policy process. This course is cumulative in nature, integrating knowledge and information attained while completing the entire MPA curriculum. In addition, this course requires the generation and presentation of an analysis of a community development project.

PSY Psychology

PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology         3 Credits
This course is a survey of selected topics in psychology, including research methods, physiological psychology, sensation, perception, consciousness, learning, memory, motivation, gender roles, abnormal behavior, psychotherapy, and social psychology.

PSY 104 Child & Adolescent Development         3 Credits
This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through adolescence. Students are provided the opportunity to explore the “what,” “how,” and “when” of physical motor, cognitive, socio-emotional, moral aesthetic, and language development. Exploration is emphasized through activities that allow students to understand and appreciate both typical and atypical development within the context of the family and society and to recognize the impact of individual, cultural and linguistic differences on development.

PSY 202 Adult Development & Life Assessment         3 Credits
This course presents adult development theory and links theoretical concepts of life and learning through a process of psychometric assessment and reflection. Both classical and contemporary adult development theories are examined. These theories then provide the paradigm for self-analysis and life learning, including a plan for personal, professional and academic learning.

PSY 203 Psychology of Human Sexuality         3 Credits
This course examines various perspectives on sexuality, such as its biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. Topics examined include but are not limited to: male and female reproductive anatomy and physiology of sexual responding; sexual development, behavior, and identity over the life span; and variations in typical and atypical sexual behavior and expression. Emphasis is placed on the human sexual experience as a vehicle for self-awareness, self-understanding, and self-acceptance.

PSY 301 Social Psychology         3 Credits
Students explore how the thoughts, feelings and behavior of individuals are influenced by other human beings in a variety of social situations. This course also entails a survey and critical analysis of the various methods used by researchers in social psychology. Topics include: social cognition, aggression, prejudice, interpersonal attraction, altruistic behavior, conformity, group influences, and conflict resolution. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or SSC 101 or equivalent.

PSY 302 Industrial/Organizational Psychology         3 Credits
This course examines the influence of an organization upon the individual, as well as ways an individual can influence an organization. Topics include recruiting, personnel selection, organizational climate, group problem solving, and conflict resolution.

PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology         3 Credits
The course entails a study of the diagnosis, causes, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders. Problems with the reliability and validity of the American Psychiatric Association system for diagnosing psychological disorders will be discussed, and various alternative systems will be introduced. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent. .

PSY 304 Lifespan Development         3 Credits
This course consists of the application of the methods and principles of several fields of psychology to an extensive study of human growth development in the child, adolescent, and adult. Prerequisite: PSY 101.

PSY 307 The Journey of Adulthood         3 Credits
This course presents process-oriented, multi-disciplinary views, principles, research findings, and perspectives across the adulthood continuum: early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Students gain an understanding of developmental changes occurring in the realms of biology, anatomy, and social and cultural contexts in which aging occurs.

PSY 317 Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly         3 Credits
This course explores cognitive functioning in later life including biological, socioeconomic, environmental, cognitive adaptation, and life history factors influencing cognitive function as an individual progresses along a developmental continuum. The major psychological constructs of self concept, socialization, and thinking processes are presented. Etiology, interventions, education, and support systems are discussed. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent.  

PSY 323 Perception, Learning, & Cognition         3 Credits
Students will study research and theory about mental processes that go between experience and the human mind. Students will gather and interpret data for several simple experiments that demonstrate classic research findings in perception, learning, and cognition. Perception entails the mental processes involved in the organization and interpretation of sensory experience. Learning entails relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from experience. Cognition explains how the mind processes information, how we encode, store, and retrieve memories, and how we use information to form beliefs, make decisions, and solve problems. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent.

PSY 325 Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences         3 Credits
Descriptive and inferential statistics are investigated and multiple techniques for statistical analysis are introduced in this course. Formulas for presenting and evaluating data are explored in accordance with generally accepted protocol for statistical analysis. Prerequisite: Fulfillment of the General Education Mathematical competency.

PSY 326 Research Methods         3 Credits
Research Methods is an introduction to the foundations of research methodology, design and analysis. Basic principles of qualitative and quantitative research are explored and evaluated. Understanding the results of statistical analysis as it applies to research is a focus of this curriculum.

PSY 330 Theories of Personality         3 Credits
This course reviews the basic concepts and principles of the major theories of personality. It also assesses the scientific worth and validity of these theories and includes case studies that show how these theories are applied to the treatment of psychological disorders. Detailed descriptions of healthy and unhealthy personality types will be stressed. Students will be challenged to evaluate their personality, as it relates to the theory being presented. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent.

PSY 331 Psychology of Learning         3 Credits
Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes resulting from experience. This course consists of the application of learning theory and research in a wide range of settings where learning takes place. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent.

PSY 344 Issues & Trends in Adult Development         3 Credits

This course provides an interdisciplinary exploration of contemporary issues and trends in adult development as well as emerging research areas. Topics include intergenerational conflicts, changing role dynamics, volunteerism, self-esteem in adulthood, resilience and vulnerability, maintaining and enhancing cognitive vitality in adulthood, adult employment trends including multiple career changes, coping with “boomerang children,” grandparents raising grandchildren, and the growth of lifelong learning.

PSY 350 Physiological Psychology         3 Credits
Students study the anatomy and physiology of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and endocrine system. Study of the biological systems promotes better understanding of mind-body relationships important to hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, emotion, learning, and memory. Students also examine medical theories, assessment, and treatments of psychological disorders including new imaging technologies and drug therapy. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or equivalent.

PSY 352 Cognitive Psychology         3 Credits
Cognitive psychology takes a scientific approach to understanding the fundamental mental processes involved in everyday cognition. This course covers the topics of perception, attention, memory, and language by examining both classic and contemporary cognitive psychology methods and experimental results. Prerequisites: PSY 101, and PSY 326 (may be taken concurrently with PSY 326) or ABS 311.

PSY 361 Health Psychology         3 Credits

Students explore the mind/body relationship as it pertains to health, stress, and the person’s response to medical treatment. This course includes a review of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, the endocrine system, the immune system, and other organ systems. Students explore new strategies of applied psychology for sustaining health, managing stress, and recovering successfully from disease, injury, and medical treatment.

PSY 380 Counseling & Behavior Change         3 Credits
This course is designed for students entering into human service fields. Students compare and contrast behavior change theories and models, determine client needs, apply motivational strategies and counseling skills, and evaluate moral and ethical issues. Cultural competency and cultural sensitivity concepts are also discussed. Prerequisites: HWE 200 and PSY 361.

PSY 495 Adult Development Capstone         3 Credits
This course is a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, and concepts gained from the study of adult development A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and integrate knowledge gained throughout the program. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

PSY 496 Applied Project         3 Credits
This course provides a synthesis of the major ideas, perspectives, theories, and concepts gained from the study of psychology. A substantive simulated research project is created, providing students the opportunity to integrate key learning and knowledge gained from throughout the degree program. Prerequisites: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course and the majority of the major coursework.

PSY 600 Introduction to Graduate Study in Psychology         3 Credits

This course provides an introduction to graduate study at Ashford University in the field of psychology. Students will explore psychology as a science and profession. They will examine professional roles and organizations, ethics and professional standards, theoretical perspectives, and contemporary practical applications of psychology to real-world situations.

PSY 605 Developmental Psychology         3 Credits
This course will cover developmental and contextual experiences of humans across the lifespan. Emphasis will be placed on issues and questions that have dominated the field over time and continue to provide impetus for research. Interactions will focus on articles that describe and illustrate current theories and trends. Students will read selected research articles and self-select additional readings related to weekly topics and personal interest. These topics include theoretical trends and foundations in research, policy and ethics, health and wellness, human developmental context, and end-of-life issues.

PSY 610 Applied Social Psychology        3 Credits
This course provides a comprehensive examination of the science of social psychology as well as how it is applied to manage and aid the understanding of contemporary social issues. Topics include social quandaries encountered in the fields of mental and physical health, the workplace, the education system, and the legal system. Students will study seminal theories and research that informs the practical application of social psychology to real-life situations. Students will also apply social psychology theory and research to explain current social issues.

PSY 615 Personality Theories         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the basic concepts and principles of the major theories of personality. Students will assess the scientific worth and validity of these theories based on case studies that show how these theories are applied to the treatment of psychological disorders and how personality assessments are applied in different settings. Detailed descriptions of healthy and unhealthy personality types will be stressed, and students will be challenged to evaluate various assessment tools as they relate to the respective theories being presented.

PSY 620 Learning & Cognition         3 Credits
This course introduces students to multiple dimensions of learning and cognition, which range from the basic processes underlying learning to the contexts that promote self-regulation and metacognition. As the foundation of cognitive psychology, learning and cognition encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization, problem solving, epistemology, language acquisition, and recognition of diversity. During the course, students will study a broad range of content through an eclectic collection of peer-reviewed articles focusing on the different aspects of learning and cognition. This course highlights main findings, established facts, and skills in learning and cognition that are applicable to a wide range of contexts.

PSY 625 Biological Bases of Behavior         3 Credits
In this course students will explore the detailed anatomy and physiology of the brain, including cellular physiology, synaptic transmission, and clinical neuroanatomy. Theories that focus on the relationship between brain function and behavior will be reviewed, and students will illustrate their understanding of important brain networks, including those involved in sensation/perception, language, memory, movement, and emotions. Through a review of the history of behavioral neuroscience, students will learn about the relationship between symptom presentation and underlying theories of neuroanatomy/neurophysiology as well as how these concepts have evolved over time. Students will also become familiar with important research methods used in neuroscience by analyzing current concepts in brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. For the final assignment in the course, students will design a grant proposal that focuses on a particular disorder/syndrome in the area of neurophysiology. Prerequisites: PSY 600, PSY 605, PSY 610, PSY 615 and PSY 620.

PSY 630 Psychopharmacology         3 Credits
Students will examine the activity of drugs, both therapeutic and recreational, on the body with an emphasis on the brain. Theories of the biological basis of psychiatric disorders will be explored as a basis for examining the professional standards behind therapeutic drug use. The history of drug use, research methods and ethical concerns will be examined. Prerequisite: PSY 625.

 

PSY 635 Research Design & Methods         3 Credits
This course reviews the basic concepts of common quantitative research methods and introduces research design using qualitative and mixed methods. In the review of quantitative methods, emphasis will be placed on experimental research designs. Students will be challenged to select appropriate research designs and methodologies for various research questions. The course will culminate in a detailed research proposal on topics chosen by the students.

PSY 640 Psychological Testing & Assessment         3 Credits
The course includes an overview of individual and group approaches to testing in psychology. Students will review psychological assessments utilized to evaluate personality, intelligence, achievement, and career-related interests and skills in a variety of work settings. The course will provide students with opportunities to analyze psychometric methodologies typically employed in the development and validation of psychological and educational tests. Students will apply knowledge of psychological measurement principles to testing and assessment data with an emphasis on ethical and professional interpretation. Issues and challenges related to testing and assessment with diverse populations will be integrated into the course. Prerequisite: PSY 635. 

PSY 645 Psychopathology         3 Credits
This course introduces students to objective and phenomenological understandings of psychological symptoms and disorders. Students will draw from various theoretical and historical perspectives to build their understanding of diagnostic and treatment methods for psychological disorders and develop their appreciation for evidence-based practices. Additionally, students will be encouraged to conceptualize psychopathology from a socioculturally sensitive standpoint through the examination of culture-related syndromes. Diagnostic manuals and handbooks will be discussed and used throughout the course. 

PSY 650 Introduction to Clinical & Counseling Psychology         3 Credits
This course examines similarities and differences in clinical and counseling psychology, with an emphasis on professional roles and activities. Students will gain greater awareness of their attitudes toward various ethical and professional issues, psychotherapy modalities, theoretical orientations, and clinical interventions through case studies. Evidenced-based practices and psychotherapy integration will also be covered during the course. Prerequisite: PSY 645.

PSY 699 Master of Arts in Psychology Capstone         3 Credits
The capstone course is the culminating educational experience for the Master of Arts in Psychology. In this course, students will integrate and apply what they have learned throughout the program to meet competencies as outlined in the program learning outcomes. Students will be exposed to a holistic view of psychology as a discipline, and they will be encouraged to think critically about the broader themes that link various subfields of psychology. Students will reflect on the experience of the program as a whole and will consider how the program’s themes apply to a variety of civic and professional settings. The capstone affords students a final opportunity to practice and demonstrate the skills they will need to succeed after graduation.

RES Real Estate Studies

RES 301 Principles of Real Estate         3 Credits
This course introduces students to the general principles of real estate, to include industry terminology, ethics, deeds, listing and purchase agreements, agency, contracts, and property valuation decisions. Emphasis will also be on factors impacting local and national real estate markets.

RES 325 Real Estate Practice         3 Credits
This course examines the basic job functions of real estate salespersons and brokers. Property listing, advertising, escrow, sales, and establishing a client base will be covered with practical applications for completing successful transactions.

RES 327 Real Estate Economics         3 Credits
This course is a study of the foundational economic principles of real estate with an overview of the U.S. capitalist system. Focus will be on land use, markets, cycles and growth patterns, as well as property and income taxation.

RES 334 Real Estate Finance         3 Credits
This course primarily examines the residential real estate finance markets and their impacts on consumers, but will also cover facets of commercial real estate. Mortgage options and purchase costs will be highlighted with attention to theories of real estate investment.

RES 345 Legal Aspects of Real Estate         3 Credits
This course is a study of the legal system and its impact on purchase, ownership, sale, and leasing of real estate. Topics to be covered include contracts, wills, zoning, and environmental law, as well as Constitutional issues in real estate.

RES 429 Property Management         3 Credits
This course provides the framework for the management and development of inventory of private and commercial real estate properties on a large scale. Included emphases are the roles of the property manager, landlord duties and policies, leases, maintenance, reports, and insurance.

RES 431 Commercial Real Estate Investment         3 Credits
This course examines investment transactions, asset management, and enterprise management as the core components of commercial real estate investment. Methods for determining the value of commercial properties and the sources of real estate capital are also discussed.

RES 450 Real Estate Appraisal         3 Credits
A study of the functions and approaches to appraisal, which include cost, income, and the direct sale comparison approach. The social and economic factors that impact determination of value will be discussed with emphasis on analyzing market data.

RES 497 Strategic Management of the Real Estate Enterprise         3 Credits
This capstone course discusses the managerial decision-making and problem-solving processes that determine the failure or success of a real estate enterprise. Strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation and control are key points of comprehensive focus. The course also incorporates program comprehensive demonstrations of knowledge. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

SCI Science

SCI 207 Our Dependence upon the Environment 4 Credits
In this course, learners deepen their understanding of the importance of natural resources to mankind. Students explore physical, biological, and ecological principles, examine how human alterations affect the environment, and reflect on the controversies surrounding various approaches to addressing environmental problems and the steps some communities have taken to address these challenges.

SOC Sociology

SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology         3 Credits
This introductory course presents basic concepts, theories, and research in sociology. Group organization, sex and gender, marriage and the family, sports as a social institution, and collective behavior are among the topics considered.

SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility         3 Credits
This course introduces the basic ethical concepts and explores philosophic perspectives for understanding the meaning of social responsibility. Topics include ethical theories, the role of government, the role of corporations, environmental issues, and ethical integrity.

SOC 203 Social Problems         3 Credits
Drugs, poverty, illiteracy, homelessness, AIDS, undocumented aliens, single-parent families, urban and farm crises, and racial and environmental issues are examined. Possible causes and remedies are scrutinized.

SOC 205 Social Theory         3 Credits
Social theory refers to efforts to understand and illuminate the nature of social life. As such, social theory is not only the domain of sociologists. Contributors to social theory include economists, philosophers, psychologists, historians, activists, dramatists, essayists, poets, and novelists. Moreover, ordinary folks like us also theorize about social life. Social theories are crucial for helping us as individuals make sense of our daily lives, and they are essential to understanding new research, social practices and institutions. With the long-term aim of helping us better understand our lives and the world we live in, we will study what sociological theorists, have to say about the social world. The course covers key theorists such as Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Bourdieu and Foucault, Du Bois, Butler and Bauman and their seminal works, as well as the key social thought movements of Capitalism, Modernity, Alternative Knowledge, Self and Society.

SOC 301 Identity & Social Inequality         3 Credits
The course considers issues of identity, social inequality, and discrimination in society. The focus is on identities such as race and ethnicity, sex and gender, social class, culture, age, and ability, as well as the intersection between them. The focus is on these social categories as both elements of personal identity and sources of social inequality

SOC 304 Social Gerontology         3 Credits
The course focuses on social stereotypes and prejudice against the aged, discrimination, friends and family, care giving, living environments, demography, senior political power, legislation, elder abuse, and death and dying.

SOC 305 Crime & Society         3 Credits
The course considers the basic sociological theories and research findings concerning crime. The punishment and corrections process, organized crime, corporate crime, the police, the courts and the impact of crime on the victim are examined.

SOC 307 Gender & Sexuality         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to gender and sexuality studies from a sociological perspective. Its primary focus is critical perspectives on the social construction of gender and sexuality, inequalities on the basis of gender and sexuality, activism around issues of gender and sexuality, and how gender and sexuality shape and are shaped by other systems of inequality such as race, ethnicity, class, culture, and age. Also covered are key sociological discourses in the areas of feminism, masculinities, and queer theory.

SOC 308 Racial & Ethnic Groups         3 Credits
The course considers major racial and ethnic groups, especially African Americans, Asian Americans, ethnic Whites, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The focus is on the traits of each group and its pattern of adaptation to the larger society.

SOC 312 Child, Family & Society         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the child (infant through elementary) and the reciprocal relationships children develop with their family, their school, and the world in which they live. Theories pertaining to the roles and relationships within and between families, schools, and communities are introduced with an emphasis on enabling students to identify family needs and concerns and to use a variety of collaborative communication and problem-solving skills to assist families in finding the best available community resources to meet these needs. Students themselves explore various community resources that further the development of the child’s potential.

SOC 313 Social Implications of Medical Issues         3 Credits
An introductory course that provides learners with a basic foundation of human biology applicable to human service and health and human services providers. The course explores basic human biology and its relationship to selected socio-cultural domains that are grounded in Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model of Human Development.

SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives         3 Credits
Culture and politics in Europe, Latin America, the Arab world, India, East Asia, and other areas are examined. Emphasis is on viewing the world from the diverse perspectives of other cultures and political systems. Topics and regions vary.

SOC 318 Sociology of Sport         3 Credits
The social institution of sport is examined as a microcosm of society. Consideration is given to the different levels of sport and sports in relation to social stratification and mobility, big business, mass media, religion, race, gender, and social discrimination. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

SOC 320 Public Policy & Social Services         3 Credits
An examination of public policies and the social services they mandate. The major focus is on American government policy at all levels and the detailed content of social services. Some consideration of other nations and international agencies is offered. Policies and services pertaining to a variety of areas including urban life, poverty, health care, substance abuse, children, the aged, unemployment, and mental health are studied.

SOC 322 Sociological Aspects of Adulthood         3 Credits
Utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach, this course provides an introduction to the field of gerontology and its social implications. Social, psychological, and physical aspects of aging are overviewed as well as an exploration of the demographic shift taking place and the meaning and impact of the shift in terms of issues and policies arising from the graying of America. Other course topics include common aging changes/conditions, myths and stereotypes, the effects of health and illness on the individual, family, and society, and the impact of media, culture, and gender influences on aging.

SOC 326 Diversity & Aging         3 Credits
This course explores the diversity perspectives of culture, ethnicity, economic status, national origin, disability, gender, and sexual identity as related to aging. Emphasis is placed on the ethnic perspectives of aging across cultures.

SOC 333 Research Methods        3 Credits
This course examines quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods and associated data interpretation within the context of research, policy and practice within the social sciences. This course also examines the relationship between research, policy and/or theory. Students will examine types of data, measurement scales, hypotheses, sampling, probability, and varied research designs for research in the social sciences and related disciplines.

SOC 401 Engaging in Sociology 3 Credits
The course embraces the concept of ‘Engaging Sociology’ - a need for Sociology students to understand how to engage sociology in their daily lives and spheres and also through their employment. The course covers varied aspects of applied Sociology as a citizen in communities on a local, national, and global scale, as well as through employment as a Sociologist. Prerequisites: SOC 101, SOC 333 and SOC 301.

SOC 402 Contemporary Social Problems & the Workplace         3 Credits
This course presents an analysis of major contemporary social problems, especially in the United States. Attention is given to the problems of poverty, racism, sexism, drug and alcohol abuse, and illiteracy, and their impact on the contemporary workplace. Consideration is given to diverse sociological perspectives regarding the causes, consequences, and solutions to these problems.

SOC 490 Social Science Capstone         3 Credits
This course requires students to reflect upon and synthesize the major insights gained in their study of the Social Sciences. A substantive paper is developed which requires students to critically analyze their experiences and knowledge in order to build leaders in the interdisciplinary field of Social Science. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

SPA Spanish

SPA 103 Beginning Spanish I         3 Credits
This course is designed for beginning Spanish speakers with no previous college course work in Spanish. The goal of this course is to enable students to acquire a basic mastery of the following four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course will emphasize practice of grammar and communication skills.

SPA 104 Beginning Spanish II         3 Credits
Continued study of grammar and vocabulary of the Spanish language and study of the Spanish-speaking cultures. Emphasis on speaking, reading, and writing skills. Prerequisite: SPA 103 or departmental approval.

SPE Speech

SPE 103 Oral Communication         3 Credits
Students learn basic theory and practice of oral communication. Topics include language, listening, causes of communication breakdown, feedback, nonverbal communication, audience analysis, reasoning, organization and development of messages, and delivery strategies. Oral assignments may range from informative, persuasive, and ceremonial speaking to small group discussion and oral interpretation.

SRM Sports and Recreation Management

SRM 311 Sport Law         3 Credits

This course explores the legal structure of, and issues surrounding, amateur and professional sports leagues and associations. Included will be an examination of tort issues, risk management, sports agency, contract law, collective bargaining, gender issues, intellectual property, and antitrust law.

SRM 320 Organization and Administration of Sports & Recreation Management         3 Credits
Reviews the principles of organizational structure and behavior within sport organizations. Topics include organizational policies and procedures, organizational effectiveness, communication networks, and leadership values. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of instructor.

SRM 325 Case Research in Sports & Recreation Management         3 Credits
Sports as a subject matter is very ancient and its marketing can be traced to even its earliest days. However, as an integral portion of contemporary society, successful sporting events or seasons generally require professional marketing efforts. Utilizing the principles of management, marketing and other relevant disciplines this course will use case studies, class discussions, and projects to enhance the student’s collective expertise in this area of Sports and Recreation Management. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the General Education Capstone course.

SRM 401 Sport Finance         3 Credits
The course examines the economic and financial environment in which the sport industry operates, with emphasis on financial decision-making, financial management, and current financial trends. The content identifies key stakeholders and their various interests in the financial success of sport operations and organizations. The students will explore sources of funding and revenue generation, financial controls and reporting, budgets, and the relationship between management principles and financial performance. Prerequisite: ACC 205.

SRM 410 Contemporary Issues in Sports Marketing & Management         3 Credits
Sport has become a major business enterprise in the United States and in much of the world. This course helps students understand the scope of the sport industry, to include identifying career opportunities in various segments of the sport industry. The course also examines the managerial process to include the functions of management, as well as the roles, skills, and attributes required of sport managers. Special attention is given to examining the unique characteristics of sport and the resulting social and ethical responsibilities of sport managers.

SRV Service Management

SRV 301 Introduction to Service Management         3 Credits

This course introduces management in the ‘intangible industries’ organization and addresses the central challenges presented by services organizations. The course also addresses the need for value creation through customers, the role of organizational leadership, and the role of services in modern society.

SRV 312 Service Operations Management         3 Credits
This course is an introduction to service-related operations in a variety of business sectors and is studied through the shared aspect of their service elements, drawing upon service management theory to provide the academic framework. Students are introduced to operations management principles, and study the role of the operations manager within service organizations. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 332 Fundamentals of Hospitality         3 Credits
This course is a survey of the interrelated industries that comprise the hospitality and tourism industry. The course also introduces the student to the major concepts and components that representing the hotel, food and beverage, restaurant, recreation, theme parks, gaming, club management, convention and event planning, cruises, and tourism services industries. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 333 Resort Management         3 Credits
This course provides an overview of resort management and operations in the context of ski, golf, gaming, and other types of resorts. The basic principles of marketing, management, and development of a resort will be covered. The course includes a review of the history of the growth of resorts in the United States, expansion of resorts worldwide, and their operations and characteristics. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 340 Marketing in a Services Environment         3 Credits
This course is designed to provide an introduction to the general principles of marketing and an in-depth study of services marketing theory. The concepts the student learns will enable students to develop the skills appropriate in an emerging service economy. The student will be exposed to the relationship between services marketing and the consumer experience. There will be opportunities for the student to apply services marketing theory in non-profit, mass-market retail, hospitality, and restaurant enterprise environments. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 346 Introduction to Restaurant Management         3 Credits
Identifies the crucial elements involved in the successful operation of a restaurant and how they interrelate. Students are taken through the process of creating a concept, developing a menu, budgeting and controlling costs, staffing the restaurant, purchasing food and equipment, bar and beverage management, daily operations, and developing a restaurant marketing plan. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 347 Sanitation & Safety         3 Credits
This course introduces the student to public health problems that relate to the hospitality industry. Topics include disease transmission through improper food handling and cooking, major types of micro-organisms, environmental conditions which encourage bacterial growth, fire prevention methods and safety, and sanitation rules and practices. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 423 Food & Beverage Control        3 Credits
This course is a study of the systems and techniques appropriate to manage food, beverage, and labor costs in restaurant and catering operations. Topics addressed include management, marketing, menu development, costs and pricing, quality assurance, production, and operational analysis. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 425 Event, Meeting, & Conference Management         3 Credits
In this course, students learn strategies to develop meaningful, well-organized conferences, meetings, and special events. The course addresses event logistics, facilities management, event compliance with ADA and other laws/regulations, contract negotiation, labor planning, and issues with food and beverage management. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 428 Non-Profit Agency Management         3 Credits
This course serves as an introduction to the non-profit organization and management. Discussions will focus on mission, leadership, marketing, community relations, fund development, staff supervision and professional development. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 429 Fiscal Management of Nonprofit Organizations         3 Credits
This course examines the principles and practices of financial management in nonprofit organizations. It is designed to teach students how to use financial information in the management of nonprofit organizations. The use of case studies and applied examples intends to make the course especially practical to those working in the nonprofit environment. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SRV 438 Menu Planning & Design         3 Credits
This course includes food service design concept including the menu, the location, and the type of clientele expected. Students will also demonstrate an understanding of menu layout, including selection, development, price structure, and restaurant style. Prerequisite: SRV 301.

SSC Social Science

SSC 101 Introduction to Social Science        3 Credits

This course introduces students to the interdisciplinary field of social sciences and some of the disciplines that comprise this field, including anthropology, sociology, political science and history. These subject areas figure prominently in the Social Science major. In this course, students will learn important social science concepts and theoretical approaches, along with the research methods that social scientists use to study human behavior. Throughout the course and through a summative assignment, students will examine how social factors shape social behavior, and some of the consequences of current social problems.  

SSC 340 Human Health & Global Environmental Change         3 credits
This course analyzes the relationship between health and the environment and takes into account how health is influenced by natural and manmade environmental factors. Students will consider the history of the relationship between health and the global environment, addressing how groups in the past understood the connection and the actions they took to improve both. The course will also address contemporary theories that highlight how race, gender, and class influence the relationship between health and the environment. By concentrating on these factors, students will consider the negative and positive influences of the environment on human health as well as possible future concerns and issues that might emerge. Prerequisite: SSC 101.

SSC 350 eSociety: Science, Technology, and Society         3 credits
The eSociety course focuses on the relationship between society, science, and technology and the social dynamics of knowledge production from a social science perspective. The course provides students with an understanding of how social values affect scientific research and technological innovation as well as the transformative impacts of technologies on society. Through discussions of key concepts and case studies, students will explore how particular scientific facts or technologies become accepted, how controversies are settled, and how science and scientists retain credibility and authority. Students will also engage with the social, ethical, and political consequences of technological developments. Prerequisite: SSC 101.